The Mainz Carnival ( "Määnzer Fassenacht" or "Meenzer Fassenacht" ) is one of the largest and most traditional events of its kind. Mainz , along with Cologne and Düsseldorf, is one of the strongholds of the Rhenish Carnival . In addition to the origins common to all Carnival, Mardi Gras and Mardi Gras festivities, the Mainz Carnival also has a special political and literary component.
The custom of the carnival goes back to the Christian calendar, in which the night of Ash Wednesday the Lenten season begins. The earliest traditions date back to the 13th and 14th centuries - they are ordinances against excessive gluttony and debauchery in the days leading up to Lent. The word "Fastnacht" also first appeared in the 14th century. Not much has been handed down about the old Mainz Carnival. A writing by the Mainz scholar and humanist Dietrich Gresemund from the end of the 15th century describes Carnival as an unorganized folk festival with masquerade, eating, drinking and dancing day and night. Again and again, rough jokes or fights fought under the protection of the mask led to excesses.
At the same time, Mardi Gras was celebrated at the Elector's court with large court festivals, whereby it was customary to redistribute the roles at court by drawing lots. In 1664 the elector drew the lot of the court carpenter, in 1668 he was cupbearer and had to serve the guests. This custom was called the "Kingdom of Mainz". Only the last Elector Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal put an end to this role reversal in 1775.
After the end of the Elector's period, the Carnival of the People continued, but according to old reports it is said to have deteriorated quite a bit. The upper class at the time, on the other hand, celebrated a large number of masked balls that was noticeably large for the city .
The tradition of masked balls had existed before. The starting point of the modern carnival in Mainz was the strengthening of the bourgeoisie after the fall of the Old Empire at the beginning of the 19th century and the strong economic ties to Cologne , where a reform of the carnival took place in 1823, which for the first time provided for meetings and a large procession on Rose Monday. The bourgeoisie in Mainz was also looking for new forms of social gathering and embraced the Cologne reform, albeit not without emphasizing contrasts and competing. When there were countercurrents to Carnival in Cologne, the Mainz Carnival from the very beginning saw their chance and organized a parade in 1837 (at that time under the name "Krähwinkler Landsturm"), at which the oldest corporation of the Mainz Carnival, the later Mainz Ranzengarde, first appeared.
The initiative goes back to the businessman Nicolaus Krieger, who was primarily concerned with channeling the Carnival by organizing activities and creating an orderly festival that would promote sales and tourism. The until then unregulated carnival with gross amusements, excesses and harassment was an evil for this time despite the official regulations, which is why the authorities promised some remedy from the carnival organization and immediately granted the necessary permits.
On January 19, 1838, the Mainz Carneval Association , or MCV for short, was founded, the city's first carnival association , which to this day takes on the tasks of a (non-existent) "umbrella organization" for the Mainz Carnival. B. organized the Mainz Rose Monday procession. It was mainly carried by the middle class. The association was constituted in February and applied for a “Carnival Monday procession” on February 9, 1838, which first took place on February 26, 1838 . The main features of the Mainz Carnival have not changed much since 1838 .
The rise of Carnival to a social event
The Mainz Carnival was definitely apolitical in the beginning. Therefore, the activities of carnival organization (MCV, satchel guard, carnival Monday procession, meetings) were viewed critically by the grand ducal authorities, but at the same time encouraged benevolently. It is characteristic of this, for example, that the carnival associations were only ever allowed to be founded for one season, and were re-established every November 11th, whatever was approved. This developed into its own tradition in the 19th century, but it was finally abandoned because of the inconveniences associated with it (annual dissolution of the association's assets, re-establishment only with appropriate initiative and without the association's own start-up capital).
A second example of this situation is the fate of the "Duttinger", a new carnival society founded in the 1840s alongside the MCV. It was banned by the police, "because the existence of a second association is not in the interests of the Mainz situation", and "only new disorder" was feared.
