Exile in Turkey 1933–1945

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

During the time of National Socialism , several hundred persecuted people went into exile in Turkey . Those who were expatriated from Germany or were stateless for other reasons received z. Sometimes stamped "homeless" in the passport, which became a synonym for the status of the exiles and has entered the Turkish language as haymatloz .


The Ottoman Empire cultivated close economic and military relations with the German Empire from the second half of the 19th century . Since that time there have been a number of Germans in the country who often had consultancy contracts there, particularly in connection with the construction of the Baghdad Railway and the establishment of the German military missions . Almost ten years after the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey by Ataturk which occurred takeover of the Nazi Party . Immediately after the politically and racially motivated elimination of unpopular people from the civil service, many of the persecuted fled to Turkey, among other places. These referred to themselves ironically as "German Colony B" - in contrast to the so-called "Reich and Volksdeutsche ". Most of the exiles left Germany because they no longer felt safe because of anti-Semitic persecution, for professional or other reasons. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between regular labor migration and exile due to political persecution.

Up to this point, Ataturk had carried out far-reaching reforms in Turkey aimed at westernizing society. Western scientists and technicians were welcome to promote this development. In 1933 the Turkish universities were reformed and in July the first contracts with German academics were signed. With their employment they committed to learning Turkish and publishing textbooks in Turkish. In return, they were usually given very well-paid positions at universities and government agencies, and in some cases special institutes were even founded, which were headed by exiles. After the NSDAP came to power, many academics who were ousted from the German scientific community took advantage of the offers of the Turkish government. After the connection of Austria to Germany was followed by emigrants from Austria and later from the Second World War occupied countries. From 1937 onwards, some of those who had sought refuge in Turkey moved on to other countries, particularly the USA , but also Great Britain . By 1945 around 1,000 exiles from German-speaking countries had found refuge in Turkey. The Turkey historian Stanford Shaw writes:

“A new era of Turkish aid for Jewish refugees began in the early 1930s when Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his Minister of Education, Hasan Ali Yücel , used Hitler's dismissal of Jews from education and science to bring hundreds of them to Turkey where they made a significant contribution to the development of Turkish universities and scientific institutions as well as fine arts and music. "

- Stanford Shaw

In the course of the propagation of the Turkish nation that has been persecuted since the founding of the republic and the associated pressure to assimilate other ethnic groups, Turkey passed laws that not only refused or hindered immigration for Jewish refugees, but also discriminated against Turkish citizens of the Jewish faith. For example, the government in Ankara opposed attempts by the German government to repatriate Turkish citizens of Jewish faith living in France (who had only emigrated there because of the Turkish nationality policy) to Turkey. The restrictive stance of Turkey and Great Britain was one of the reasons for the sinking of the Struma by a Soviet submarine in 1942 and the deaths of almost 800 people. In the course of the European persecution of the Jews, individual Turkish diplomats opposed Ankara's official line and stood up for persecuted Jews. The Turkish consul general on Rhodes, Selahattin Ülkümen , saved around 50 Jews from deportation to the extermination camps and was honored as Righteous Among the Nations for this in 1990 . This is also the case with İsmail Necdet Kent (* 1911; † September 20, 2002) who, as the Turkish Consul General in Marseille (1942 to 1945), enabled numerous persecuted Jews to travel to Turkey by issuing Turkish passports (Türk Pasaportu) .

Occasionally, exiles - usually successfully - applied for Turkish citizenship . There were also some weddings with local partners. By 1949 around two thirds of the exiles had returned to their countries of origin. Another 30 percent moved to the USA and a few settled in Turkey. Liselotte Dieckmann vividly reports on the enormous problems of adjustment and the very authoritarian relationship between the Turkish state and immigrants, factors that usually motivated people to move on .

Albert Einstein, as honorary president of the Œuvre de secours aux enfants , OSE (or World Union OZE), offered the Turkish government under Ismet Inönü on September 17, 1933 that forty German professors and doctors come to work in Turkey for one year free. The offer was refused; the assumptions in today's literature are that Turkey did not want such a project with an explicitly Jewish organization.

