Carl Zuckmayer

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Carl Zuckmayer, 1920
Carl Zuckmayer, 1964

Carl Zuckmayer (born December 27, 1896 in Nackenheim , Rheinhessen , † January 18, 1977 in Visp , Switzerland ) was a German - Swiss writer . In 1925, his career began in Berlin during the Weimar Republic with the performance of his own comedy The Merry Vineyard , which was followed by his greatest success in 1931, the drama The Captain of Köpenick . After 1933 he was in political opposition to the National Socialistsand fled from them to Switzerland in 1938 and to the United States a year later . In 1946 he returned to Europe , now as an American citizen . His drama Des Teufels General , performed in Zurich that same year , was his greatest success in the post-war period. In 1957 Zuckmayer settled in Saas-Fee in Switzerland, where he died in 1977. His autobiography As Was It 's a Piece by Me was published in 1966. He was the younger brother of the concert pianist, composer and conductor Eduard Zuckmayer .


The Zuckmayer family in July 1906, from left: Carl sen. , Amalie, Carl jun., Eduard

Carl Zuckmayer was the second son of Amalie (1869–1954), née Goldschmidt, and Carl Zuckmayer (1864–1947), manufacturer of wine bottle caps in Nackenheim. He grew up in Mainz from 1900 , attended school with little enthusiasm and often had trouble with his teachers. In the senior class , he narrowly escaped being expelled from school. In 1914 he took the secondary school diploma at what was then the New Gymnasium (today: old-language Rabanus-Maurus-Gymnasium ) in Mainz and volunteered for the war .

First World War

Zuckmayer joined the (mounted) Kgl. Prussia. Field Artillery Regiment Orange (1st Nassauisches) No. 27 (FAR 27) and came to the Western Front . There he changed units several times: in autumn 1915 he served in the 35th Division (17th Army Corps) as a non-commissioned officer in battery 470, in spring 1916 he was deputy sergeant in battery 462. In spring he was the heavy 15 cm -Marine-Kanonen-Batterie 32, assigned as a lieutenant in the reserve since the summer of 1917 , when he saw the end of the war. As a "specialist in assault defense", Zuckmayer was initially intended for the risky task of repairing the telephone connections between the front line and the rear artillery position, even and especially under fire. As an officer, he then served as an advanced observer , where he repeatedly ran the risk of being overrun by enemy infantry. Until 1918 he received several awards and was most recently the holder of the Iron Cross of both classes , the Baden Order of the Zähringer Lion with Oak Leaves and Swords and the Hessian Medal of Bravery .

After the war Zuckmayer studied law, literary history and sociology in Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg until 1920.

From 1917 onwards he published poems in Expressionist magazines, including the Aktion edited by Franz Pfemfert .

Weimar Republic

In December 1920, his drama Kreuzweg was premiered at the Staatstheater Berlin , but canceled after three performances. It received commendable reviews only from Herbert Ihering and Siegfried Jacobsohn .

In 1920 he married his Mainzer childhood sweetheart Anne Marie Clara Ganz (1898-1988, from 1933 married with the banker Rudolf Kaulla ), from whom he divorced in 1921 again after a passionate love affair with the actress Anne Marie Seidel had called Mirl begun . Until 1922 he managed to get by as a banter in pubs and with odd jobs (among other things as an extra in the film and as a guide for illegal entertainment venues in Berlin, for a short time as a drug dealer - but he quickly refrained from doing this because he was almost arrested).

In 1922, Zuckmayer was brought to the Kiel City Theater by the artistic director Curt Elwenspoek . Together they wanted to bring an updated version of the comedy Eunuch by the ancient poet Terenz on the stage in the spring of 1923 . However, the responsible theater commission canceled the planned premiere immediately after the dress rehearsal and dismissed Zuckmayer and Elwenspoek without notice.