The politicization of the Mainz Carnival only began in the run-up to the revolution of 1848 , when Franz Heinrich Zitz , one of its protagonists, became president of the MCV in 1843 and the democrat Philipp Wittmann moved into the committee. The "Narrhalla" edited by Kalisch agitated from 1843 in the carnival season as the only publication under the foolish guise of democracy and freedom of the press. Mardi Gras was canceled in 1848, and on Ash Wednesday Zitz announced the victory of the revolution to the enthusiastic Mainz residents from the theater balcony. The "Narrhalla" was discontinued, her task was done.
In the years after the revolution, the carnival was very reduced, but from 1855 large campaigns were held again, which led to a surge in membership and the establishment of new corporations ( Kleppergarde , 1856). The campaigns were canceled in 1857 because of the explosion of the powder tower and in 1866 because of the Austro-Prussian war . The Monday trains (Rose Monday only later) were canceled more often in the following years due to a number of circumstances (including fires that destroyed the inventory of the MCV). In 1884 the MCV held its meetings for the first time in the recently completed town hall , where they would stay for the next 50 years. In the years that followed, many new associations emerged: the Mombacher Carneval Association (1886), the Gonsenheim Carneval Association (1892) and the Carneval Association "Eiskalte Brüder" (1893). The Mainzer Prinzengarde (1884), the Prinzessgarde (1886), which was renamed the Princess' Guard in 1933, the Mombacher Prinzengarde (1886) and the Jocus-Garde (1889) joined Garden .
Carnival at the beginning of the 20th century
Each of these corporations held meetings and balls, which shaped the social life of the city in each carnival season. Despite the high prices, the events that the clubs organized for “locals” and foreigners, so-called “foreigners” (“pomp and ceremony”), were mostly sold out. The carnival now also included singing elements and a reinforcement of the political aspect, in which world politics was now also targeted. In 1898, the Mainz Carneval Club (MCC), the second Mainz Carnival Association, was founded. In 1913 the 75th anniversary of the MCV was celebrated with a big festival that was of extraordinary social importance. 100,000 people came to the Rose Monday procession. Politicians, too, appeared more frequently at meetings and on the trains. During the First World War and in the years thereafter, the foolish hustle and bustle lay down again; only after the inflation subsided in 1924 was Shrovetide thought of again. It was not until 1925 that the first general assembly of the MCV took place after 11 years. In 1926 the “ Mainzer Hofsänger ” took to the stage, and in 1927 there was another carnival procession for the first time. In 1929 Martin Mundo gave his Heile, heile Gänsje for the first time , which dealt with occupation and war and was accordingly reissued by Ernst Neger after the Second World War .
Mardi Gras in National Socialism
After the National Socialists came to power, the carnival clubs were gradually brought into line. Unpleasant small groups were dissolved. Organizers of fools' evenings had to have the program and texts approved by the district leadership of the NSDAP . Only the MCC was able to successfully defend itself against this censorship. However, the reason was rather apolitical, as the long-time MCC President Jakob Wucher reports: The censors were at the MCV, and they did not want to give the handicrafts speeches to the competition prematurely. There were many contributions kept in the spirit of the times, but not infrequently also coded criticism (motto 1935: "Alles unner ääner Kapp '"). Seppel Glückert deserves particular mention here, who found clear words but was spared reprisals due to his popularity. In 1938, for the 100th anniversary of the MCV, another glamorous campaign took place, with a couple of princes , which is only available on special occasions during the Mainz Carnival. The campaigns stopped during the war. Only foolish front theater was offered now and then.
New beginning after the war
In October 1945, the carnival was revived by the French city commander Louis Théodore Kleinmann . Although the MCV was originally unable to revive the Mainz Carnival (Karl Moerlé from the MCV remembers: "The thought of it seemed absurd to us that I was referring to the desolate state of our city, under the ruins of which there were still dead people ..., could not contain ”), some events were planned for the 1946 campaign at Kleinmann's pressure. Some very successful “Mainz Evenings” took place under the umbrella of the MCV. The motto was: "Laugh with tears". In the summer of 1946 the MCC resumed its work, and from 1947 further new associations were formed. Despite its success, the carnival in Mainz was controversial in the first post-war years. So there was an initiative of the CDU city council faction in 1948 to refrain from carnival activities for the time being "because this contradicts the healthy spirit of the majority of our people and is not understood by other countries." Lord Mayor Emil Kraus made a counter-speech that prevented this application from being voted on. But there were still no parades and masked balls - the core of the Carnival was the meetings.
