The Victory Boulevard (also: Siegesallee ) was a by Emperor Wilhelm II. 1895-commissioned and funded boulevard in the eastern part of the Tiergarten in Berlin , which was completed 1,901th 32 monuments of marble presented all the Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg and kings of Prussia is 1,157 to 1,888. The main characters were two busts of people to the side that played an important role in life or in the period of the respective rulers. The 750 meter long avenue lay as a visual axis between the Königsplatz (since 1926: Platz der Republik ), formerly the location of the Victory Column , and the Kemperplatz with the Roland fountain . Since the post-war years and the offspring of the trees in the zoo, there has remained a path that leads from Straße des 17. Juni opposite the Soviet memorial into Kleine Querallee, which leads to Kemperplatz. through the Great Zoo. It was laid out as a park avenue in autumn 1873 - immediately before the inauguration of the Victory Column.
The representative avenue is considered to be an extensive work of historicism in the visual arts . The monumental boulevard was already controversial shortly after its completion, as critics accused Wilhelm II of wanting to underline the imperial claim to power of the empire by glorifying the Hohenzollern rulers. Sections of the Berlin population smiled at the sculptures as "Puppenallee".
In the course of the expansion of the then Charlottenburger Chaussee to the east-west axis and the relocation of the Victory Column to the Großer Stern , the Siegesallee was cleared and the 32 monuments were moved to today's Große Sternallee. In World War II, many figures were damaged. A part (4 of 32) is missing. Some were set up in new places. The avenue was leveled and the remaining monuments were buried in the park of Bellevue Palace . The figures that were excavated again in 1978 are stored, preserved and restored in the Spandau Citadel . Since April 2016 the figures have been part of the new permanent exhibition “Unveiled. Berlin and its monuments ”.
Announcement and goal setting
The 32 monument groups spanned a historical arc from Albrecht the Bear , the founder of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1157, to the first German Emperor Wilhelm I in 1871, who Wilhelm II emphasized in the first public announcement of the "permanent honorary jewelry".
Speech of Wilhelm II. 1895
On January 27, 1895, his 36th birthday, he stated, among other things:
“As a token of my appreciation for the city and in memory of the glorious past of our fatherland, I therefore want to donate a permanent decoration of honor for my capital and residence city Berlin, which depicts the development of patriotic history from the foundation of the Mark Brandenburg to the rebuilding of the empire should. My plan is to have the marble statues of the Princes of Brandenburg and Prussia in Siegesallee, beginning with Albrecht the Bear and ending with the Emperor and King Wilhelm I, and next to them the sculptures of a man who was particularly characteristic of his time let him erect a soldier, statesman or citizen in a continuous row. I want to take over the costs of the entire execution on my box. "
Wilhelm II wanted to use the boulevard to make a name for himself as an art connoisseur and patron , like the Great Elector at the time , which was to raise the emperor's reputation . The glamorous boulevard was thus part of the imperial public relations work , which should increase its popularity among the population. Referred to as “Réclame Royale” by the art historian Uta Lehnert, the basic idea for the construction of Siegesallee was “to represent the development of Brandenburg-Prussian history towards the realization of the national idea of unity” and as Prussian history in pictures without words To give an answer to the question, “why the impulse for the“ re-establishment ”of the empire came from the insignificant Mark and of all from the house of Hohenzollern." Abroad, the Siegesallee was intended to promote the reputation of the empire by making the capital Berlin its Significance underlined by memorials of national rank.
At the same time, Wilhelm II expressed his preference for the fashion of historicism with Siegesallee . In the opening speech on the boulevard in 1901, the so-called “gutter speech”, he made it clear that modern art seemed repulsive to him. Because of the clarity of his speech, Wilhelm II was accused of wanting to decree the direction of the visual arts from above (see below: " Gutter Art "). Because of the extent of the monument projects realized in Berlin around 1900, parts of the population called the Kaiser "Denkmalwilly".