After the Kiel theater scandal, Zuckmayer worked as a dramaturge in Munich and (together with Bertolt Brecht ) at the Deutsches Theater Berlin . There he met the Viennese actress Alice Frank (1901–1991), born von Herdan, whom he married in 1925 and with whom he lived until his death. From a previous marriage with the communist functionary Karl Frank , she had a daughter (Michaela), whose stepfather Zuckmayer now became. In 1926 his biological daughter Maria Winnetou was born. She later married the writer Michael Guttenbrunner .

Zuckmayer's literary breakthrough came with the comedy The Merry Vineyard , which premiered in December 1925 in the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm . The piece had previously been proposed by Paul Fechter for the Kleist Prize , which Zuckmayer received in the same year. It led to numerous scandals, mainly because of the parodic portrayal of a corps student , but it nonetheless became the most frequently staged play in the 1920s. From his royalties, Zuckmayer bought the "Wiesmühl" country house in Henndorf am Wallersee near Salzburg in 1926 .

But Berlin remained his professional center, and there he celebrated his next theatrical success in October 1927 with the world premiere of Schinderhannes in the Lessing Theater . He wanted this piece to be understood by Erwin Piscator as an explicit alternative to political theater :

“In the Happy Vineyard I managed to make people laugh so heartily that they can seldom laugh in the theater. Now it was important to me to make people cry too. I wanted to address people again in terms of their feelings in the theater, against the so-called new objectivity, against the educational-political theater that began at this time. "
Memorial plaque in Berlin-Schöneberg

In December 1928, the folk play Katharina Knie followed , a tightrope walker comedy, which again met with great audiences. However, it fell through with the criticism - like most of his pieces after the Merry Vineyard . At this time he was also working on the script for the film The Blue Angel , which was based on the novel Professor Unrat by Heinrich Mann and was released in the cinemas in the spring of 1930.

In 1929 Zuckmayer worked on the text for the children's play Kakadu - Kakada by his brother Eduard, who was music director there, which was premiered in the theater hall of the Schule am Meer in 1929 at the strongly musically oriented rural school home school by the sea on the North Sea island of Juist . Thereby he got to know the school's founder and director Martin Luserke , to whom he developed an antipathy that might later be reflected in the dossier he wrote in 1943/44 for the CIA forerunner Office of Strategic Services (OSS). The joint stage play also became successful on professional stages from the same year.

His greatest success in the years of the Weimar Republic was with the comedy Der Hauptmann von Köpenick, which premiered in 1931 at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin . A German fairy tale . It earned him 160,000 marks in royalties (at that time the lifelong income of a hard worker) in the first year after the premiere alone, but also the hatred of the National Socialists , who hated the play's anti-militarist tendency.


House "Wiesmühl" in Henndorf

When the National Socialist seizure of power in 1933 made Zuckmayer's work in Germany more and more difficult, he completely relocated to Austrian exile in Henndorf am Wallersee . His country house "Wiesmühl", where writers and other artists had gathered from the beginning (" Henndorfer Kreis "), now also developed into a refuge from political persecution.

Carl Zuckmayer quote at Feldkirch train station

After the “Anschluss” of Austria on March 13, 1938, Zuckmayer was forced to flee. He had taken a public position against the Nazis, and his works had been banned in Germany since 1933. His older brother, the musician Eduard Zuckmayer , had been banned from the profession due to his mother's descent from the assimilated Jewish Goldschmidt family since 1934 and therefore emigrated to Turkey in 1935 . Literally at the last moment, writes Carl Zuckmayer in his memoir As if it were a piece of me , when the Rollkommandos had already occupied the house in Henndorf to arrest him, and before they appeared in his Vienna apartment the following day and looted it, he escaped With the help of Alfred Ibach on March 15, 1938 by train to Zurich. One of his quotes can still be found today on a cemetery wall at the border station in Feldkirch (Austria).

“When the train slowly pulled into Feldkirch and you could see the glaring cone of the headlights, I had little hope. The day was already dawning, my pulse was pounding with the ticking of the clock. If only you were out already. Any second can bring some new turn. Every change of a border guard a new suspicion, the whole comedy was in vain. "

The premiere of his play Bellman took place there in November 1938, which after a first rehearsal in Vienna on March 11th, it was no longer performed. After the house in Henndorf was finally confiscated in 1939 and the whole family was expatriated, they emigrated to the USA via Paris, from where on May 28, 1939 they traveled on to Rotterdam by train for embarkation, at the invitation of the journalist Dorothy Thompson .