The emigrant children of Ankara

Living in and with emigration is always a challenge for the children and young people affected by it. Normally, when dealing with this topic, the focus is on the threats associated with exile and the “traumatic effects over several generations” that are often derived from it. All the more astonishing when, of all things, the conclusion of a study on the emigration experiences of German children in Ankara is:

“For the topic of 'childhood in exile', however, the childhood experiences in Ankara prove that adolescents did not have to experience exile as fundamentally traumatic or severely stressful. In retrospect, those who spent their childhood in Ankara see less of the loss they suffered as a result of emigration. For them the time in Turkey was an enrichment. "

The reasons for this assessment, which is based on many interviews with those affected, are to be sought in the particular exile situation in Turkey - although it must remain open whether Hillebrecht's assessment of the children in Ankara can be generalized for the whole of Turkey, as there has not yet been any comparable study on emigrant children who lived in other places in Turkey.

Ankara habitat

The approximately 1,000 German-speaking refugees in Turkey also included around 275 children. Of these children, around 53 lived with their parents in Ankara, and 10 more were born here.

27 of the boys and girls who came to Turkey with their parents were born between 1925 and 1932 and were therefore between seven and 14 years old when the war broke out. The fathers of these 63 children were almost all academics, many of whom were expelled from German universities because of their Jewish beliefs, but continued to work at the university in Ankara. They did not come to the country as supplicants, but as sought-after specialists, which resulted in a completely different situation than with the many other emigrants who hoped for an opportunity to travel to the USA or Great Britain for themselves and their families or at the consulates of foreign countries had to beg for visas.

Many of these children had no ideas about Turkey, or at least those that they had borrowed from reading Karl May . Farewell to Germany was usually not difficult for them because - until the late 1930s - it was often the result of a planned and almost orderly move. Due to the lack of a direct escape experience, the trip to Turkey was already the first stop on a great adventure, followed by Istanbul as the second stop.

The culture shock followed Istanbul - at least for the adults: Ankara . Around 1935 the city had around 120,000 inhabitants, it was located in a bare steppe, roads were often not paved, camel caravans were still part of everyday life, the climate in the hot summer months took getting used to, rural society and western-oriented modernity met closely Room. This seems to have been less of a problem for the children. The manageable size of the city gave them plenty of room to move around, they felt free and carefree, enjoyed a comparatively unregulated life and were strongly influenced by the vastness of the Turkish landscape around Ankara.

These positive aspects were favored by the living situation. The emigrant families lived in the Neustadt in apartments with European standards. The adults maintained close contact with each other, went on excursions together and kept traditions from their old homeland alive. They lived here "in stable conditions, and Turkey remained officially politically neutral until three months before the end of the war, so that the children got to know the state of war with food rationalization and blackout measures, but were never in mortal danger". This special situation also promoted the close cooperation between the children. They had a lot of contacts with each other and used them for joint activities - aided by the already mentioned clarity of Ankara (which also attracted cinemas and films from America).

There were also delimitations, but only externally: As will be shown shortly, only a few emigrant children went to Turkish schools. This resulted in almost no contact with Turkish children. And of course no contact was maintained with Colony A , the Reich Germans.

The Turkish school

In contrast to Istanbul, where a German school had existed since 1868 , there was no German school in Ankara in the 1930s and 1940s.

Attending a Turkish school was not an option for most of the children of the emigrants, or only in exceptional cases. On the one hand, the Turkish schools were not prepared for foreign students; on the other hand, the German students had great difficulties getting used to everyday life in Turkish schools. In addition to the linguistic problems, there were long daily teaching times from a German perspective and the completely different school climate:

“The students wore uniforms and were trained in a military drill. In the morning the teacher checked the cleanliness of the collar and fingernails. Corporal punishment was permitted and was carried out by the headmaster by hitting the soles of the students' feet. There were around 65 students in one class. "

Another argument against attending a Turkish school was that most emigrant families viewed their stay in Turkey as only temporary. From this point of view, attending a Turkish school and obtaining a corresponding qualification was not worth striving for, because it neither offered an opportunity to impart German cultural values ​​in everyday school life, nor did it create the basis for a possible study in the USA, the actual emigration destination of many academic emigrants.

