Rheinhessen is a region at the northwestern end of the Upper Rhine Graben, in which, according to an estimate of the city population, without the two independent cities of Mainz and Worms, 337,381 people lived as of December 31, 2016 . With the two cities of Mainz and Worms, the population of Rheinhessen increases to 633,504. Politically, it now belongs to the state of Rhineland-Palatinate . The name refers to the historical affiliation of the area as the province of Rheinhessen to the Grand Duchy of Hesse from 1816 to 1919 and subsequently to the People's State of Hesse until 1945.
In Rhineland-Palatinate, Rheinhessen is the geographical and political connection between the Rhineland and Palatinate regions . Two of the three Romanesque imperial cathedrals in Mainz and Worms are evidence of the ancient, historically diverse sites with permanent settlement .
Location and structure
Rheinhessen is bounded by the Rhine in the north and east . To the south to the Palatinate , the border from the confluence of the Isenach into the Rhine runs first in a westerly, then northwestern direction. The western border is roughly formed by the Nahe and Alsenz waters .
The area of Rheinhessen extends over around 1400 km² between the Rhineland-Palatinate state capital Mainz and (clockwise) the cities of Worms , Alzey , Bingen and Ingelheim . Other larger cities and communities in Rheinhessen are Bodenheim , Budenheim , Nieder-Olm , Nierstein , Osthofen , Oppenheim , Saulheim and Wörrstadt . The geographical center of Rheinhessen is on the Gabsheim district .
In addition to the Rhine, the three most important Rhine-Hessian waters are the Selz , the Wiesbach and the Appelbach . Smaller bodies of water are for example the Seebach , the Pfrimm , the Eichelsbach or the Mühlbach . In the southeast of Rheinhessen there are still the estuaries of the Rhine tributaries Eisbach , Eckbach and Isenach, which originate in the Palatinate .
The islands of Kisselwörth (35 hectares) and Sändchen separate Nackenheim from the main stream of the Rhine. The two inland islands are nature reserves . In the past the area was used for agriculture, today there are orchards . In the course of straightening the Rhine , the islands of Kisselwörth and Sändchen were enlarged by embankments and power control panels. Every hour, a boat from the DLRG association transports visitors free of charge.
On the Inselrhein, among others, Ilmenaue, Fulder Aue and Königsklinger Aue belong to Rheinhessen.
Historically, the province of Rheinhessen also included the islands of Petersaue near Mainz, Maaraue at the mouth of the Main, Bleiaue near Gustavsburg, Nonnenau / Langenau near Ginsheim and the island Kühkopf, which was artificially created by the Rhine puncture . Also belonging to Rheinhessen are numerous former floodplains that were permanently connected to the banks after the straightening of the Rhine, such as the Haderaue near Budenheim, the Ingelheimer Aue near Mainz and the Ibersheimer Wörth near Worms.
Rheinhessen is also known as the land of a thousand hills . It is almost entirely taken up by the Rheinhessen hill country . This predominantly has the character of a plateau that has been broken up many times, the level of which reaches between 250 and 270 meters in altitude. The highest elevation is the Kappelberg ( ) in the Vorholz forest area, west-southwest of Alzey. Further elevations are located in the southwest in Rheinhessen Switzerland (near Fürfeld the Köpfchen , and the Eichelberg , ); of the district of the local community Wonsheims belonging Hinterwald achieved in a nameless peak, the 600 m west-northwest is good the lodge Jägerlust, 327.1 meters. These elevations are already in the North Palatinate Uplands , whose north-eastern fringes extend into Rheinhessen. The highest elevation in Rheinhessen in the Rheinhessen table and hill country is on the edge of the forest area Vorholz, at about 320–323.75 meters above sea level.
Geology and soils
The Rheinhessen region largely extends to the Mainz Basin , a former sedimentary basin whose geological history is closely linked to that of the Upper Rhine Rift. Most of the deposits in the Mainz Basin come from the Tertiary . At that time the area of today's Rheinhessen was covered by the sea for many millions of years. In the Oligocene , mainly clays and sands were deposited here, at the beginning of the Miocene that followed, mainly limestone and marl ("Limestone Tertiary"). The latter form today in the northern part of Rheinhessen, near Ingelheim and Gau-Algesheim, the ascent to the Rheinhessen hill country. The rocks of the Mainz Basin emerge naturally or are artificially exposed in numerous places, including the marine sands of the Alzey Formation from the early Oligocene ( Rupelium ) in the former Weinheimer Trift sand pit in Weinheim and in the sand pit on the Steigerberg, in the the remains of a Rupel-temporal cliff open (see surf cliff on Steigerberg ). The gravel and sands of the Ur-Rhine near Eppelsheim , also known as Dinotheria sands, originate from a much more recent phase of the Mainz Basin (Middle and Upper Miocene) .