Realization and financing
32 groups and two stragglers
Under the direction of the architect Gustav Halmhuber and the sculptor Reinhold Begas , between 1895 and 1901 27 sculptors created 32 statues of the Brandenburg and Prussian rulers, 2.75 meters high. The margraves, electors and kings stood in the center on a semicircular base, which was surrounded by a bench at the back. The two secondary figures were fitted into the bench and divided it into three sections, see the list of figure groups in Berlin's Siegesallee . On December 18, 1901, Siegesallee was completed.
According to the design by Ernst von Ihne , Groups 33 and 34 were added in 1903 and in 1904 the statue of Prince Wilhelm of Prussia , who later became the first Emperor, in the uniform of the Wars of Liberation, created by Adolf Brütt - which is a connection to those also created by Brütt , In 1906 in Weimar completed the reliefs of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church.
According to Uta Lehnert, the Siegesallee became a “test of strength for the Berlin sculpture school ”, which was represented in all its different currents in the work.
Cost and stonework
The cost per monument group, i.e. for three figures, the pedestal and the bench, was 50,000 marks , or 1.6 million marks for 32 groups (adjusted for purchasing power in today's currency: around 11 million euros). Wilhelm II took over the financing of the project. In addition to the income generated by his goods, he used parts of his budget from public funds. Thus, the payment of Siegesallee not rested solely on the House of Hohenzollern , as de facto also tax dollars were used. The later dispute over the expropriation of the princes in 1926 was intended to prove how difficult it was to separate public funds from the Reich and private funds from the imperial family. In addition, the costs of 1.6 million marks did not yet include the infrastructure and follow-up costs such as road construction, lighting, garden design, maintenance, cleaning or security.
The artist fee for each group was uniform, regardless of person or reputation, at 46,000 marks. From this amount, the sculptors had to pay for all material, labor and transport costs and the stone carving . With a few exceptions, to the chagrin of Reinhold Begas, who complained bitterly about the technical inability, no sculptor carried out the marble work himself. Rather, the sculptors created clay and plaster models (not preserved), which they had mostly executed in marble in Berlin workshops. Although the city historian Ernst Friedel , who was involved in the preparations, had suggested the use of bronze , partly because of its greater durability, Wilhelm II decided on Carrara marble . In the expectation that Italian specialists would have great experience in the processing of this stone and in order to save costs, the sculptors awarded the orders to Italian workshops based in Berlin such as Carnevale and Valentino Casal . Casal made twelve groups alone and introduced piece work to cope with the tasks. The more expensive German stonemasons, bound by collective bargaining agreements, protested violently against their disregard. The architectural parts, on the other hand, were mostly carried out by German stonemasons, the mosaic work was done by renowned companies such as Puhl & Wagner . The leading architects received 700 marks per group.
Design and selection of the characters
Figures, minor characters and their details
The statues of the Ascanians , Wittelsbachers , Luxembourgers and Hohenzollers were flanked by two smaller busts depicting people who played an important role in the life of the rulers or in their time. In the case of Albrecht the Bear, for example, it was Bishop Wigger of Brandenburg and Bishop Otto of Bamberg . At the side of his son and second Brandenburg Margrave Otto I were the busts of his godfather Pribislaw-Heinrich and the first abbot Sibold from the Lehnin monastery , which Otto I had donated. Johann Gans zu Putlitz , minor figure to Otto II , holds the Marienfließ monastery in Prignitz in his right arm and the deed of foundation he issued in his left hand.
The bases of the monuments and busts were partly furnished with detailed representations. The sculptor Max Unger , for example, depicted the Lehnin monastery and Otto's dream of founding this monastery in his reliefs on Otto I's base (see Otto I for more details).
In later groups, personal relationships between the main characters and their secondary characters are not always evident. The sculptor Joseph Uphues, for example, joined Frederick the Great, the composer Johann Sebastian Bach , even if the old Fritz had a much deeper relationship with his court musician Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach . Friedrich Wilhelm II received Immanuel Kant from Adolf Brütt , even if Kant’s last 15 years were marked by the steadily worsening conflict with the censorship authority, which Friedrich Wilhelm II had entrusted to the new Minister of Education Wöllner . Karl Begas placed a bust of Alexander von Humboldt next to the statue of Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
Design according to the imagination
Since there were no images of the Ascanians and other sexes, the design of the first groups of monuments was carried out according to the imagination and imagination of the individual sculptors. Walter Schott, for example, drew a bold and determined Albrecht the Bear in military gear, who, leaning on his sword, holds up a cross and steps a Slavic idol into the dust with his foot . This representation was intended to symbolize that Albrecht, after many unsuccessful German attempts , was able to finally defeat the Slavic tribes in the Zauche and Havelland regions in 1157 and thus "let the Christian cross triumph over the Slavic idols".
