Reinhold Begas (* 15. July 1831 in Schöneberg ; † 3. August 1911 ibid) was the most important sculptor of the Neo-Baroque in Germany. His most important works include the Schiller Monument , the Neptune Fountain , the Kaiser Wilhelm National Monument and the Bismarck National Monument in Berlin.
Reinhold Begas was the son of the painter Carl Joseph Begas and received his first training from the sculptor Ludwig Wilhelm Wichmann in Berlin . 1846-1851 he was a student of the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch at the Berlin Academy, which was under the direction of Johann Gottfried Schadow from 1815 to 1850 . In 1848 he became Rauch's employee. In 1852 he achieved his first success with the plaster cast by the Hagar and Ismael group at the Berlin Academy Exhibition. Thanks to a scholarship , he was able to stay in Rome from 1856 to 1858 . There he met Arnold Böcklin and Anselm Feuerbach . Here in 1857 the marble group Amor and Psyche was created , which is influenced by a sculpture by the Basel sculptor Ferdinand Schlöth, who worked in Rome and which follows the classicist Thorvaldsen school.
In 1861 he was offered a position at the Grand Ducal Saxon Art School Weimar , which had been founded a year earlier , where Böcklin had already taught and where he met Franz Lenbach for the first time. He stayed there until 1863 and then returned to Berlin. From 1863 to 1864 he was again in Rome, from 1865 to 1869 again in Berlin. In 1868 he created the long-lost, rediscovered in Italy in 2009 sculpture made of Carrara marble Pan as a teacher of flute playing that now in Begas House in Heinsberg is, a regional museum for the coming thence artistic family Begas. In 1869 and 1870 he worked in Rome and Paris . After that he worked mostly in Berlin, where he was accepted into the Prussian order " Pour le Mérite for Science and the Arts" in 1883 . His time in Berlin was only briefly interrupted by a stay in Rome in 1892.
His monumental works were characteristic of Prussian Berlin during the imperial era. Kaiser Wilhelm II in particular valued the pathos of Begas' work and, after 1888, procured him a large number of representative commissions. The best-known examples of this are the National Monument to Kaiser Wilhelm I , unveiled in 1897, the artistic overhead line on “ Siegesallee ” (1895–1901, destroyed), for which he himself contributed two groups, and the Bismarck National Monument completed in 1901 in front of the Reichstag building (Transferred to the Großer Stern in 1938 ). Reinhold Begas also created the Neptune Fountain at the Berlin City Palace from 1886 to 1891 (cleared in 1950, placed in front of the Berlin City Hall in 1969 ). He received numerous commissions for portrait busts, monuments and small sculptures. From 1871 until his death in 1911 he was a member of the Berlin Artists' Association and a member of the Berlin Academy of the Arts , of which he headed the master's studio from 1876 to 1903.
Begas was married to Johanna Margarethe Augusta Philipp, called "Grete" or "Gré", and had two sons, u. a. the sculptor Werner and Freddy and a daughter Molly. He lived in a villa he built in the Italian style with a studio at Stülerstrasse 2-4 in Berlin-Tiergarten . In 1898 he built a villa in Baden-Baden for his wife, who was suffering from tuberculosis . The house is still there. Begas died just three weeks after his 80th birthday in Berlin in early August 1911. He was buried in the Old Twelve Apostles Cemetery in Schöneberg (grave site 222-7-13 / 14). By resolution of the Berlin Senate , the last resting place of Reinhold Begas has been dedicated as a Berlin grave of honor since 1952 . The dedication was extended in 2016 by the usual period of twenty years. Begasstrasse was named after him in the Malerviertel in Berlin-Friedenau as early as 1892.
“Reinhold Begas was an eminently brilliant mind. He knew his Goethe, Shakespeare, Ariost and Dante like no other. Ingenious, as I have hardly met an artist, his diligence was quite extraordinary; he was working in the predicament of an almost demonic creative instinct and under the eternal spur of his genius. Drafts were lined up with drafts, clouds of plans always floated through his pensive mind. And at the same time to enjoy this enormous vitality, this hunger for life, this unwavering courage to enjoy, truly a person of the Renaissance, in a certain sense unscrupulous, full of risks for his princely desires. And yet a child's heart, despite everything. "
The Prussian Monument Institute in Neuss can provide evidence of the following monuments that were created by the sculptor Reinhold Begas:
- Bensheim an der Bergstrasse : bust monument of Kaiser Wilhelm I, on the station forecourt
- District center :
- Schiller Monument (1862–1871) on the Gendarmenmarkt ; Cast in Schillerpark Berlin-Wedding
- Alexander von Humboldt seat image , Unter den Linden, in front of the Humboldt University , erected in 1883
- Neptune Fountain (1888–1891), originally on the Schloßplatz, today in the park by the television tower
- Kaiser Wilhelm National Monument on the Schloss Freiheit. Architectural monument with an equestrian statue of the emperor, unveiled on March 22, 1897. Remaining undestroyed during the Second World War , the entire ensemble was dismantled in the course of the demolition of the Berlin City Palace in 1950 and apart from two groups of lions that later appeared in front of the Alfred Brehm House in the Tierpark Berlin were moved, melted down.
- Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm -Büste, in the arsenal Unter den Linden , in the eastern Feldherrenhalle the Hall of Fame ; preserved at Hohenzollern Castle near Hechingen . Also for the Hall of Fame the allegorical statues Force and War Science , today in the entrance hall of the German Historical Museum Berlin
- Cenotaph as a sarcophagus monument with a reclining figure of Emperor Friedrich III. , created 1888–1892, in the cathedral; ceremoniously unveiled on October 18, 1892 at the consecration of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Mausoleum in Potsdam; erected there in the memorial church after completion of the Berlin Cathedral in 1905 ; before it was demolished in 1975, it was converted into the sermon church. There is a replica in the mausoleum
- Bust of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , in the armory on Unter den Linden, in the ruler's hall of the Hall of Fame, whereabouts unknown
- Epitaph for Otto von Bismarck in the memorial church of the Berlin Cathedral, 1902–1907. After the monument church was demolished in 1981, it was completely smashed to the head
- Tiergarten district :
- Bismarck National Monument with a statue of the Reich Chancellor; Erected in 1901 on Königsplatz in front of the Reichstag, moved to the Großer Stern in 1939, preserved there in a modified form
- Siegesallee in the Tiergarten : Draft of the overall artistic concept
- Siegesallee in the Tiergarten: Monument group 8 with the central statue for Waldemar ( the great one ) and busts (secondary figures) for Siegfried von Feuchtwangen and Heinrich Frauenlob von Meißen . Since Waldemar was considered the most important Ascanian , Wilhelm II attached particular importance to the design of this group and transferred it to the artistic director of Monumentalallee. But Begas was unable to gain any interest in the commission (which, according to Lehnert, could also be seen in the figure) and tried to hand over the work. The emperor did not comply with the request.
- Siegesallee in the Tiergarten: memorial complex for Kaiser Wilhelm I, with assistant busts of his paladins Bismarck and Moltke. Erected in 1901, solemnly unveiled on March 30, 1901 in the presence of the imperial couple. The side busts actually come from Begas, while the central imperial statue was very likely designed and executed by Bega's master student August Kraus , see monument group 32 .
- District center :
- Braunfels / Lahn : Emperor Friedrich III.-bust monument in the castle park
- Donaueschingen : Kaiser Wilhelm I bust on the Kaiser fountain. Erected on the market square in 1893; Bust melted down in 1940
- Düren : Kaiser Wilhelm II - Herme in the city garden; destroyed in war
- Flomborn / Rheinhessen : War memorial 1870/1871 with a bust of Kaiser Wilhelm I.
- Grätz / Province of Posen (annexed by Poland in 1919): Kaiser Wilhelm I bust monument on Anna Square; lost
- Hagen- Dahl: bust monument of Emperor Friedrich III, on the Niederwald above Baedeckerstraße; lost
- Lindenfels in the Odenwald / Hessen : Kaiser Wilhelm I bust monument, in the grounds of the outer courtyard; The bust has not been preserved, there is an urn on the base
- Meerane / Saxony: bust of Kaiser Wilhelm I on the gable of the rifle house; lost
- Offenbach am Main : Kaiser Friedrich III.-bust monument, in front of the administration building of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Quelle
- Potsdam - Sanssouci :
- Sangerhausen : Empress Auguste Victoria -Herme, in the rosarium
- Templin / Uckermark : Kaiser Wilhelm I bust monument, in the Bürgergarten; lost
- Trachenberg / Silesia : bust monument of Kaiser Wilhelm I, on the market square; eliminated
- Trachenberg / Silesia: bust monument of Emperor Friedrich III., On the market square; eliminated
- Wesel : Kaiser Wilhelm I statue, on Kaiserplatz, partially destroyed and in a magazine
- 1857: Amor and Psyche , Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
- 1858: Pan comforts Psyche , Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
- 1868: Pan as a teacher of the flute, first version in marble and bozzetto from approx. 1858 in the Begas Haus , Heinsberg - on loan from the Ernst von Siemens Art Foundation
- around 1875/1876: bust of Adolph von Menzel , Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
- 1878: Merkur and Psyche , Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
- 1885: Borussia , copy in Preußenpark, Berlin
- 1874: Arthur Strousberg tomb , Berlin, Reinickendorf municipal cemetery
- 1886: bust of Otto von Bismarck
- around 1888: Centaur and Nymph , Berlin, Alte Nationalgalerie
- 1893: Bust of the postmaster general Heinrich von Stephan , Frankfurt am Main, Museum for Communication Frankfurt
- 1901/02: Prometheus bound , in the back of the building of the Akademie der Künste on Pariser Platz in Berlin
- Ludwig Pietsch: Reinhold Begas , in: The gazebo. Illustrated family sheet . Year 1891, pp. 796–799. With portrait as wood engraving, p. 789.