Thanks to its protected location in the lee of Hunsrück , Taunus , Odenwald and North Palatinate Bergland , Rheinhessen is one of the warmest and driest areas in Germany, which favors wine and fruit growing . It is - u. a. because of the intensive agricultural use - the least forested area in Germany with only about 5% of its area.
The average duration of sunshine in Rheinhessen is around 1970 hours (mean for Oppenheim from 1992 to 2019), the vegetation period around 280 days. The annual average temperature is 10.5 ° C and thus above the average for Germany. The mean amount of precipitation is 530 mm. Heavy rains are the exception and only occur in summer, mostly in connection with thunderstorms.
Early history to early modern times
The always densely populated region harbors numerous testimonies of early history, antiquity and the Middle Ages, starting with the Stone Age burial grounds near Flomborn , through Celtic treasure finds near Planig and Roman temples and theaters in Mainz to the Franconian prince's grave in Flonheim. In the Frankish Empire division of the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne with the Treaty of Verdun 843 was Louis the German , the eastern kingdom . The course of the border was precisely defined: “everything across the Rhine, plus the cities and districts of Speyer, Worms and Mainz on this side”. Even then, the later Rheinhessen must have had a special meaning.
As a transit area along and on the Rhine, Rheinhessen has experienced many influences and peoples since the Romans. Carl Zuckmayer , who comes from Nackenheim near Mainz, used the formula of the Rhine as “Europe's wine press” in Des Teufels General . In addition to many influences, the long-lasting settlement by Jews, whose traces can be found in some places, is particularly impressive in Worms with the oldest Jewish cemetery in Europe and the almost thousand-year-old synagogue .
After the devastating Thirty Years War , the 15th Elector of the Palatinate, Karl Ludwig , looked for a new location for his destroyed Heidelberg Castle . In 1659 he made the city of Worms an offer to build its capital with a residence, university and citadel there. The Worms with the many Reichstag were loyal to the emperor and refused the request. Even a year later, they could not be changed. As a result, from 1720, Karl Philipp planned and built the second largest European residence in Mannheim. The auxiliary bishop of Worms, Johann Baptist Gegg , was only able to bless the foundation stone. The places in the Electorate of the Palatinate had to keep a palace building register between 1723 and 1755 and pay corresponding taxes for this new building.
Province of Rheinhessen (1816–1937)
Rheinhessen came into being under this name after the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when parts of the French department of Donnersberg, which existed from 1792/1802 to 1814, were added to the Grand Duchy of Hesse , which thus expanded beyond the Rhine. After the expansion of their dominion to include the areas on the left bank of the Rhine on July 8, 1816, the Hessian Grand Dukes gave themselves the title of Grand Duke of Hesse and of the Rhine, based on the former Palatinate near Rhine . The newly acquired parts of the country became the province of Rheinhessen. Before the French Revolution, the region was severely fragmented; Parts of Rheinhessen belonged to the left bank areas of the Electoral Palatinate, of Kurmainz and the Hochstift Worms.
Rheinhessen administrative district (1946–1968)
With the creation of the French zone of occupation on the left and the American zone of occupation on the right bank of the Rhine, the Rhine became the border. The French-occupied parts of the former People's State of Hesse became the administrative district of Mainz at the end of May 1946; the right bank parts of the former province of Rheinhessen (the right bank districts of Mainz and the Rhine island Kühkopf ) fell to the newly founded state of Greater Hesse (later Hesse ).
The administrative district of Mainz became part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate on August 30, 1946 . In this it became the administrative district of Rheinhessen and included the independent cities of Mainz and Worms as well as the districts of Alzey , Bingen , Mainz and Worms . The district of Oppenheim was dissolved in 1938 and divided between the two districts of Mainz and Alzey. In the district reform of 1969 , the districts of Alzey, Worms, Mainz and Bingen were merged into the two districts of Alzey-Worms and Mainz-Bingen . The Alzey district gave up the communities of Frei-Laubersheim , Fürfeld , Neu-Bamberg and Tiefenthal and received the community of Mauchenheim (all five belong to the Rheinhessen wine-growing region ). The district of Bingen also transferred the communities of Biebelsheim , Hackenheim , Pfaffen-Schwabenheim , Pleitersheim , Volxheim as well as Bosenheim , Ippesheim and Planig to the district of Bad Kreuznach (all but the last three still belong to the wine-growing region of Rheinhessen, but not the communities of today's Verbandsgemeinde Rhein-Nahe and Bingerbrück , which the Mainz-Bingen district received). The administrative district of Rheinhessen also existed until 1968 and then formed together with the administrative district of Pfalz from 1968 the administrative district of Rheinhessen-Pfalz, which existed until 1999 .