When German émigré children attended a Turkish school in Ankara, it was mostly for financial reasons, because attending a Turkish school was free. Some emigrants, mostly the fathers, had to accept a deterioration in their employment contract situation during their stay in Turkey and, associated with this, a deterioration in their income. In such cases, attending a Turkish school was usually the only remaining way to still enable the children to get an education.

The school of Mrs. Kudret

The aim for most of the German émigré families in Ankara was that their children should receive an education comparable to the German school system, which usually prepared them for the external Abitur at the German School Istanbul . For this purpose, the “Reichsdeutsche” had their children taught by private teachers in the “German School Circle”. This was a school-like institution that was founded in 1925 after the German embassy moved from Istanbul to Ankara and was tolerated by the Turkish government. The “school circle” had its seat in the consulate building of the German embassy . It was out of the question for the emigrants to have their children taught there.

The fact that school education for the emigrant children in Ankara was possible was due to a happy coincidence.

Doris Zernott was born near Augsburg in 1895. In 1913 she was the first girl to graduate from secondary school in her hometown and then studied mathematics, physics and chemistry in Munich. Her first professional goal was evidently to become a teacher, but from 1918 to 1921 she followed up with further studies, including at the Sorbonne , and studied German, history and French. After receiving her doctorate (Dr. phil.), She married the mechanical engineer Kudret Bey, who was trained in Germany. The couple moved to Turkey, and Doris Zernott was now called Dr. phil. Leyla Kudret (later the last name Erkönen was added). From 1924 to 1934 Leyla Kudret worked as a private teacher in Istanbul, where the children of the emigrants Fritz Neumark and Wilhelm Röpke were also among her students.

In 1934 the Kudret couple moved to Ankara because Kudret Bey had been offered a job there. Leyla Kudret continued her private teaching activity here and became the guarantor of the school education of the German émigré children in Ankara. She gave less private one-to-one tuition, but taught the age-wise broadly diversified student body together, but in age-homogeneous learning groups, and practiced classes across all grades. It initially took place in the Kudrets apartment. In 1940 Leyla Kudret was temporarily banned from teaching by the Turkish authorities because of an unfounded suspicion of espionage. From then on, the lessons, now separated according to study groups, moved to the apartments of the parents of the students.

“The pupils learned one after the other everything that the curriculum of the German elementary school, the middle school and the secondary school provided. [..] Class work was seldom written, but homework was often checked and corrected. Due to the lack of school books, the children were forced to follow the teacher's explanations and at the same time take notes. The notes should then be worked out at home. "

Leyla Kudret - the children affectionately called her "Frau Ku" - taught her students physics, mathematics, English, French, Latin, German literature, history, and biology. But she also taught them typewriting, business studies and shorthand. Only art, sports and music lessons were not part of her repertoire. Based on many interviews with "alumni", Sabine Hillebrecht comes to the conclusion:

“This teacher had an immense amount of school knowledge at hand, she produced it orally and at the same time prepared analogue written exercises and further homework, and during the entire lesson she switched effortlessly from one level to the next and from one subject to the other, without either herself or the students To allow a break. "

For many of her students, Leyla Kudret was a formative figure, to whom they still paid high recognition even in old age. An example of this is a statement that Edzard Reuter contributed to a report in Chrismon in August 2012 :

“Like my parents, Ms. Kudret was one of those people who never brought me up in such a way that I had to handle things in a certain way - for example, that my teenage room had to be tidied up one way or another. A raised index finger, or even a cane - that never happened with Mrs. Kudret. She saw us as employees and trusted us. These intensive classes are a gift from these difficult times. The fact that I became a curious person - that is also thanks to Ms. Kudret. Every day my parents saw how I learned. I was an enthusiastic student. "

Ankara's emigrant milieu, which is characterized by academia, offered additional resources for a comprehensive education for the children. The solidarity community of “Colony B” (that was the non-National Socialists), parents and their friends, took part directly in the training: for example Ernst Reuter taught geography for about a year, Georg Rohde gave Latin and ancient Greek lessons, his wife Irmgard, an archaeologist with a doctorate, gave history lessons , Eduard Zuckmayer gave piano lessons and others helped with their language or mathematics skills.