Zuckmayer's life situation was naturally difficult there. In the German exile community, he was initially considered the prototype of the "half-emigrant" ( Alfred Döblin ). At times he was able to work as a screenwriter in Hollywood . However, when he saw his “inner independence” and “productivity” threatened, he returned to New York and became a lecturer at the theater school of the New School for Social Research, which was directed by Erwin Piscator . Since this activity did not satisfy him and he could not support himself and the family with it, he and his wife decided in the spring of 1941 to try their hand at being a farmer. They gave up the New York apartment, leased "Backwoods Farm" for $ 50 a month near Barnard , Windsor County ( Vermont ), where Dorothy Thompson and her husband Sinclair Lewis maintained the estate "Twin Farms" and ran it for the following years . Zuckmayer's daughter Winnetou attended the Windsor Mountain School founded by the German emigrant couple Max and Gertrud Bondy nearby .

After his play Katharina Knie , People Who Pass by was filmed by Gloria-Film AG in 1942 . The title hero was not called Knie, but Ludwig Horn. Directed by Max Haufler . The actors were inter alia. Adolf Manz , Max Werner Lenz , Rudolf Bernhard , Lukas Ammann , Ellen Widmann and Marion Cherbuliez.

In 1943 Zuckmayer wrote for the first American foreign intelligence service, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), dossiers about actors, directors, publishers and journalists who were successful in Germany during the time of the “Third Reich”. In doing so, he made the whole range of behavioral possibilities in a dictatorship from adaptation to restlessness visible on the basis of 150 exemplary résumés. These dossiers were only published as a secret report in 2002 .

In 1946, one year after the end of the war, Zuckmayer returned to Europe for the first time as the civilian cultural representative of the American War Department. After a five-month inspection trip, he wrote a comprehensive report on Germany in which he criticized numerous occupation policy measures and made a number of specific suggestions for changes. It was first published in 2004.

In January 1946 he received the US citizenship he had applied for in 1943 . Zuckmayer kept his residence in Woodstock ( Vermont ), USA, until 1957 . He refused to apply for re-naturalization in Germany.

Zuckmayer in Amsterdam (1956)

His play Des Teufels General , premiered in Zurich in 1946 and begun under the impression of Ernst Udet's death , was his greatest post-war success on the West German theater. In the 1948/49 season alone, it was played 2069 times. With resignation, Zuckmayer later realized that his stage success was less based on the anti-fascist tendency, which was expressed in the creation of the term Völkermühle Europe as a metaphor for the Rhineland , but that the play was applauded because it offered identification with a dashing war hero. With dramas such as Der Gesang im Feuerofen (1950) about resistance and collaboration in France during the Second World War and Das kalte Licht (1955) about a case of nuclear espionage, Zuckmayer was the most successful German playwright in the West in the 1950s as well. This also led to numerous film adaptations, including by Helmut Käutner . At the beginning of the 1960s, interest in his pieces sank rapidly because their formal traditionalism no longer corresponded to the taste of the time of directors and artistic directors. In the 1970s, Zuckmayer agreed on the reasons for this development in a brief and informative correspondence with Tankred Dorst .


Inscription on the Herz-Jesu-Kirche in Saas-Fee for a saying by Carl Zuckmayer

In 1957 he bought a house in Saas-Fee in the Swiss canton of Valais and settled there. In 1966 he was granted Swiss citizenship with the municipal citizenship of Saas-Fee .

In the same year, he published his autobiography, As if it's a piece by me , which became a "long time seller" and has sold well over a million times to date.

In 1967 Zuckmayer's friendship with the then world-famous Protestant Reformed Basel theologian Karl Barth began, which for Zuckmayer brought about a late and in-depth examination of theological questions. Zuckmayer saw himself as a devout but critical Catholic at this time:

"But if I were to confess to one of my literary colleagues that the Eucharist is a real consolation for me - I took part in it last Sunday and will do it again on this one - they would consider me burned in the brain [...]"