In the referendum on a possible regional reorganization in April 1956 , 20.3% of the Rheinhessen wanted to belong to Hesse again. The planned referendum was only carried out in 1975, but the required quorum for a change in the drawing of boundaries was not achieved.
Rheinhessen wine-growing region after 1968
After 1968 there was no longer a state authority with the name Rheinhessen. The name stuck to the region, however; for example for the Rheinhessen wine-growing region, which comprised the districts of the administrative district that was dissolved in 1968. In the course of the administrative reform of June 1969 , the area of the Rheinhessen wine-growing region changed slightly: Mauchenheim came from the Palatinate to Rheinhessen, the communities of Ippesheim , Bosenheim and Planig were incorporated into Bad Kreuznach and have since been part of the Nahe wine-growing region . Nine others from the districts of Bingen and Alzey in the district of Bad Kreuznach reclassified communities were administratively in the municipality Bad Kreuznach together and continue to count the Rheinhessen wine region . In return, the Mainz-Bingen district received communities to the left of the Nahe that had previously belonged to the Koblenz administrative district, in particular Bingerbrück and Bacharach . In addition, small, closely spaced towns were merged, such as Stadecken and Elsheim zu Stadecken-Elsheim and Dittelsheim and Hessloch zu Dittelsheim-Hessloch .
Economy and Infrastructure
Rheinhessen Marketing , based in Ingelheim, takes care of the marketing of Rheinhessen services and goods . It is a joint project of Rheinhessen-Touristik GmbH from Nieder-Olm and Rheinhessen-Marketing e. V. and Rheinhessenwein e. V., both from Alzey.
From 1928 there was still the district cooperative for horticultural products eGmbH in Gimbsheim with 42 local collection points in the northern district of Worms, in the southern district of Mainz and in the district of Alzey.
Agriculture and viticulture
With 26,563 hectares of vineyards, Rheinhessen is the largest wine-growing region in Germany. Since May 2008, Mainz and Rheinhessen have been members of the Great Wine Capitals Global Network ( GWC ), an association of the most famous wine-growing cities worldwide.
In addition, mainly sugar beets (hence the saying "Rheinhessen - the land of vines and beets") are grown, but also fruit (mainly apples ), asparagus , sunflowers and cereals such as wheat , barley and maize , and also rapeseed .
The United Wholesalers for Fruit and Vegetables in Rheinhessen are Europe's largest marketing organization for sour cherries. The company is headquartered in Ingelheim am Rhein.
For road traffic, the highways 60 , 61 , 63 and 643 as well as the federal highways 9, 40 (which is partly identical to the old Kaiserstraße ), 41 , 47 , 271 , 420 and a section of the Deutsche Alleenstraße run through Rheinhessen.
Local public transport is served by the Omnibusverkehr Rhein-Nahe (ORN) and Busverkehr Rhein-Neckar (BRN) bus routes and the Alzey – Mainz , Worms – Alzey – Bingen , Mainz – Worms – Ludwigshafen lines and the Mainz – Ingelheim section on the left-hand Rhine route -Bingen.
Rheinhessen is completely in the tariff area of the Rhein-Nahe-Nahverkehrsverbund (RNN). In the area of Mainz in the northeast and Worms / Alzey in the south there are overlaps and transitional tariffs with the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV) and the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (VRN).
Disused railway lines
Some railway lines were shut down and mostly dismantled; these include the railway free-Weinheim-Jugenheim-Partenheim , also known as Zuckerlottche / Selztalbahn, the railway Osthofen-Gau Odernheim , the railway Osthofen-Westhofen ( "Gickelche"), the railway Sprendlingen-Fürfeld ( "Bawettche"), the railway line Worms Green town , the Altrhein web by Gunter Blum to Osthofen through calibration, the distance of Köngernheim Nierstein ( "Valtinche"), which railway Worms-Gundheim , the railway Alzey floor home ( "Amiche") and the Wiesbachhorn Talbahn .