It was not until 1950 that the first Rose Monday procession took place after the war. In 1955, Südwestfunk broadcast a joint meeting between MCV and MCC for the first time under the motto: "Mainz as it sings and laughs" on television . In 1965, the ZDF broadcast a competing event called “Mainz remains Mainz”; from 1973 onwards, the stations only produced one program, alternating each year. After years in the too large Rheingoldhalle (the successor to the town hall destroyed in the war ), the meeting place again became the Electoral Palace . The program was now called “ Mainz remains Mainz, as it sings and laughs ” and was designed by the MCV, MCC, the Gonsenheim Carnival Association (GCV) and the Kastel Carnival Club (KCK). The famous long-time meeting president was Rolf Braun . It was the television sessions that made Mainz and its carnival famous far beyond the German borders. Up to the present day the programs have had the highest ratings. All attempts to fundamentally reform the process of the meetings fail because of the traditional awareness of the Mainz Fastnights and the audience. Nevertheless, the television sessions come in a contemporary guise. In the 1970s, Südwestfunk once tried to modernize the session with Otto Höpfner through show elements, a streamlined process and shortened airtime, but the experiment failed. The television sessions were repeatedly criticized as being too apolitical, which does not correspond to the spirit and tradition of the Mainz Carnival. There was also repeated scramble for places, content and groups, so that, for example, in the 2008 campaign, the Mainz court singers voluntarily refrained from appearing because they could not come to an agreement with those responsible for television.
Today there are 23 carnival clubs and 25 gardens in Mainz. In 1996 they invited to 220 evenings, on which 140,546 paying guests appeared. An average of around 500,000 people travel to the Rose Monday procession. The Mainz Carnival is thus a not insignificant economic factor in the state capital.
Content and essence
In the 19th century, the military in the Hessian fortress city of Mainz was often caricatured with the Prussian and Austrian garrison located here from 1815 to 1866: the current uniforms of the Guards are based on this origin, supplemented by borrowings from Landsknecht and mercenary clothing as well as fantasy uniforms . A guard imitates parts of the uniform of an Alsatian hunter regiment (princess's guard). Uniforms from the Electoral Mainz army are also used. The guards with their military parodies have a large part in the street carnival and their parades, among which the Mainz Rose Monday procession is one of the most famous. The swearing in of recruits is also part of the military parody in the Mainz Carnival.
The Mainz State Theater (until 1989: "Stadttheater") opens its stage during the carnival season for laypeople who perform the carnival stems, usually a well-known comedy , as part of the carnival clubs. In 2004 the piece Pension Schöller from 1889 was performed by Wilhelm Jacoby and Carl Laufs ; the coach of the Mainz soccer club 1. FSV Mainz 05 at that time, Jürgen Klopp , played a guest role.
The fans of Mainz 05 have made their own philosophy out of the mocking song “You are just a carnival club ” : “We are only a carnival club” . The Finther Schoppesänger made their contribution with the songs: Mainz 05 hits the drum and yes when the gates fall .
The art of political hand-made presentation is traditionally cultivated in Mainz ("Minutes", "Messenger from the Bundestag" and much more). Although there are also pure “Kokolores” speakers at the Mainz Carnival (analogous to Cologne) (such as Rudi Zörns in the past or Hildegard Bachmann today , who emphasize the artistic punchlines of everyday life), the most high-quality hand-made paper speeches in Mainz are still mainly connected with characters like "Till" or "Bajazz with the lantern", who shoot their rhetorical arrows with polished word foil and often recognizable political orientation.