- Letter to Barth dated April 10, 1968

He died after a brief illness on January 18, 1977 in Visp. His burial took place on January 22, 1977 in the cemetery in Saas-Fee. The part of the cemetery where Zuckmayer and his wife were buried was closed in 2012. The couple's grave was the only one to be moved and then redesigned.


Carl Zuckmayer bust at the entrance to the local administration in Nackenheim

Zuckmayer's estate is in the German Literature Archive in Marbach am Neckar . Parts of it can be seen there in the Museum of Modern Literature in the permanent exhibition, including the script for The Blue Angel . Some materials about the time of emigration are in Richard Albrecht's private archive . In memory of Carl Zuckmayer, the State of Rhineland-Palatinate has awarded the Carl Zuckmayer Medal every year on the day of his death since 1979 . This literary prize honors the “services to the German language and to the artistic word”. Marcel Reich-Ranicki assessed Zuckmayer's position in literary history in the following ways:

“He was often viewed as too popular for criticism and sometimes too critical for the people. The left thought he was conservative and the conservatives thought he was too left. So he often sat between stools. But that's not a bad place for a writer. "

Awards, honors and memberships

Postage stamp from the Deutsche Post in honor of Carl Zuckmayer 1996

Works (selection)


  • Way of the Cross. Drama . Munich (Kurt Wolff) 1921. Premiere December 20, 1920 Berlin ( Staatliches Schauspielhaus )
  • The eunuch (1922). First print (with a contribution by Gunther Nickel on the genesis and performance history) in: Jahrbuch zur Literatur der Weimarer Republik , Vol. 3 (1997), pp. 47–122
  • Kiktahan, or The Hillbilly. A play from the far west in three acts ( Pankraz awakens or Die Hinterwäldler ). Potsdam (Gustav Kiepenheuer) 1925. Premiere February 15, 1925 at Berlin (Junge Bühne)
    Captain von Köpenick in 1931
  • The happy vineyard . Comedy in three acts . Berlin (Propylaea) 1925. Premiere December 22, 1925 Berlin ( Theater am Schiffbauerdamm )
  • Schinderhannes . Play in four acts . Berlin (Propylaea) 1927. Premiere October 14, 1927 Berlin ( Lessingtheater )
  • The blue angel . Screenplay (1929; together with Karl Gustav Vollmoeller and Robert Liebmann ; based on Heinrich Mann )
    • Script drafts, ed. by Luise Dirscherl and Gunther Nickel. St. Ingbert (Röhrig University Press) 2000
  • Katharina knee . A tightrope walker piece in four acts . Berlin (Propylaea) 1927. Premiere December 21, 1928 Berlin ( Lessingtheater )
  • Cockatoo Cockatoo. A children's piece . Berlin (Propylaea) 1929. Premiere January 18, 1930 Berlin ( German Art Theater )
  • The captain of Koepenick . A German fairy tale in three acts . Berlin (Propylaea) 1931. Premiere March 5, 1931 Berlin ( Deutsches Theater )
  • The rogue of mountains. Acting in a prelude and three acts . Berlin (Propylaea) 1934. Premiere October 21, 1934 Vienna ( Burgtheater )
  • Rembrandt . Screenplay (1936; together with Lajos Biró and June Head). Book edition: Rembrandt. A movie . Frankfurt / Main (Fischer) 1980
  • Bellman. Play in three acts . Chur (AG for publishing rights) 1938. Premiere November 14, 1938 Zurich ( Schauspielhaus ). Book edition: Ulla Winblad or Music and Life of Carl Michael Bellman . Drama in prose . Frankfurt / Main and Berlin (S. Fischer) 1953 (with notes)
  • The devil's general . Drama in three acts (1945). Stockholm (Bermann-Fischer) 1946. Premiere December 14, 1946 Zurich ( Schauspielhaus )
  • Barbara Blomberg. A play in three acts . Amsterdam (Bermann-Fischer) 1949. Premiere April 30, 1949 Konstanz
  • The singing in the fiery furnace. Drama in three acts . Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1950. Premiere November 3, 1950 Göttingen
  • Herbert Engelmann . From the estate of Gerhart Hauptmann , executed by Carl Zuckmayer. Premiere March 8, 1952 Vienna (Burgtheater in the Akademietheater ; director: Berthold Viertel ; with OW Fischer and others)
  • The cold light . Drama in three acts (14 images) . Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1955. Premiere September 3, 1955 Hamburg ( Deutsches Schauspielhaus ; director: Gustaf Gründgens )
Rehearsals for the world premiere of The Life of Horace AW Tabor , Zuckmayer in the middle