Biking and hiking trails
- Rhine Cycle Path , on the left bank of the Rhine-Hessian section of Worms, Mainz, Bingen, of the international route
- Hiwwel route : From Bingen am Rhein - Mainz - Wörrstadt - Bockenheim - Alzey - Monsheim to Worms.
- Selztal cycle path : from the source in Orbis along the Selz to Ingelheim am Rhein.
- Fruit route -Rad-Rundweg: Ingelheim - Gau-Algesheim - Engelstadt - Wackernheim - Heidesheim - Ingelheim
- Mill cycle path : Framersheim - Gimbsheim
- Rheinterrassen Cycle Path : Mainz - Worms (often high path facing away from the Rhine with a view of the Rhine)
- On the disused railway lines the Amiche cycle path and the Valtinche cycle path .
Two long-distance hiking trails start in Rheinhessen near Bingen:
The daily newspapers and advertising papers of the Rhein Main Presse and Rhein-Zeitung appear in Rheinhessen , which had a local edition for Mainz until the end of 2013, and since then the national edition has been published. The campus and culture magazine STUZ (Turnus Media Verlag) is published in Mainz, Bingen, Bad Kreuznach, Oppenheim and other places with a comprehensive calendar of events for cinema, concerts, parties and theater. The city magazine sensor (Rhein Main Presse) has been in Mainz since 2010 with features, reports, interviews and columns on urban trends, lifestyle, culture and politics. In addition, the respective cities and association communities publish their own newsletters with official and non-official announcements on a weekly basis.
The broadcast programs of the public service Südwestrundfunk can be received . The Hessischer Rundfunk and, in some cases, the Bavarian Broadcasting can also be received near the Rhine . In the vicinity of the border to the Palatinate or from the height of Worms, programs from Saarland radio can sometimes be received. Private radio stations are Radio RPR with regional studio Mainz, bigFM and Rockland Radio . Also can further the Radio Rainbow and Sunshine Live from Baden-Wuerttemberg, Hit Radio FFH and planet radio from Hesse and Antenne Bayern are received. The American Forces Network can also be received in the VHF range .
In Mainz, the have Second German Television (ZDF) and the Südwestrundfunk Rheinland-Pfalz (BWR) based. From 1990 to 2010, the regional private broadcasters sent K3 culture channel from Mainz, a regional program for Rheinhessen and the Pfalz front.
Various pure online media have also been increasingly establishing themselves in Rheinhessen since the beginning of the 2010s. In the area of participatory journalism, the citizen journalism portal Wir-in-Rheinhessen or the Mitmachzeitung Mainz would be . Both sides offer citizens the opportunity to work as authors themselves.
Rheinhessen experienced a number of cultural influences while it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Hesse . The architecture of the time was strongly influenced by Georg Moller , who designed official buildings, churches and train stations. The streets were named after Hessian personalities such as Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig or Wilhelm Leuschner . Grand-ducal influences can also be seen in the unusual spelling of place name prefixes with a hyphen (cf. Gau-Algesheim with Waldalgesheim , Nieder-Wiesen with Oberwiesen , etc.), which distinguish Rheinhessen from the rest of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Churches and sacred buildings
The Kirchweih festival , which today has a predominantly secular character, is called Curb for short in Rheinhessen . In smaller communities, this is often the main event during the year. The original festival of church consecration was mostly celebrated in the period after the grain harvest and before the grape harvest. In a few cases, the church's origins can still be recognized today, as in Worms-Ibersheim, where the Assumption of Mary , August 15, is the date of the festival.
The oldest Jewish house of worship in Germany is the synagogue in Worms, which dates back to 1034. After multiple destruction, including in November 1938, the sixth consecration took place on December 3, 1961, on the first day of the Jewish festival of lights Hanukkah . High representatives and Jews from all over the world took part in this memorable day in Worms: Ludwig Erhard , Heinrich von Brentano , Peter Altmeier , Eduard Orth , Otto van Volxem . Heinrich Völker , the mayor of Worms, handed over the key to the rebuilt Rashi synagogue on behalf of the federal government, the state government and the city to the head of the Jewish community, Isidor Wenger , at a cost of 500,000 marks.
Language and mentality
The Rhine-Hessian dialect is one of the Rhine-Franconian dialects and is related to the South Hessian . Wormser Platt is known as the local language within Rheinhessen . A language border runs between the Rheinhessischen and the Vorderpfälzischen .