The most important musical component of the Mainz Carnival is the “Narrhallamarsch” by the Austrian conductor Zulehner, first performed in 1840 in the Mainz “ Neue Anlage ”. Without this rousing melody that can be heard everywhere in the hall and alley, the Mainz Carnival is unthinkable.
The "Fassenacht" has always adapted to the times and also imported foreign things. "Helau" was named. The first Guggemusig chapels from Switzerland were seen in the 1960s ; today there is also local Gugge music. In the last few years, samba music from the Brazilian Carnival has made its triumphant advance. The Rhenish institution of Weiberfastnacht , which is not traditional in Mainz , has been "officially" celebrated since 2006. And even “ Viva Colonia ” - appropriated as “Viva Moguntia” of course - can be heard on the train from time to time without arousing major displeasure.
Colors and symbols
The colors of the Mainz Carnival are red, white, blue and yellow, originally in any order, also used in pairs or individually. The arrangement common in the last decades - as mentioned - led to speculative attempts at interpretation (e.g. "upside down" French tricolor etc.), which, however, are neither supported by any evidence nor compatible with contemporary historical contexts.
From the founding days of the organized Mainz Carnival from 1838, the origin and meaning of the colors is clearly proven in numerous contemporary publications and pictures: they were assigned to the " Hanswurst " , which was then a symbol of folly , and served as symbols and decorations. The "Hanswurst" has disappeared over time, its colors have remained.
Several possible interpretations are offered for the symbolism of the "11" that is visible everywhere in the carnival. The connection to the patronage day (cathedral and city) of St. Martin on 11.11. with the important and popular markets on this day (end of the business year, lease day, job change) is not conclusive, the number is not limited to Mainz. The occasional recourse to the slogan of the French Revolution (freedom - equality - fraternity) is without any evidence with the appropriately made switch to egalité - liberté - fraternité ("elf!") Rather a joke than a serious attempt at explanation. The fools had their own battle cry, initially “foolishness - unity”, later on with the revolution also “publicity - orality”, that is four (!) Catchphrases (see “Narrhalla” 1845). Current research has shown that the “elf” has been considered sinful since the Middle Ages, because it exceeds the Decalogue of the Ten Commandments and is therefore outside the divine order. The latter also applies to the fool, whose sinfulness at that time still appears in today's foolish days.
The so-called " Schwellköpp " have had their place on the Mainz street carnival since the first third of the 20th century. With satirical exaggeration, they show typical physiognomies of Mainz characters of both sexes. The oversized paper mache heads are carried and presented by porters during street parades to loosen up the train between the individual train numbers.
The carnival fountain has been on Schillerplatz (corner of Ludwigsstraße ) since 1967 and adorns Mainz with a memorial that reflects the foolish season and the city's history with over 200 anonymous characters - except for one.
It is an almost nine-meter-high, figuratively designed, openwork and upside-down tower, deliberately in line of sight to the cathedral: between these poles the life of the Mainz people takes place. Over 200, except for one exclusively anonymous figures, can be interpreted, e.g. B. Father Rhine , the monk , the man with the board in front of his head , hangover (what every fool has on Ash Wednesday), Till Eulenspiegel and the city goddess "Moguntia", the purse washer and some more with often surprising interpretations. The popular paragraph rider is not one, otherwise he would not have to ride backwards on a donkey with its tail in hand. But this is precisely what is typical of a shameful punishment, which has been handed down in numerous depictions since the Middle Ages, for various offenses, often imposed by the courts of fools for men who let their wives beat them. Professor Blasius Spreng, as the creator of the fountain, wanted to use the paragraph mark to make the criminal character of this picture clear.
Mainz is also rich in sculptures, buildings and street names that are directly related to Carnival.