Radio play version under the title: Midas of the shimmering mountains

  • The Pied Piper. A fable . Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1975. Premiere February 22, 1975 Zurich ( Schauspielhaus ; director: Leopold Lindtberg )
    • Arrangement for the opera stage: Der Rattenfänger (1984–87). Libretto:?. Music: Friedrich Cerha . WP 1987 Graz


  • The tree. Poems . Berlin (Propylaea) 1926
  • Farewell and return . Poems 1917–1976. Edited by Alice Zuckmayer (1977)


  • Homecoming. Mainz Cantata (1962; not set to music)
  • Mainz move. Folk fun for singers, mixed choir and orchestra . Mainz ( B. Schott's sons ) 1962. Music: Paul Hindemith . Premiere June 23, 1962 Mainz ( Stadttheater ; Conductor: Paul Hindemith)

Narrative prose

  • Sitting Bull . Story (1925). First printed in 1960 in the collected works
  • A farmer from the Taunus and other stories . Berlin (Propylaea) 1927
  • A Christmas story . First printing: Vossische Zeitung , December 25, 1931. Book edition Zurich (Arche) 1962
  • The monkey wedding. Novella . Berlin (Propylaea) 1932
  • A love story . Narrative. Berlin (S. Fischer) 1934 ( film adaptation 1954 )
  • Salwáre or The Magdalena of Bozen . Novel . Berlin (S. Fischer) 1934 (confiscated before extradition). Vienna (Bermann-Fischer) 1936
  • A summer in Austria. Narration . Vienna (Bermann-Fischer) 1937
  • Pro Domo. Autobiographical report Stockholm (Bermann-Fischer) 1938 (in the series Outlook )
  • Lord of life and death. Novel . Stockholm (Bermann-Fischer) 1938
  • Second wind . Autobiography. Translation into English: ER Hapgood. Preface: Dorothy Thompson . New York (Doubleday, Doran) 1940; London (Harrap) 1941
  • The soul brew. Narration . Stockholm (Bermann-Fischer) 1945
  • Angels of lions. Stories Zurich (Classen) 1955 (in the series Vom Dauernden der Zeit , Vol. 72)
  • The carnival confession . Narrative. Frankfurt / Main: (S. Fischer) 1959
  • Forty years of stories . Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1962
  • As if it were a piece of me . Hear the friendship . Autobiography. Frankfurt / Main: (S. Fischer) 1966 ( No. 1 on the Spiegel bestseller list from October 17, 1966 to May 28, 1967 and from June 12 to July 16, 1967 )
  • On a path in spring. Reunion with a city. Told off the cuff. Narration . Salzburg (residence) 1970
  • Henndorfer Pastorale . Salzburg (residence) 1970
  • Vermont novel . From the estate. Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1996