As early as 1835, the government councilor Wilhelm Friedrich Hesse stated that Rheinhesse was “gifted with happy talents and a cheerful mind”. The external conditions in which he moves have "increased his agility in life". However, social relationships are often clouded by "process addiction".
Almost a hundred years later, the geologist Jakob Klippel described the Rheinhessen as "an easily mobile people, hardworking, tough and tough". Despite the “storms of war” that “roared” over their country in every century, the Rheinhessen people have always been receptive to the idea of international understanding .
The Rheinhessen himself is sociable and hospitable, “full of cheerful humor and healthy motherhood”. However, he tends to exaggerate and arrogance. The Rheinhessen counter this claim with the traditional saying: "Mer stunze nicely, mer hunn" ("We don't brag, we have"). The Rheinhessische Weinbruderschaft chose this idiom in the Latinized form Non vanitamus sed habemus as its motto.
Place and family names
The names of most of the localities in Rheinhessen end with the word part -heim . This is traced back to Frankish times, when it was customary in the 5th and 6th centuries to name settlements or farms after their respective masters. For example, Ingelheim am Rhein developed from the presumed name Ingilo over several stages to the current name of the city.
Other place names, such as that of Bingen ( Bingium ) or Finthen ( Fontanetum ), are of Roman origin, some go back to Celtic names, such as Mainz (Roman Mogontiacum , derived from Celtic Mogon ), Worms ( Borbetomagus ) and Alzey ( Altiaia ).
Israelites (Jews) did not have family names for a long time. To avoid confusion, the place of birth or whereabouts was often added. Napoleon finally ordered the Jews to give themselves a family name. Therefore, they were officially summoned in 1808 to choose their first and last names themselves.
About 40% of the family names in Rhineland-Hesse are said to be based on place names. These include, for example
- Woodpecker from Bubenheim
- from Dalheim
- Eberhard von Dienheim
- Wilhelm von Hamm
- Heppenheim called vom Saal (noble family)
- Heyl zu Herrnsheim
- Ingelheim (noble family)
- Mauchenheim (noble family)
- Carl von Mettenheimer
- Oppenheimer (family)
- Partenheimer (noble family)
- Dog from Saulheim
- from Undenheim
- Chamberlain of Worms called von Dalberg
- Max I. Bodenheimer
- Brendan Eich
- Adam Elsheimer
- Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer
- Hans Werner Olm
- Wormser (noble family)
Each region has produced a certain culinary art over time, depending on geography, climate, soil, season and prosperity . This differs in home cooking with simple foods or in culinary specialties for festive occasions. Rheinhessen also has plenty of specialties for its region, with Weck, Worscht and Woi , at least thanks to the Mainz Carnival , gaining national importance.
- Backesbroode - a roast filled with potatoes and bacon
- Baked grumberry - spiced potato casserole with bacon, wine and sour cream
- Brakeman or Bitzler - Federweißer
- Dibbehas - hare in a pot ("dibbe"), with hare (wild hare, rabbit), spices and optionally with wine
- Vegetable asparagus
- Hackesweck - bun with heavily spiced ground pork and onions
- Handkäs with music - Mainz roller soaked in vinegar, oil and onions ( music is created by flatulence )
- Krppel , fried pastries from the carnival season
- Spundekäs - consists of cream cheese, paprika, onions and other spices
- Weck, Worscht un Woi , literarily known Rhine-Hessian snack (quick snack, snack, fast food)
- Wine jelly
- wine soup
- Wingertsimbs - typical vineyard meal (snack)
- Wingertsknorze - rye rolls with bacon and onions
- Woihinkelsche, originally from Alsace ( Coq au Vin à l'alsacienne), but obligatory with chicken and white wine; not to be confused with the wine-chap , an insect
- Zwiwwelkuche - onion cake
Regional library for Rheinhessen
In its function as a regional library, the Mainz City Library collects literature on Mainz and Rheinhessen, including publications on the former districts of Mainz on the right bank of the Rhine and on the territories of the Mainz Electorate.
There are also plenty of historical collections in Rheinhessen to preserve evidence of history so that they can be presented on special occasions. In addition to the museums of national and international importance, there are also museums for special collections. The general historical development is presented for posterity in about 20 local museums and mostly supported by sponsorship or local history associations or even carried independently. These institutions and associations make an important contribution to the preservation of the historical and cultural heritage of their homeland .