- Alfred Gotthold Meyer : Reinhold Begas. Increased edition, Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld / Leipzig 1901. (= artist monographs , volume XX.) ( ) ( digitized of the 1897 edition )
- Eberhard Ruhmer: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , pp. 746 f. ( ). In:
- Ursel Berger : From Begas to Barlach. Sculpture in Wilhelmine Berlin . Georg Kolbe Museum, Berlin 1984
- Elke Messer (Ed.): Neptune's Empire on the Spree. Berlin fountain from Begas to Bonk. Transit-Buchverlag, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-88747-035-4 . (Catalog for the exhibition of the Neukölln Art Office in the Galerie im Körnerpark in Berlin from August 12 to September 21, 1986)
- Peter Bloch , Sibylle Einholz , Jutta von Simson (eds.): Ethos and Pathos. The Berlin School of Sculpture 1786–1914. (Catalog for the exhibition of the sculpture gallery of the Staatliche Museen Preußischer Kulturbesitz from May 19 to July 29, 1990 in the Hamburger Bahnhof in Berlin) Gebr. Mann, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-7861-1597-4 , pp. 26–39.
- Knut Brehm, Bernd Ernsting, Wolfgang Gottschalk, Jörg Kuhn: City Museum Berlin Foundation. Catalog of sculptures 1780–1920. Letter Foundation, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-930633-15-9 . (= Letter Fonts , Volume 14.)
- Esther Sophia Sünderhauf (Ed.): Begas. Monuments for the Empire. An exhibition on the 100th anniversary of the death of Reinhold Begas (1831–1911). (on behalf of the German Historical Museum Foundation , with the collaboration of Wolfgang Cortjaens, with a catalog raisonné by Jutta von Simson) Sandstein, Dresden 2010, ISBN 978-3-942422-15-4 . (Catalog for the exhibition in the German Historical Museum in Berlin from November 25, 2010 to March 6, 2011)
- Rita Müllejans-Dickmann , Wolfgang Cortjaens (Ed.): The Begas Collection. (= Begas Haus Heinsberg , Volume 2.) Cologne 2013.
- Fumigated . In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition. Volume 2, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1905, pp. 557–558 . ›‹
- Reinhold Begas in the picture index of art and architecture
- Website of the Begas House, Museum for Art and Regional History Heinsberg
- Brockhaus Encyclopedia . 21st edition. tape 3 . FA Brockhaus, Leipzig / Mannheim 2006, p. 487 .
- Stefan Hess : Between Winckelmann and Winkelried. The Basel sculptor Ferdinand Schlöth (1818–1891), Berlin 2010, p. 110.
- Philipp Demandt: Milan, Berlin, Heinsberg . In: Ars pro toto , No. 1/2012, pp. 20 ff., With an illustration of the work of art
- The Order Pour le Merite for Science and the Arts, The members of the Order . Volume II (1882-1952). Gebr. Mann-Verlag, Berlin 1978, p. 16.
- Marriage certificate of the son Reinhold Gottfried August with the Antonie Essa Eberhardine Thies from November 26th 1906 in Berlin
- Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin burial places . Pharus-Plan, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86514-206-1 , pp. 748–749.
- Honorary graves of the State of Berlin (as of November 2018) . (PDF, 413 kB) Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection, p. 5; accessed on March 13, 2019. Recognition and further preservation of graves as honorary graves of the State of Berlin . (PDF, 205 kB). Berlin House of Representatives, printed matter 17/3105 of July 13, 2016, p. 1 and Annex 2, p. 1; accessed on March 13, 2019.
- Begasstrasse. In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near Kaupert )
- Carl Ludwig Schleich : Sunny past . Berlin 1921, pp. 305-321
- Uta Lehnert: The Kaiser and the Siegesallee. Réclame Royale. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-496-01189-0 , pp. 123, 124
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German sculptor and painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 15, 1831|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Schöneberg|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 3, 1911|
|Place of death||Schöneberg|