Essays and speeches

  • Gerhart Hauptmann . Speech on his seventieth birthday , given at the official celebration of the city of Berlin. Private print 1932
  • Pro Domo . Essay. Stockholm 1938
  • Carlo Mierendorff . Portrait of a German socialist . Memorial speech. New York: (self-published) 1944; Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 1947
  • The Brothers Grimm . A German contribution to humanity . Essay. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1948
  • The long ways. A piece of accountability . Speech. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1952
  • Contribution to: Fifty Years of the Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus 1905–1955 . Düsseldorf 1955
  • A view of the Rhine . Speech on the award of an honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn on May 10, 1957. Introduction: Benno von Wiese . Bonn (Hanstein) 1957 (Bonn academic speeches, vol. 18)
  • One way to Schiller . A speech . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1959
  • The goal is class. Humanistic high school in anecdote and reflection . Ceremonial speech on the four hundredth anniversary of the humanistic grammar school in Mainz on May 27, 1962. Zabern, Mainz 1962
  • A full earth day. For Gerhart Hauptmann's hundredth birthday . Celebratory speech. S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1962
  • For Gertrud von Le Fort . October 11, 1966 . Private print 1966
  • Scholar between yesterday and tomorrow . Lecture at Heidelberg University on the occasion of the appointment as honorary citizen on November 23, 1967. Brausdruck, Heidelberg 1967
  • Memento for the twentieth of July . S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1969
  • About the musical destiny of man . Speech at the opening of the Salzburg Festival 1970. Festungsverlag, Salzburg 1970 (trilingual de-fr-en)
  • Call to life. Portraits and testimonies from turbulent times . S. Fischer, Frankfurt 1976


  • Collected works in four individual volumes: The German Dramas / Poems 1916–1948 / Comedy and Folk Play / The Stories . 1947-1952
  • Collected works in four volumes. S. Fischer, Berlin / Frankfurt am Main 1960
  • Ten-volume paperback edition of collected works. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1976
  • Collected works in individual volumes, ed. by Knut Beck and Maria Guttenbrunner-Zuckmayer. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1995-1997.

Letters and other documents

  • KO Paetel: German internal emigration. Anti-Nazi evidence from Germany . With original contributions by Carl Zuckmayer and Dorothy Thompson. New York (Krause) 1946 ( Documents of the Other Germany , Vol. 4)
  • Abundance of time . Carl Zuckmayer and his work. Frankfurt / Main (S. Fischer) 1956
  • Carl Zuckmayer in Mainz . Editor Walter Heist. Mainz (noise) 1970
  • Late friendship in letters . Correspondence with Karl Barth , edited by Hinrich Stoevesandt, Zurich (Theological Publishing House), 1977
  • Carl Zuckmayer - Paula Wessely , in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft , Vol. 4, H. 4 of November 1, 1978, pp. 124–128
  • Carl Zuckmayer and Gustaf Gründgens , communicated by Rolf Badenhausen, in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, vol. 5, no. 4. of November 1, 1979, pp. 214–243
  • Carl Zuckmayer and his bibliographer. From the correspondence with Arnold J. Jacobius 1953–1976, communicated by Gerald PR Martin, in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, vol. 6, no. 3 of August 1, 1980, pp. 117–157
  • Once, when it's all over . Letters to Kurt Grell. Poems, dramas, prose from the years 1914–1920. Frankfurt am Main (S. Fischer) 1981
  • Carl Zuckmayer and the Lindemanns. From his correspondence with Louise Dumont and Gustav Lindemann 1926–1931, communicated by Winrich Meiszies, in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, vol. 8, no. 1 of February 1, 1982, pp. 34–48