- Alzey City Museum: cultural and natural history, Roman stone monuments
Bingen am Rhein
- Historical museum on the river of the city of Bingen: Hildegard von Bingen, Rhine romanticism, city history
- Stefan-George-Museum of the Stefan-George-Gesellschaft: writing desk, library, sculptures
- German Pump Museum, with support association on the premises of the Hilge company: History of pumps
- Local history museum, with support association: Promotion, maintenance and development of local history and local history
- Postal Museum Rheinhessen of the Association for Postal History Rheinhessen: Technology of the postal and telecommunications system
- Museum of the Heimat- und Kulturverein: local history, the world of work, prehistoric finds from gravel dredging
- Dinotherium museum with sponsoring association: fossil prehistoric finds from the Urrhein
- Wine museum in the Schales winery: viticulture and wine culture of the traditional family business
- Local museum and information center Flonheim with support association: Development of the wine culture landscape
- Rheinhessisches Fahrradmuseum (Rheinhessisches Fahrradmuseum) of the sponsoring association: history of cycling and its successes
- Museum of the Eich municipality: natural history (mammoth), archeology, exhibitions
- Wine village museum : life in the wine village
- Museum bei der Kaiserpfalz Ingelheim , co-sponsor of the historical association: Kaiserpfalz, prehistory and early history
- Local history museum, permanent exhibition Carl Zuckmayer
- Kulturschmiede Wettig, a city initiative: historical forge, contemporary exhibitions
- Paleontological museum with sponsoring association: 2000 fossils from all periods of the earth's history
- Local history museum in the historical commentary of the German Order Coming, with local history and cultural association
- German Viticulture Museum of the Association of Friends and Patrons: tillage equipment, vine training
- Osthofen concentration camp , NS Documentation Center Rhineland-Palatinate, with the Osthofen project development association
- Local history museum, exhibitions on classic handicrafts, industrialization and Osthofen history
- Local history museum, with local history and culture association: customs, folklore and local history, local history
- See: Museums in Worms
- Fastrada (* around 765; † Aug. 10, 794 Frankfurt (Main)) ⚭ 783 in Worms Charlemagne .
- Hildegard von Bingen (* around 1098 Bermersheim vor der Höhe ; † September 17, 1179 in Rupertsberg Monastery , near Bingen), relics in St. Hildegard (Eibingen) , Benedictine (from 1136 abbess), church teacher
- Friedrich von Hausen (* 1150–1160; † May 6, 1190 Third Crusade with Friedrich I (HRR) ), minstrel
- Friedrich II. (Leiningen) , zu Leiningen-Hardenburg († 1237), minstrel , Leininger had property in Ibersheim
- Heinrich II. Von Saarbrücken , Leininger , Bishop of Worms 1217–1234
- Heinrich von Meißen, called Frauenlob (* 1250–1260 Meißen; † Nov. 29, 1318 Mainz ), minstrel
- Konrad von Kreuznach (* Kreuznach; † May 31 or October 13, 1368 Mainz ), Fiedler
- Benigna von Algesheim , 1373–1417 Abbess of the Abbey of St. Hildegard (Rüdesheim am Rhein)
- Johannes Gutenberg (* around 1400 in Mainz; † February 3, 1468 there), inventor of letterpress and mechanical printing.
- Conrat Meit (* 1470/1485 Worms; † 1550/1551 Antwerp), sculptor of the Renaissance
- Sebastian Münster (born January 20, 1488 Ingelheim ; † May 26, 1552 Basel ), cosmographer, humanist and Hebraist. Adorned the front of the 100 DM banknote from 1962–1991.
- Johann Nikolaus Götz (born July 9, 1721 Worms ; † November 4, 1781 Winterburg near Bad Kreuznach ), representative of anacreontics
- Jacob Best , Sr. (born May 1, 1786 Mettenheim ; † February 26, 1861 Milwaukee) brewer from Mettenheim founded a brewery in Milwaukee , later one of the largest in the USA.
- Friedrich Koch (born December 7, 1786 in Messel , † August 13, 1865 in Oppenheim ) produced three quarters of the world's quinine against malaria around 1850 .
- Franz Bopp (born September 14, 1791 Mainz, † October 23, 1867 Berlin), Sanskrit researcher , founder of the historical-comparative Indo-European languages
- Eberhard Anheuser (born September 27, 1806 in Bad Kreuznach ; May 2, 1880) was an entrepreneur and brewery owner in the USA
- Joseph Schlitz (born May 15, 1831 Mainz; May 7, 1875 shipwreck off the coast of England), owner of the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company, Milwaukee
- Simon Friedrich Schill (born March 30, 1834 in Osthofen ; † August 25, 1921 there), farmer, winemaker, entrepreneur, 1883-1892 mayor of Osthofen
- Wendelin Weißheimer (born February 26, 1838 in Osthofen; † June 10, 1910 in Nuremberg ) was a composer, student of Franz Liszt and a friend and supporter of Richard Wagner .