Well-known people of the Mainz Carnival were and are:
- Hildegard Bachmann , speaker
- Peter Beck , "Begge Peder"
- Horst Becker († 2019), the singing pretzel man from Määnz
- Jean Arthur Becker († 2019) ("Da wiggles de Dom")
- Hans-Peter Betz, chairman of the television session until 2013 and 2003 to 2017 as " Guddi Gutenberg " speaker in the television sessions
- Herbert Bonewitz († 2019), "Gonsbachlerche", speaker, z. B. "Prince Bibi"
- Dieter Brandt († 2017), speaker of "Till"
- Rolf Braun († 2006), long-time chairman of the television carnival sessions, talks about chocolate
- Ramon Chormann , speaker known as "De Pälzer"
- Jürgen Dietz († 2015), speaker "The messenger from the Bundestag "
- Otto Dürr († 2011) and Georg Berresheim († 1987), the cleaning ladies "Frau Babbisch" and "Frau Struwwelich"
- Klaus Eigenbroth († 2017), Mainz original and train sticker seller
- Michael Emrich, speaker, Gonsenheim Carneval Association
- Hans-Jürgen Finkenauer, singer MCC, former captain Mainzer Hofsänger ("We are everything Meenzer")
- Lutz Franck (†) and Wilfried Rudolph (" Ui-jui-jui-au-au-au ")
- Ellen Friese, singer ("Children, we only live once")
- Seppel Glückert († 1955)
- Willi Görsch and Egon Häusler (†), "Tramps von de Palz"
- Adolf Gottron (†)
- Hansi Greb, "Hobbes"
- Toni Hämmerle († 1968), composer
- Martin Heininger & Christian Schier, lectures with music, a. a. "Günter & Gerd Entertainment", "Carnival Hypnosis"
- Rudi Henkel, former speaker and former president of the Mainz Carneval Association
- Diether Hummel († 1989), President of the Mainz Prinzengarde, Field Marshal General and Oberstadtmarschall of the City of Mainz
- Herbert Jakob (†), "Butler James"
- Bernhard Knab, speaker "The German Michel"
- Heinz Koch († 2005), "en old Meenzer"
- Klaus Koop, musician: "Geigerfränzje"
- Jochen Kunz († 1995), speaker, z. B. "Pensioner" or "Member of the Bundestag"
- Alexander Leber, speaker
- Patricia Lowin , speaker
- Joe Ludwig, former head of the Gonsbachlerchen, speaker
- Oliver Mager, singer and composer, creator of many Meenzer classics such as B. "Fassenacht in Meenz" and "Moguntia"
- Tobias Mann , cabaret artist, entertainer, speaker and singer ("Sibbe Schobbe")
- Heinz Meller , parodist, 1st chairman and long-time chairman of the Mombacher Bohnebeitel
- Guido Meudt and the Mainz Worschtathlete
- Martin Mundo († 1941)
- Ernst Neger († 1989), the singing master roofer (" Heile, heile Gänsje ", " Humba Täterä ", "Rucki Zucki")
- Thomas Neger , grandson of Ernst Neger, who continues his tradition as a singing master roofer
- Friedel Panitz
- Sabine Pelz, speaker of the Eiskalten Brothers, "Chief Hostess of the City of Mainz"
- Gunther Raupach, speaker
- Lars Reichow , speaker at the Gonsenheim Carneval Association
- Werner Renkes, "Antonio - Bundestag canteen manager"
- Wolfgang Ross (†), Pierrot
- Norbert Roth
- Willi Scheu († 1998), speaker of the "Bajazz with the Lantern"
- Heinz Schier († 2018), speaker from Mainz-Mombach (Bohnebeitel)
- Rüdiger Schlesinger, speaker, since 2001 in the character "Advokat des Volkes", since 2012 as "Red Actor"
- Helmut Schlösser, speaker (Bohnebeitel)
- Andreas Schmitt, chairman of the Eiskalten Brüder session, speaker “Obermessdiener vom Mainz Cathedral” and since 2014 chairman of the TV Carnival session
- Franz Josef Schneider († 1962), Mainz original "Geigerfränzje"
- Margit Sponheimer ("I was born on Rose Monday")
- Jürgen Wiesmann, speaker ("Ernst Lustig") and chairman of the Mainz Carneval Club
- Rudi Zörns († 2009), speaker, z. B. "Margret von de Palz", "Always be I do"
In the year the MCV was founded, 1838, a "Prince Carneval" ruled. A year later there was already a "King Carneval" who wielded the scepter together with the "Maiden Moguntia", who was admittedly a man. In 1897 it was the incumbent Mayor of Mainz, Dr. Heinrich Gassner, who played the princess.