  • “Completely new from my imagination”. The way to the Pied Piper , presented in Carl Zuckmayer's correspondence with Günther Niemeyer in the years 1964–1975, compiled by Gerald Martin, in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, vol. 8, H. 4 of November 1, 1982, p. 173-211
  • “We still encountered the miracle…” The correspondence between Carl Zuckmayer and Fritz Usinger 1919–1976, compiled by Gerald PR Martin, in: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, vol. 10, 1984, no. 1, p. 7 -58
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Gottfried von One . From the correspondence of the author with the composer of the Pied Piper Music. Compiled by Gerald Martin. In: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft, Vol. 8, H. 4 of November 1, 1982, pp. 212–222
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Paul Hindemith : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Gunther Nickel and Giselher Schubert , in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 9–118
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Max Frisch : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Walter Obschlager, in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 3, pp. 247-279
  • Carl Zuckmayer and Friedrich Dürrenmatt - a documentation, edited, introduced and commented on by Rudolf Probst and Ulrich Weber, in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 3, pp. 273-297
  • "Not having met you before is one of the greatest shortcomings in my life". The correspondence between Ernst Jünger and Carl Zuckmayer. German and French. In: Les Carnets Ernst Jünger (Montpellier), No. 2 (1997), pp. 139–165 (German) and 167–195 (French); Extended German version in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 2, 1999, pp. 515-547
  • Carl Zuckmayer - Carl Jacob Burckhardt , Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented by Gunther Nickel and Claudia Mertz-Rychner, in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 3, 2000, pp. 11–243
  • Secret report (dossiers on German artists, journalists and publishers in the “Third Reich”), ed. by Gunther Nickel and Johanna Schrön. Göttingen (Wallstein) 2002
  • “I'm worried about the Ice Age 'as if it were a piece of me'”. The correspondence between Carl Zuckmayer and Tankred Dorst , edited, introduced and commented on by Heidrun Ehrke-Rotermund. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 5, 2002, pp. 11–73
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Letters to Hans Schiebelhuth 1921–1936, edited, introduced and commented on by Gunther Nickel. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 9–85
  • Alice and Carl Zuckmayer - Alma Mahler-Werfel and Franz Werfel : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Hans Wagener. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 89-218
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Gottfried Bermann Fischer : Correspondence, ed. by Irene Nawrocka. Göttingen (Wallstein) 2004
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Annemarie Seidel : Correspondence, ed. by Gunther Nickel. Göttingen (Wallstein) 2003
  • Germany Report for the War Department of the United States of America (1947), ed. by Gunther Nickel, Johanna Schrön and Hans Wagener. Göttingen (Wallstein) 2004
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Alexander Lernet-Holenia : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Gunther Nickel. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 8, 2006, pp. 9-185
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Albrecht Joseph : Correspondence, ed. by Gunther Nickel. Göttingen (Wallstein) 2007
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Josef Halperin : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Gunther Nickel. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 10, 2010, pp. 9–182
  • Carl Zuckmayer, Theodor Heuss : Correspondence, edited, introduced and commented on by Gunther Nickel. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch, Vol. 11, 2012, pp. 9–177