As far as we know today, this depiction only partially does justice to the first Brandenburg margrave. Because the German state expansion to the east in the 1150s, with a few exceptions, was largely bloodless and the sustainable consolidation of these areas is more due to the skillful diplomatic settlement policy of the first Ascanians.
Schott shaped Albrecht's facial features from his own head. For the secondary characters, the Bishops Wigger von Brandenburg and Otto von Bamberg, he looked for models in a newspaper advertisement. Among the 40 or so applicants, he said he chose “a fisherman from Brandenburg, a charming old man” and “a fat Cologne cooper from Bamberg”. Because he had the idea of a “skinny, half-starved priest” from the Brandenburger, since there was not so much to eat in the Mark, while with the Bamberg, due to his well-off archbishopric, he thought of an educated, very sedate and round man .
Heinrich Zille model
A few years before his admission to the Berlin Secession , which the emperor had in view in his “gutter speech” (see below), the important graphic artist Heinrich Zille had his friend August Kraus model for the bust of the knight Wedigo von Plotho, known as the butcher confessed. The bust was a minor figure to the margrave of 1319/1320 Heinrich the child . The Kreuzzeitung enjoyed themselves royally in their report on the inauguration of the monument on March 22, 1900:
"So is z. For example, the grumpy robber baron face of the honest Count Plotho with the characteristic old-Germanic potato nose that so much aroused the exhilaration of the royal client, not a fantasy of the artist, but the well-done portrait of an honorable Charlottenburg bourgeois and technical director of a well-known large art establishment [...] "
Puppenallee and Otto the Lazy
The contemporary criticism of the Siegesallee was expressed from the most varied of directions. In Berlin vernacular , the Siegesallee was derided as "Puppenallee". The result of this is the misunderstanding, which can often be demonstrated in depictions of Berlin's urban history, according to which the common phrase “ up to the dolls ” goes back to Siegesallee. The phrase is older, however, and originally referred to the long journey to the sandstone statues of ancient gods known as ' dolls ', which stood on the Great Star until the beginning of the 19th century . Names like "Marmorameer" and "Nippes-Avenue" made the rounds in relation to Siegesallee. After the figures were occasionally damaged by vandalist attacks, the Berliners created the term "New Invalidenstrasse" for the splendid boulevard, based on Invalidenstrasse .
Critical and satirical papers such as Kladderadatsch , Simplicissimus or the Lustige Blätter gratefully took up the topic. In particular, the depiction of Otto the Lazy from the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach inspired the caricaturists. Adolf Brütt had depicted the margrave from 1365 to 1373 "in a rather lax posture and with drooping eyelids, briefly with a stupid face". Some Bavarians who suspected that the Prussian artist might be taunts felt affected by this representation .
Poets and writers rhymed sarcastic verses such as Christian Morgenstern in the four-line Neo-Berlin or stones instead of bread . Arno Holz satirized the avenue in his Niepepiep dialogue in der Blechschmiede (1902), which was critical of the Kaiser, and relocated it ironically to Timbuktu in the later German Poet Anniversary (1923) . In the sixth chapter of his novel Der Untertan (1914/1918) Heinrich Mann makes fun of the choice of people and the committed artists. With the choice of the title Lieder aus dem Rinnstein for his collection, Hans Ostwald processed the concept of art in Wilhelm II's opening speech and thus the expressed worldview in a satirical way. Struwwelpeter on the middle pedestal is funny, as John Elsas depicted him on sheet 411 and wrote the following verse: “In Siegs-Allee, I bet on it / you put Struwelpeter on / the boy who has soared / and conquered the whole world / So I tell you / that I like: / such a great / victory hero. "
With the “gutter speech” at the opening of Siegesallee on December 18, 1901, the Kaiser had intensified the critical reactions. His view that artistic modernism has descended 'into the gutter' because it portrays misery even more hideously than it already is, turned against so-called modern trends and trends . The subsequent publication gave this speech, in which the emperor clearly underlined his taste in art, an official note. "An art that defies the laws and barriers I have described is no longer art, it is a product, is a trade [...]" The negative echo in the media ensured that Wilhelm II was concerned about the reputation of his 'permanent' Honor jewelry 'had to provide. Nevertheless: "The Siegesallee experiment should be regarded as successful, the Kaiser announced, the impression it made was quite overwhelming, and an enormous respect for German sculpture could be felt everywhere."