In the 19th century it was customary for the princess and her ladies-in-waiting, as well as the ladies in the carnival bobbins or in the Rose Monday procession, to be represented by young men. For the first time in the history of the Mainz Carnival, the princess was embodied in 1938 for the 100th anniversary of the MCV by a real woman, known as "Hildegard I." together with Prince "Martin I." Mainz and its fools ruled.
In contrast to other Fastnacht strongholds, there are prince couples in Mainz Fastnacht only when a special occasion is to be celebrated, for example an anniversary. Then a pair of princes is put at the head of the carnival as foolish regents.
After the restart after the Second World War, these were:
- 1955: Alexander I (Haselbach), not a princess - 5 × 11 years in the 20th century
- 1959: Hans I. (Strieder) and Evmarie I. (Grebner) - 11 × 11 years MCV
- 1962: Carlo I . (from Opel) and Lilein I. (Berg) - 2000 years of Mainz
- 1963: Karl I. (Neger) and Heidrun I. (Eckes) - 125 years of MCV
- 1966: Karl-Heinz I. (Schmidt) and Andrea I. (v. Rautenkranz) - 6 × 11 years in the 20th century
- 1969: Klaus I. (Buchholz) and Gisa I. (Buchholz) - opening of the Rheingoldhalle
- 1974: Rolf I. (Kiefer) and Marion I. (Schöntag) - Inauguration of the town hall
- 1988: Clemens I. (Thelen) and Dorothee I. (Laufer) - 150 years of MCV
- 1995: Stefan I. (Thurn) and Inez I. (Krämmer) - 111 years of the Mainz Prinzengarde
- 2000: Matthias I. (Diehl) and Christine I. (Bangert) - year 2000 and Gutenberg anniversary
- 2012: Johannes I. (Both) and Anna I. (Kusche) - 175th anniversary of the oldest Mainz guard: Mainzer Ranzengarde
- 2013: Richard I. (Wagner) and Aline I. (Leber) - 175th anniversary of the Mainz Carneval Association
- 2014: Udo I. and Anja I. (Prince couple of the Jocus Guard Mainz-Kastel on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the Guard - no official Prince couple, not enthroned by the Mainz Carneval Association)
- 2020: Heinrich II. (Diefenbach) and Jacqueline I. (Seuthe) - 11x11-year anniversary of the Mainz Carneval Club (MCC)
Well-known groups of the Mainz Carnival:
- Aca & Pella A Cappella-Band - "Because where could it be better ..."
- The Altrheinstromer
- The virtues
- The Bänkelsänger (song " Ui-jui-jui-au-au-au ")
- The polar bears
- The meat research athlete
- The Maledos
- The Schnorres Wackler
- The singing cellar master
- Joker Company
- Finther Schoppesänger
- Mainzer Hofsänger (" Such a day, as beautiful as today ")
- Red Rock Rapper (... the Mainz Prinzengarde)
- Se Bummtschack's rock comedy
- Mainz clinic athletes exercised mass night
- Uncle Hermann and the Batschkapp
Well-known disbanded groups of the Mainz Carnival:
- The Gonsbachlerchen
- The three star tenors ("3-tenor parody of the top class")
- The sparrows
Mainz clubs and corporations
There are currently 83 Mainz carnival clubs (as of 2020). The highest number of start-ups was in 1974 with five start-ups, followed by 1947 with four and the years 1877, 1886, 1960 and 1981 with three start-ups each. There were two foundings each in 1952, 1953, 1958, 1972 and 1976.
Every year the citizens propose a motto for Carnival. A 29-member jury, consisting of representatives from Carnival, politics, business and the media, sifts through the proposals received after the end of the respective campaign and then selects a motto for the next year's campaign in June of that year. The motto for the 2014 campaign, for example, was: "Football or Fassenacht - Humba is made for Meenz."