The relative idyll in Ankara ended in August 1944. On August 2, Turkey broke off diplomatic relations with Germany and asked all German nationals to leave Turkey. Those who could not or did not want to leave were interned, with a few exceptions. The German School in Istanbul was closed, which meant that there were no more opportunities to take the secondary school leaving examination.

On August 23, 1944, the internees were transferred to the inner-Anatolian internment locations of Kırşehir , Çorum and Yozgat . If Ankara was already quite provincial for many German emigrants compared to Istanbul, they now got to know even more unusual living conditions. Kirşehir, for example, was an important trading center in ancient times. But in 1944 it was a sleepy little town, surrounded by the Anatolian steppe. There was no running water and electricity was rare. The oil lamps gave such a weak light that after dark one could no longer read. Nevertheless the emigrants cultivated the German culture there. They found a choir led by Eduard Zuckmayer. Gerhard Ruben, Walter Ruben's son , remembers: “We had an awful lot of time, and of course Zuckmayer knew all of classical music very well. So we sang church music. There was also a Catholic pastor interned there, and a few nuns from Austria. They always held church services on Sundays. And there we actually sang a mass by the church musician Palestrina. In the middle of Turkey! " World icon World icon World icon

There was no school offer for the German children in the three internment locations. Once again, the solidarity community of "Colony B" mentioned above proved its worth. Private tuition was organized based on the previous training of the interned academics, and the interned padres and nuns of the Catholic hospital in Istanbul, mentioned by Rubens, could also be won over for the further education of the children. In Çorum there were lessons by interned Austrian teachers.

In addition, despite the internment, there was scope for exploring the area. Some of the adults, such as Fritz Baade , who helped Kırşehir to become a health resort with a healing spring, or Walter Ruben , used these opportunities for their own research and were able to involve their children: “The adolescents were included in the professors' research areas haphazardly, it resulted from the fathers' lack of work commitments. And it resulted from the conditions of the internment location. "

The eighteen-month internment ended at Christmas 1945. In retrospect, Gerhard Ruben found this time to be an enrichment: "The Orient had really been seen and lived, even if only in a primitive and late form, but that was a real Orient, with a bazaar and robbers and superstitions and dervishes."

Review of Leyla Kudret

Leyla Kudret enjoys a high reputation among her former students, as the many interviews evaluated by Sabine Hillebrecht show. Her private school in Ankara survived the war and the post-war period. She then also taught at the German School founded in Ankara in 1952 , which has been called the Ernst Reuter School since 2002 .

In 1985 Leyla Kudret was awarded the Federal Cross of Merit. Around that time, she saw Edzard Reuter again and remembers it:

“At that time she was well over 90 years old. She had broken in and been knocked down. Despite the attack, she sat at home in her house, very upright. Just older, but basically unchanged. She knew exactly. She also gave lessons at the Ernst Reuter School, the German School in Ankara. She died in 1992. A blackboard reminds of her at the school, and I was allowed to design the text: 'Deeply rooted in European culture, her unique personality, combined with extensive knowledge and skills, has prepared and shaped countless young people from diverse backgrounds for their future lives over the years . ' I don't think you can say anything better about a teacher. "

German-speaking refugees

A more comprehensive list can be found in Reisman (2006), p. 474 ff. (See literature).