Film adaptations


  • German CVs: Carl Zuckmayer. Documentation, 45 min., A film by Simone Reuter, production: SWR , first broadcast: January 18, 2007


  • Richard Albrecht : Personal friendship and political commitment: Carl Zuckmayer and Erich Maria Remarques 'Nothing new in the West' 1929/30. In: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft , 10, 1984 2, 7, pp. 5-86
  • Richard Albrecht: literary celebrities in the Weimar Republic - Carl Zuckmayer . In: Blätter der Carl-Zuckmayer-Gesellschaft , 12, 1986, 2/3, pp. 127-135
  • Richard Albrecht: The FBI Dossier Carl Zuckmayer . In: LILI , 19, 1989 73, pp. 114-121
  • Richard Albrecht: No Return - Carl Zuckmayer's Exile. Aspects of a new biography of the successful German dramatist. A documentary essay (theater and cultural studies / TKWS I) 1995, ISBN 3-921384-00-1
  • Walter Fähnders: Folk play with a fatal outcome . Carl Zuckmayer's Schinderhannes in theater criticism. In: Gunther Nickel (ed.): Carl Zuckmayer and the media. Contributions to an international symposium. Part 1. St. Ingbert 2001, pp. 155-178
  • Michael Kohlhäufl:  Zuckmayer, Carl. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 17, Bautz, Herzberg 2000, ISBN 3-88309-080-8 , Sp. 1590-1598.
  • Helmut Kreuzer: Schinderhannes - a robber around 1800 with Clara Viebig , Carl Zuckmayer and Gerd Fuchs . In: Stuttgart works on German studies , No. 423. Hans-Dieter Heinz, Stuttgart 2004 [2005], pp. 179–197
  • Michaela Krützen : "Group 1: Positive" Carl Zuckmayer's assessments of Hans Albers and Heinz Rühmann. In: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch , Volume 5, 2002, pp. 179-227
  • Brigitte Marschall: Carl Zuckmayer . In: Andreas Kotte (Ed.): Theater Lexikon der Schweiz . Volume 3, Chronos, Zurich 2005, ISBN 3-0340-0715-9 , p. 2157 f.
  • Gunther Nickel , Ulrike Weiß: Carl Zuckmayer 1896–1977. German Schiller Society, Marbach a. N. 1996
  • Gunther Nickel: Zuckmayer and Brecht. In: Yearbook of the German Schiller Society, vol. 41, 1997, pp. 428–459
  • Gunther Nickel: Carl Zuckmayer and his publishers from 1920 until their return from exile. In: Book trade history. Essays, reviews and reports on the history of the book industry 1998/2, pp. B84 – B91. Reprinted in: Zuckmayer-Jahrbuch , Volume 3, 2000, pp. 361–376
  • Gunther Nickel, Erwin Rotermund, Hans Wagener: Zuckmayer Yearbook Vol. 1–4, St. Ingbert: Röhrig Universitätsverlag 1998–2001, volume. 5 ff. Wallstein, Göttingen 2002 ff.
  • Jörg Schöning: Carl Zuckmayer - Author. In: CineGraph - Lexicon for German-Language Film , Delivery 7, 1986.
  • Christian Strasser: Carl Zuckmayer. German artists in exile in Salzburg 1933–1938, Vienna, Cologne, Weimar 1996
  • C. Bernd Sucher (Ed.): Theater Lexikon . Authors, directors, actors, dramaturges, stage designers, critics. By Christine Dössel and Marietta Piekenbrock with the assistance of Jean-Claude Kuner and C. Bernd Sucher. 2nd Edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-423-03322-3 , pp. 794 f.
  • Kay Less : The film's great personal dictionary . Volume 8: T - Z. David Tomlinson - Theo Zwierski. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-89602-340-3 , p. 556 ff.

Web links

Commons : Carl Zuckmayer  - Collection of Images

Individual evidence

  1. see Carl Zuckmayer's letters from the field
  2. Carl Zuckmayer: As if it were a piece of me: Horen derfreundschaft . S. Fischer publishers, Frankfurt a. Main, 1966
  3. Wolfgang Mertz (Ed.): Carl Zuckmayer - A selection . Ueberreuter, Vienna / Heidelberg 1968, p. 225.
  4. Hannes Reinhardt (Ed.): That's me. Ernst Deutsch, Tilla Durieux, Willy Haas, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, Joseph Keilberth, Oskar Kokoschka, Heinz Tietjen, Carl Zuckmayer tell their lives. Piper Munich 1970, p. 239 Google Books
  5. Secret report (preprint). In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 14, 2002
  6. Gunther Nickel, Johanna Schrön (ed.): Secret report. Wallstein, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 978-3-89244-599-9 , p. 160.
  7. Kakadu - Kakada. Children's play in seven pictures by Carl Zuckmayer with music by Eduard Zuckmayer . Staatsschauspiel Dresden, first performance in Dresden December 6, 1931. From:, accessed on May 28, 2017
  8. Both parents stayed in Germany until their death after the war. After their house in Mainz was bombed out in 1941, they moved to Oberstdorf , where the local group leader is said to have protected their mother by covering up her Jewish origins.
  9. See as if it were a piece by me , 1976, p. 72
  10. ^ Jutta Berger : Bike tours to places of Nazi resistance in Feldkirch. In: . September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2018 .
  11. When the train slowly pulled into Feldkirch, Ulrich Nachbaur (PDF; 333 kB)
  12. ^ Biography - Carl Zuckmayer Society Mainz. In: Archived from the original on March 23, 2016 ; Retrieved October 3, 2017 .
  13. ↑ Film story and actors. Retrieved June 19, 2020 .
  14. ^ The grave of Carl Zuckmayer
  15. Article about the new permanent exhibition. Südwestpresse
  16. Ask Reich-Ranicki . In: FAZ , May 20, 2006
  17. Minor Planet Circ. 34345