For the Impressionists and Modernists mentioned, such as Max Liebermann , Käthe Kollwitz , Heinrich Zille , Max Slevogt , Lovis Corinth , Hans Baluschek or the other members of the later Berlin Secession , Wilhelm II's statement advanced “to a kind of seal of approval” because it “designated someone which did not belong to the official court art, but to the avant-garde ”.
The technical criticism for this German sculpture was mostly harsh. Many artists facing modern trends viewed the work of their colleagues as an unimaginative and exchangeable glorification without elaborating the characteristic features of the dignitaries depicted. The art critic and publicist Karl Scheffler passed a damning verdict :
"Picturesque draped coats, bold helmet silhouettes, commanding arm movements, ostentatious depictions of butchers, piercing looks, costume exegeses from bearskin to ermine coat, crown, gunnery boots, in short: Panoptikum [...] Not one, with the exception of Begas and Brütt, had any idea how one The bust with the pedestal and this is to be organically connected to the bench [...] the artists have hardly revised the craftsman's schematic routine here and there, so that the execution is uniformly brutal everywhere [...] hardly any form is properly understood, none Beautiful silhouette : patriotic , terribly out of tune brass music. "
For the art critic Max Osborn , only Adolf Brütts popular statue of Otto the Lazy stood out due to its artistic quality from a schematic series of illustrations, which otherwise provided evidence that “the old art of large decorative installations had perished around 1900 [...]. Siegesallee [...] is at the same time a reflection of the entire epoch [...] which was more about quantity than quality, which was content to faithfully, but mindlessly, repeat the art forms and style motifs of all earlier times [...] "
The equipment details of the figures such as armor and coats were predominantly researched by the critics as historically well researched and felt to be appropriate. And despite all the mockery, the Berliners visited the Siegesallee in large droves and the dolls became a popular tourist attraction.
Criticism of the choice of people
In addition to the design, the selection of the people shown and the composition of the groups were often questioned. For example, the inclusion of the statue of Heinrich II. (The child) , who was the last Ascanian margrave, did not gain any lasting significance for the history of the Brandenburg region in his two "years of reign" 1319/1320 at the age of eleven. The critics found that the group designed by August Kraus should be counted among the more successful works in artistic terms. The French cellist Paul Bazelaire , who was currently visiting Berlin, served as the model for the boyish margrave . This group contains the Zille portrait in the secondary character of Wedigo von Plotho.
The fact that not a single woman was depicted among the heroic sculptures was met with incomprehension, as, for example, the Electress Sophie Charlotte or Queen Luise were more popular and had contributed significantly more to the development of the kingdom than many of the persons depicted. As Uta Lehnert reports, the head of the historical program of Siegesallee, the historian and President of the Prussian Secret State Archives Reinhold Koser , regretted that "no women should be considered, otherwise he would have liked the" noble, Clever and beautiful wife of Otto «suggested."
A single portrait of a woman was realized in Siegesallee: The first Electress of Brandenburg, Elisabeth, found space on the back of a marble bench in Group 15 - the relief showed her praying at the feet of her husband Friedrich I.
Legs of the monuments in the Siegesallee
The attention the Kaiser had hoped for as "Réclame Royale" was given to Siegesallee to a large extent despite or because of the criticism, which ultimately increased attention. The project also fulfilled the desired effect of popular education as history turned into stone, which as a landmark brought the population closer to awareness of their own past. School classes took the boulevard as an excursion destination in their program and students had to memorize the characters in their order and thus their historical classification.