- Adolphus Busch (born July 10, 1839 Mainz-Kastel ; † October 10, 1913 Lindschied ), German-American entrepreneur, co-founder of the Anheuser-Busch Companies
- Paul Wallot (born June 26, 1841 Oppenheim ; † August 10, 1912 Langenschwalbach ), architect, university professor, among other things builder of the Reichstag building in Berlin (1884-1894)
- Stefan George (born July 12, 1868 Büdesheim, Bingen ; † December 4, 1933 Minusio near Locarno ), German poet of symbolism and later neo-romanticism
- Wilhelm Holzamer (born March 28, 1870 Nieder-Olm ; † August 28, 1907 Berlin ), teacher, writer
- Matthias Pier (* July 22, 1882 in Nackenheim ; † September 12, 1965 in Heidelberg)
- Ludwig Schwamb (born July 30, 1890 Undenheim , † January 23, 1945 murdered Berlin-Plötzensee), lawyer, social democratic politician, employee of Wilhelm Leuschner
- Wilhelm Weiler (born September 23, 1890 in Worms, † July 20, 1972 in Worms), director of the Natural History Museum Mainz , honorary professor
- Carl Zuckmayer (born December 27, 1896 in Nackenheim , Rheinhessen, † January 18, 1977 in Visp , Switzerland), most performed dramaturge in the Weimar Republic
- Elisabeth Langgässer (born February 23, 1899 Alzey ; † July 25, 1950 Rheinzabern / Karlsruhe; buried in Darmstadt), writer
- Anna Seghers (born November 19, 1900 in Mainz , † June 1, 1983 in Berlin), writer
- Karl Holzamer (born October 13, 1906 Frankfurt am Main; † April 22, 2007 Mainz), director of the ZDF
- Georg K. Glaser (born May 30, 1910 as Georg Glaser in Guntersblum, † January 18, 1995 in Paris), writer
- Alfred Blaufuss (born July 15, 1912 Seeba ; † October 5, 1995 Frei-Laubersheim ), teacher and botanist, Order of Merit of the State in 1982
- Margit Sponheimer (born February 7, 1943 Frankfurt am Main), pop singer and fast night singer
- Mary Roos (born January 9, 1949 Bingen ), pop singer
The literature is in chronological order, with the most recent works listed first. If books were published in the same year, they are sorted by author.
- Günter Schenk : Rheinhessen, Rheingau: Handbook for individual discovery , Reise Know-How-Verlag Peter Rump GmbH, Bielefeld 2017
- Franz Josef Felten , Michael Matheus (ed.): Rheinhessen. Identity - History - Culture (= historical regional studies. Volume 72). Steiner, Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-515-11542-1 .
- Volker Gallé , Gunther Mahlerwein: Rheinhessen . In: State Center for Civic Education Rhineland-Palatinate (Hrsg.): Blätter zum Land . tape 68 , 2016 ( political-bildung-rlp.de [PDF]).
- Matthias Dietz-Lenssen: Rheinhessen - the plaything of history. The development of a unique wine and cultural landscape . 2nd Edition. Bonewitz, Bodenheim 2015, ISBN 978-3-9816416-2-2 .
- Siegfried Englert : Rheinhessen. Love at second sight or how it all began . 1st edition. Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätten, Neu-Bamberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-939285-13-7 .
- Gunter Mahlerwein: Rheinhessen 1816–2016. The landscape - the people and the prehistory of the region since the 17th century . 1st edition. Nünnerich-Asmus Verlag & Media, Mainz 2015, ISBN 978-3-945751-14-5 .
- Peter Haupt: Legends from Rheinhessen. Archeology and history . 1st edition. Worms Verlag, Worms 2013, ISBN 978-3-936118-98-8 .
- Volker Gallé: Art travel guide Rheinhessen. Culture and history in the hill country between Worms and Bingen, Alzey and Mainz . 4th edition. Leinpfad Verlag, Ingelheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-942291-03-3 .
- Alfred Blaufuß, Hans Reichert: The flora of the Nahe area and Rheinhessen. Pollichia 1992, ISBN 3-925754-25-3 .