A detailed listing of (almost) all campaign mottos can be found in the list of Mainz Carnival campaigns .
Every year there is also the so-called Zugplakettche for each campaign , which is promoted with the phrase “Kaaaft Zuchplakettcher”. The sales proceeds are used to finance the Rose Monday procession. From 2006 to 2013, flashing train stickers were sold, which was associated with a price increase. In 2014, train plaques without a flashing function were sold again. The train plaques are now small plastic figures, while plaques (even earlier "star") were common in the past.
(A list of almost all train plakettschers can be found in the list of the Mainz Carnival campaigns ).
The organization of the Rosenmontagszug costs the Mainz Carneval Association as the organizer 700,000 euros:
- 167,000 euros for the assembly and dismantling of the motif wagons and their insurance
- 140,000 euros for employees of the MCV
- 200,000 euros for security measures
- 116,000 euros for the carnival parties "Rosenmondnacht" and "Tanz auf der Lu"
Income comes from donations, sponsors, merchandising articles and the Carnival. The train badges bring in around 100,000 euros.
Mardi Gras parades
In addition to the well-known Mainz Rose Monday parade, there are other parades in the city center and the districts, these are:
January 1st :
- New Years Parade
- Relocation to Mainz-Hechtsheim
- Saturday :
- Sunday :
- Rose Monday :
- Shrove Tuesday :
The Mainz Carnival in literature
In 1959, the poet Carl Zuckmayer from Nackenheim published his novella Die Fastnachtsbeichte , which is set against the backdrop of the Mainz Carnival in 1913. It was made into a film by William Dieterle in 1960 . The story of fate, guilt, love and atonement, significantly influenced locally typically begins and ends in a confessional of Mainz Cathedral . The starting point is Shrovetide Saturday, when a young dragoon in the cathedral dies immediately before his confession from a dagger wound to him; The end point is a carnival confession on Ash Wednesday. With this confession, the devout Catholics can attain absolution for their repented sins during the carnival debauchery.
In October 2007 the novel "Fastnacht in Meenz" was published. In it, the Mainz journalist and author Ralph Keim tells the life story of a fictional speaker. From his point of view, the reader experiences more than half a century of Mainz Carnival history, starting in 1948. Real Carnival greats such as Herbert Bonewitz or Rolf Braun are involved in the fictional plot .
- Mainz Carnival Museum
- List of the Mainz carnival campaigns
- Carnival, Mardi Gras and Mardi Gras
- Fool's Hall March
- Hildegard Friess-Reimann: The triumphal procession of the Prince Carnival: the spread of a bourgeois festival form with special consideration of Rheinhessen (= studies of folk culture in Rhineland-Palatinate , Volume 3) Society for Folklore in Rhineland-Palatinate, Mainz 1988, ISBN 3-926052- 02-3 , previously published as: Carnival in Rheinhessen: the diffusion of the Mainz Carnival from the middle of the 19th century to the present, self-published by Hildegard Frieß-Reimann, Klosterstrasse 23, Mainz-Gonsenheim 1978, 1980, (dissertation University Mainz 1979, 184 pages).
- Werner Hanfgarn , Bernd Mühl, Friedrich Schütz : Eighty-five years in Mainz. The city, the carnival, Jakob Wucher in history and stories . Krach, Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-87439-097-7 .
- Ralph Keim : Carnival in Meenz. Sutton, Erfurt, ISBN 978-3-86680-160-8 .
- Klaus Rost: The programmed session, fools on television, mass media and Carnival the example of Mainz Mainz 1978, (Dissertation University Mainz, Faculty 13 - Philology I, 1978, 207 pages).
- Michael Matheus (Ed.): Fastnacht - Carnival in European Comparison (= Mainzer Lectures , Volume 3), Steiner, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-515-07261-6 .
- Herbert Schwedt (Hrsg.): Analysis of a city festival. The Mainz Carnival (= Mainz Studies on Language and Folk Research , Volume 1). Steiner, Wiesbaden 1977, ISBN 3-515-02664-9 .