In 1901, Professor Otto Schroeder , a “ironic-prone pedagogue” for German and Greek at the Joachimsthalschen Gymnasium , the Hohenzollern high school , had primary school students write an essay on the figures of the Siegesallee. The theme was: Legs of the monuments in Siegesallee . Four of these essays made history because they came to Wilhelm II and were assessed and marginalized by the emperor himself - in some cases very different from the teachers' censorship. In the Hohenzollern Museum kept under lock and long forgotten, the essays were after the Second World War in the central archive Merseburg rediscovered in 1960 by Rudolf Mr. city published (under the pseudonym R. E. Hardt).
The pupils had the task of inferring their character from the stance of the stone rulers. The pupil Walter Zehbe wrote to Otto V: “His weak knees, which threaten to collapse under the weight of the body, testify to a complete lack of energy.” While the teacher assessed Zehbe's essay as follows: “In the logical and stylistic connection of the Thoughts still worrying mistakes. Hardly enough ", the emperor noted mildly:" For a subpriman, remarkably sensible for such a subject! W. “According to Lehnert, this friendly note from the emperor, as well as other partly humorous remarks, shows that Wilhelm II did not take the essays as seriously“ as some of his critics would like to believe ”and that he understands the precarious task of the primans applied.
History and Odyssey of the Characters
Proposal for demolition in the November Revolution
Some groups were damaged during the November Revolution. On numerous pedestals were inscriptions in large, blood-red letters such as “Oppressor of the people” and “Soldiers, do not murder”. The soldiers' council Hans Paasche suggested that Siegesallee be demolished in the executive council of the workers' and soldiers' councils in Greater Berlin . Kurt Tucholsky asked in December 1918 under his pseudonym Theobald Tiger in the magazine Ulk in the poem Bruch :
But what will happen to Siegsallee now?
Will you go to the New Lake because it is too royalist,
too autocratic and too monarchist
Do you leave the stature of every monument?
and just put new heads on their necks?
Well, let's say that of Lüders Else
and Brutus Molkenbuhr ?
Do you wake up the beautiful, white marble?
Years ago, back then,
when I was taking my exams, I knew how everyone came in sequence ...
Should that have been in vain?
And she is beautiful! - Let's go by
and smile - because we know all about it.
I think we'll let the dolls stand still
as documents of a great time.
National Socialist planning and burial
During the time of National Socialism , Albert Speer's plans for the “ World Capital Germania ” envisaged the north-south axis “Germanias” on the Siegesallee route. As part of the urban redevelopment, the Victory Column on the Großer Stern, surrounded by the monuments of Bismarck , Albrecht von Roons and Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltkes, was to form a "Forum of the Second Reich", i.e. the Empire. In addition, the monuments on Siegesallee were moved from May 1938 to Große Sternallee , which branched off as a pedestrian path southeast of the Großer Stern, was now called "Neue Siegesallee" and had the Richard Wagner monument as the point de vue . At the inauguration of the forum complex on the occasion of the great military parade for Adolf Hitler's 50th birthday on April 20, 1939, the statues of Siegesallee already lined Neue Siegesallee.
In World War II, some of the figures were damaged, some have since been lost. In 1947 the heavily damaged and still existing figures served as a backdrop for the film Berliner Ballade . The homecoming Otto Normalverbrauch (played by Gert Fröbe ) walks here through the rubble of Berlin, takes a rest at Siegesallee and reflexively salutes some figures. A short time later, in the same year, the Allied Command ordered that the avenue be leveled. On the route of the former avenue, at the intersection of Siegesallee with the east-west axis ( Straße des 17. Juni ), the Red Army had the Soviet memorial built exactly in the middle in 1945 , which deliberately blocked off its course. The route in the park was leveled and made unrecognizable by planting. The exact route was reconstructed from 2006, and since then it has been accessible as a footpath between Straße des 17. Juni and Kemperplatz .