- Klaus Dietrich Hoffmann: The history of the province and the administrative district of Rheinhessen 1816–1985. Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte, Alzey 1985, ISBN 3-87854-047-7 .
- Henning Kaufmann: Rheinhessen place names. The cities, villages, desolations, waters and mountains of the former province of Rheinhessen and the linguistic interpretation of their names. Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Munich 1976.
- Karl Johann Brilmayer : Rheinhessen in the past and present. Giessen 1905.
- Johann Philipp Bronner : Viticulture in the province of Rheinhessen, in the Nahethal and Moselthal , Heidelberg 1834.
- Rheinhessen.de - Information from Rheinhessen-Touristik GmbH, Rheinhessen Marketing e. V. and Rheinhessenwein e. V.
- Regionalgeschichte.net - web portal on the history of Rheinhessen
- "Migration from and to Rheinhessen - every emigrant is an immigrant." - Special exhibition of the online migration museum Rhineland-Palatinate on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the founding of the province of Rheinhessen
- Cities of Rhineland-Palatinate. City Population, accessed March 25, 2018 .
- Mainz-Bingen. City Population, accessed March 25, 2018 .
- Alzey-Worma district. City Population, accessed March 25, 2018 .
- Horst Falke: Rheinhessen and the surrounding area of Mainz Collection of geological guides, Bd. 38. Borntraeger, Berlin (West) 1960.
- Friedrich Peter Wundt, Daniel Ludwig Wundt: Attempting a History of Life and the Government of Karl Ludwig Elector Palatinate, Geneva, in HL Legrand, 1786, pp. 143-145; Ludwig Häusser: History of the Rhenish Palatinate, Volume 2, 1856, pp. 644–645.
- Establishment of the state of Greater Hesse by US proclamation, September 19, 1945. Contemporary history in Hesse. (As of September 19, 2017). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- April 9 to April 22, 1956. "Volksbegehren - Volksverzehren" - Volksbegehren in Rhineland-Palatinate on the regional reorganization ( Memento of the original from November 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Rhineland-Palatinate, Landesarchivverwaltung), on lha-rlp.de
- see also Bad Kreuznach Association
- Home yearbook of the district of Worms, Der Wonnegau 1962, advertisement on the cover
- Planted vineyards, status: 2014.
- Press release of the City of Mainz from May 19, 2008 ( Memento from February 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Hiwweltour . Tour planner Rhineland-Palatinate. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Hiwweltouren in Rheinhessen . Rhineland-Palatinate Tourism website. Retrieved January 31, 2014.
- Selztal Terroir Routes . Rheinhessen-Touristik website. Retrieved December 23, 2015.
- Participation newspaper Mainz
- Institute for Citizenship Education in Rhineland-Palatinate: Rhineland-Palatinate 1947–1962, Documents of the Time, Mainz 1962, pp. 402–403
- Wilhelm Friedrich Hesse: Rheinhessen in its development from 1798 to the end of 1834 . Mainz 1835.
- Jakob Klippel: The Rhine-Hessian landscape. In: Heinrich Wothe (Ed.): Rheinhessen. A home book . III. Tape. A ceremony for the liberation of the Rhineland in 1930 with 213 images from Rheinhessen and its time of occupation. Unchanged reprint of the edition from 1930. Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-8128-0007-1 . P. 2.
- Jakob Klippel: The Rhine-Hessian landscape. In: Heinrich Wothe (Ed.): Rheinhessen. A home book . III. Tape. A ceremony for the liberation of the Rhineland in 1930 with 213 images from Rheinhessen and its time of occupation. Unchanged reprint of the edition from 1930. Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-8128-0007-1 . P. 1.
- Wolfgang Kleiber: Language and history using the example of the European Vintners' Word Atlas (WKW). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Samson Rothschild (1848–1939), teacher in Worms: The family names of the Worms Israelites in 1808, “Vom Rhein”, Worms January 1911, pp. 2–3.
- Note from genealogist Werner Grimm, Worms / Mainz.
- Headquarters of Hausen: today's Mannheim, Rheinhäuser Hof, Burgstrasse; Hansjörg Probst in: Mannheim before the city foundation, Part II, Vol. 1, 2006, pp. 104-105
- Manfred Günter Scholz: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-428-00195-8 , p. 145 ( ). In:
- Leiningen, Friedrich II. Supplements , on deutsche-biographie.de
- Friedrich von Leiningen , on de.wikisource.org