- Günter Schenk : Mainz Helau. Manual for the Mainz Carnival . Leinpfad, Ingelheim 2004, ISBN 3-937782-07-9 .
- Günter Schenk: Mainz, how it sings and laughs. Carnival on TV - Carnival for millions. Leinpfad, Ingelheim 2004, ISBN 3-937782-19-2 .
- Günter Schenk: Mainzer Carnival ABC: Facts - Legends - Anecdotes, Leinpfad, Ingelheim 2011, ISBN 978-3-942291-10-1 .
- Friedrich Schütz : The modern Mainz Carnival . In: Franz Dumont (ed.), Ferdinand Scherf, Friedrich Schütz: Mainz - The history of the city. von Zabern, Mainz 1999, ISBN 3-8053-2000-0 .
- Bianka Stahl: Forms and functions of carnival celebrations in the past and present, presented in the most important activities of the Mainz carnival clubs and gardens (= scientific series , volume 14), Kleine, Bielefeld 1981, ISBN 3-88302-033-8 (dissertation University of Mainz 1981, 520 pages).
- Carl Zuckmayer : The carnival confession. Fischer Taschenbuch 15010, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-596-15010-8 .
- Information from the city of Mainz on the Mainz Carnival
- The Mainz Fassenacht: reinvented every year! on swr.de
- The carnival colors in the carnival lexicon of the Südwestrundfunk
- Carnival newspapers in the Dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate
- Collections of the carnival magazines in the Mainz city library
- L'Art de verifier les dates : L'an 1382 , la troisième férié du carnaval, dans un bal qu'il donnait à la suite d'un grand repas, à Kalb, sur la Saal, dans l'archevêché de Magdebourg.
- Saalfastnacht on the website of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- The history of Kastel Jocus-Garde 1889 e. V. (a short outline) on the website of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- For the entire paragraph: Hanno Broo, Sociable and Sports Clubs in Mainz 1945 to 1948 . In: Leben in den Trümmern - Mainz 1945 to 1948 , published on behalf of the City of Mainz by Anton Maria Keim and Alexander Link, Verlag Dr. Hanns Krach (Mainz) 1985, ISBN 3-87439-113-2
- Source: see “Rhineland” from 1840
- "Mainzer Fastnacht - the four colors of the carnival" - Lithes.uni-graz.at/forschung.html
- Fools, bells, quirks v. Mezger et al., Pp. 149ff, Kierdorf-Verlag 1984
- Fools and Carnival Customs v. Mezger, p. 501ff, Uni-Verlag Konstanz 1991
- Carnival, Fastnacht, Fasching v. Dietz Rüdiger Moser, p. 160ff, Edition Kaleidoskop Graz 1986
- What the Domsgickel hears ... , RDW-Verlag Alzey, Mainz, Dec. 2012, summary and source overview under keyword Fassenacht and in the appendix
- Further personalities on the website of the University of Mainz
- Gerd Plachetka: Mainzer Fastnacht mourns Heinz Schier in: Allgemeine Zeitung, September 2018
- KEMWEB GmbH & Co KG Mainz: Prince couples of the Mainz Carnival. Retrieved January 15, 2020 .
- Carnival in Mainz: Ranzengarde presents Prince Couple Johannes I and Anna I by Bernd Funke, in Rhein Main Presse, as of November 5, 2011
- Aline and Richard are Prinzenpaar 2013 - New ideas for open-air sessions at the cathedral ( memento from June 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) by Maike Hessendez, in Rhein Main Presse, June 21, 2012
- Jocus-Garde for the first time selects a couple of princes by Norbert Fluhr, in Rhein Main Presse, on November 12, 2013
- VRM GmbH & Co KG: Mainzer Narrenadel introduced into office - Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved January 7, 2020 .
- Website KCK ( Memento of the original from September 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- VRM GmbH & Co KG: "RotRockRapper" of the Mainzer Prinzengarde cause a sensation with "Ich hab Uniform" - Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved January 17, 2020 .
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