With the exception of the monuments to Albrecht the Bear and Friedrich Wilhelm IV. , Which were erected in the Spandau Citadel , the monuments were initially moved to Bellevue Palace until the then state curator Hinnerk Scheper had them buried in the palace park for protection in 1954.
Excavation, lapidarium, Spandau citadel
The remaining figures were dug up again in 1978 as part of the Save the Monuments campaign and, for the most part, temporarily placed in the Lapidarium in Berlin-Kreuzberg (26 statues and 40 busts). The marble bust of Freiherr von Stein came to Spandauer Mönchgasse, some figures were privately owned or public institutions. On September 13, 2005, the groups Margrave Otto der Faule and Friedrich Wilhelm II. By Adolf Brütt and Kaiser Wilhelm I by Reinhold Begas temporarily found a new place in front of the New Wing of Charlottenburg Palace as part of the exhibition The Emperors and the Power of the Media .
In May 2009, 26 statues and 40 busts sold by the city of Berlin by lapidary were heavy transport implemented in the Spandau Citadel and restored . Since April 29, 2016, they have been unveiled in the Citadel as part of the new permanent exhibition. Berlin and its monuments presented. The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) of the EU and the German Lottery Foundation each provided six million euros for the preparation of the magazine (House 8) and the establishment of the permanent exhibition .
Restoration and presentation in the permanent exhibition since 2016
During the restoration, lost parts such as severed arms, heads or accessories such as lost swords were not replaced. The work essentially comprised cleaning and stone preservation measures. While the statues that were stored in the interior of the lapidarium are comparatively well preserved, the busts that stood unprotected in the courtyard are much more weathered. The expert and head of restoration Thomas Propp began in August 2009 with the first restoration cleaning tests on a bust. The bases of the statues and the architectural parts (benches, rondels) have been destroyed except for minimal remains.
In order to give an idea of the complete groups in the permanent exhibition opened in 2016, the monument group 26 around Friedrich I was reproduced in its original arrangement with a nine meter long semicircular marble bench on a pedestal. The historical ornamentation such as the acanthus frieze in the back of the bench or the eagles in the bench cheeks was not reconstructed . In the darkened room, a summer day in 1907 is simulated using panels of fabric, birdsong, horses and a thunderstorm. Visitors can experience the staging while sitting on the bench. Almost all exhibits on the former Siegesallee can be touched.
- Helmut Caspar (Ed.): The legs of the Hohenzollern, interpreted using still images of Siegesallee in Primaner essays from 1901, provided with marginal notes by His Majesty Kaiser Wilhelm II. Berlin Edition, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8148-0086-9 , 128 pp .
- Jürgen Schütte, Peter Sprengel (ed.): The Berlin Modernism 1885–1914 . Reclam-Verlag, Ditzingen 2000, ISBN 978-3-15-008359-8 , UB 8359.
- Jan von Flocken : The Siegesallee. On the trail of Brandenburg-Prussian history . Kai Homilius Verlag , Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89706-899-0 .
- Richard George (Ed.): Hie good Brandenburg always! Historical and cultural images from the past of the Mark and from old Berlin up to the death of the Great Elector . Published by W. Pauli's Nachf. Jerosch & Dünnhaupt, Berlin 1900.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee. Réclame Royale . Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-496-01189-0 .
- Otto Nagel : H. Zille . Publication by the German Academy of the Arts. Henschelverlag, Berlin 1970.
- Max Osborn : Berlin (= Famous Art Places , Volume 43). With 179 illustrations. Published by E. A. Seemann, Leipzig 1909.
- The Siegesallee. Official guide through the still picture groups. With a plan of the situation and a foreword by Kaiser Wilhelm II. Text by Koser with the help of Sternfeld. Published at the instigation of the Royal Ministry of Education, Berlin, Oldenbourg around 1900.
- Cornelius Steckner: The thrift of the elderly. Cultural and technological change between 1871 and 1914 in its effect on the design of the sculptor Adolf Brütt. Publishing house Peter D. Lang, Frankfurt / M. and Bern 1981, pp. 47-52, ISBN 3-8204-6897-8 .
- Cornelius Steckner: The sculptor Adolf Brütt. Schleswig-Holstein. Berlin. Weimar. Autobiography and catalog raisonné. (Writings of the Schleswig-Holstein State Library. Ed. Dieter Lohmeier. Volume 9), Westholsteinische Verlagsanstalt Boyens & Co., Heide 1989. ISBN 3-8042-0479-1 (pp. 182–191; pp. 172–176).
- Jürgen Luh (lecture): The men's story of Siegesallee. Dynastic self-representation in Wilhelmine Germany . November 2014.
- Photo collection from Haus Doorn .
- Map of Berlin 1: 5000 (K5 - color edition): formerly Siegesallee
- Monuments of the Sieges Allee. Retrieved November 24, 2018 .
- Quoted from Uta Lehnert: Der Kaiser und die Siegesallee , p. 22. The announcement was made on January 27, 1895 in a separate edition of the German Reich Gazette and the Royal Prussian State Gazette.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , pp. 17, 52 f.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 22.
- Cornelius Steckner: Die Sparsamkeit der Alten , pp. 47-52.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , p. 92.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 31 f.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , pp. 65, 68, 81–85.
- Analogous to Gustav Albrecht, quoted in Richard George: Hie gut Brandenburg alleweg! , P. 48.
- Quoted from Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 34.
- Quoted from Otto Nagel : H. Zille , p. 80 f.
- BR online: Knowledge and Education ( Memento from June 27, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). See the critical review on: Katharina Raabe, Ingke Brodersen (Ed.): Das Große Berlinbuch . Rowohlt Berlin, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-87134-329-3 - Kurt Wernicke: Katharina Raabe / Ingke Brodersen (eds.) The great Berlin book . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 4, 1999, ISSN 0944-5560 , p. 101-103, here p. 102 ( luise-berlin.de ).
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 56.
- Christian Morgenstern: Neo-Berlin .
- Stones instead of bread .
- Klaus M. Rarisch: Niepepiep. A poet against his emperor , text by the tinsmiths in the Gutenberg project .
- Heinz Vogel (Ed.): Heinrich Hoffmann meets John Elsas. An exhibition by the Heinrich Hoffmann Society e. V. on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Struwwelpeter Museum Frankfurt am Main. Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 8, ISBN 3-921606-38-1 .
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , p. 285 ff.
- Quoted from: Die Berliner Moderne 1885–1914 , p. 571.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 110.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 113.
- Karl Scheffler: Modern architecture . Leipzig 1907, quoted from Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 103.
- Max Osborn: H. Zille , p. 258 f.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 32 and passim.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee . P. 64, note 2.
- Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 26.
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , pp. 15–22.
- Dieter Hildebrandt in the preliminary remark to: Helmut Caspar: The legs of the Hohenzollern , p. 10.
- Quotations from Helmut Caspar The legs of the Hohenzollern , pp. 84–85
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , p. 276.
- Theobald Tiger (= Kurt Tucholsky ): Bruch (poem). In: Ulk No. 50, December 13, 1918. Tucholsky may have deliberately made the corruption of Siegesallee to Siegsallee , but Siegsallee is in Ulk's original text: Ulk, No. 50, 1918, Heidelberg University Library digital . Since it is a poem, there is also the possibility that Tucholsky left out the "e" for metrical and rhythmic reasons. The New Lake mentioned by Tucholsky is located in the Great Zoo .
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee , p. 319.
- Grieben Travel Guide, Volume 25: Berlin and Surroundings. Small edition. Grieben, Berlin 1941, p. 91
- District Office Spandau of Berlin: Unveiled. Berlin and its monuments. . For the opening date, see "News".
- Rainer W. During: Margraves return to Spandau. In: Der Tagesspiegel , May 7, 2009 Tagesspiegel online ; berlin.de Spandau Press Archive Press release of April 29, 2009: "Invitation to a photo session and press conference on May 6, 2009".
- On the way in Spandau , pictures of the transport of the figures.
- Thomas Propp: Natural stone report on the figures of Siegesallee, with illustrations .
- Uwe Aulich: Lenin to touch. In: Berliner Zeitung , April 28, 2016, p. 12.