  • Licco Amar , Hungarian violinist. Music teacher at the Ankara Conservatory from 1934 to 1957, returned to West Germany
  • Fritz Arndt , chemist, refugee in Istanbul since 1935 (previously there from 1915 to 1918), numerous technical publications in Turkish and German from 1935 to 1942, returned to Hamburg in 1955
  • Erich Auerbach , Romanist, Istanbul 1936 to 1947
  • Fritz Baade , economist and politician, Ankara 1935 to 1946
  • Rudolf Belling , sculptor, Istanbul 1937 to 1966
  • Paul Bonatz , architect, fled to Turkey in 1943, until 1954 at the İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi
  • Clemens Bosch , ancient historian and numismatist, Istanbul from 1935 to 1955
  • Hugo Braun , hygienist and bacteriologist, Istanbul 1934 to 1949
  • Leo Brauner , botanist, Istanbul 1933 to 1955
  • Friedrich Ludwig Breusch (1903–1983), chemist, Istanbul 1937 to 1971
  • Ernst Wolfgang Caspari , geneticist and zoologist, Istanbul from 1935
  • Harry Dember , physicist, Istanbul University 1933 to 1942, then USA
  • Friedrich Dessauer , biophysicist, radiologist and politician
  • Herbert Dieckmann , Romance studies, Turkey 1934 to 1938, then USA
  • Liselotte Dieckmann , literary scholar and Germanist, Turkey 1934 to 1938, then USA
  • Josef Dobretsberger , Austrian politician and lawyer, Istanbul and Cairo 1938 to 1945
  • Wolfram Eberhard , California, sinologist at the University of Ankara 1937 to 1948, then USA
  • Carl Ebert , actor, director and artistic director, England 1933 to 1939, Ankara from 1939 to 1948, State Conservatory and State Theater, then USA
  • Albert Eckstein , pediatrician, 1935–1949 Ankara
  • Herbert Eckstein , urologist and pediatric surgeon, as a child and professionally in Turkey from 1958 to 1961, son of Albert Eckstein
  • Ernst Engelberg , historian, from 1941 to 1947 at the Istanbul Foreign Language School
  • Erich Frank , doctor, active professor in Istanbul from 1933 until his death, state funeral by the Turkish government
  • Erwin Freundlich , astrophysicist, founder of the Astronomical Institute in Istanbul, 1933 to 1937, then Prague and the USA
  • Traugott Fuchs , Germanist, painter, in Turkey from 1934 to 1997
  • Hilda Geiringer , mathematician, in Istanbul from 1934 to 1939, professor at the Mathematics Institute set up by Richard von Mises, then USA
  • Hans Gustav Güterbock , Hittiteologist, in Ankara from 1935 to 1948
  • Felix Michael Haurowitz , Prague, since 1939 professor and head of the Biochemical Institute in Istanbul until 1948, then USA
  • Alfred Heilbronn , botanist, 1933–1955 in Turkey until his retirement
  • Reginald Oliver Herzog , chemist, moved to Turkey in 1933
  • Franz Hillinger , architect, from 1937 to 1956 Turkey, a. a. Employee of Bruno Taut
  • Arthur R. von Hippel , physicist, in Istanbul from 1933 to 1935; at the University of Istanbul in 1934, on to Copenhagen in 1935 and to the USA in 1936 and the following years
  • Paul Hindemith , German violist and modern composer, founder of the Conservatory in Ankara, 1935 to 1938 in Turkey, then Switzerland, USA
  • Ernst Eduard Hirsch , lawyer, wrote the Turkish Commercial Code and established a copyright law there, Istanbul from 1933, Ankara from 1943
  • Julius Hirsch (* 1892 in Hamburg - 1963), bacteriologist and hygienist at the University of Istanbul from 1933 to 1948, also director of the University's Hygiene Institute, from 1948 in Switzerland
  • Clemens Holzmeister , architect, exile 1940 to 1950 (teaching position) or 1954 residency remigration. Planned numerous government buildings in Ankara, including the parliament building. In 2008 a street in Ankara was named after him.
  • Richard Honig , lawyer, criminal lawyer, Istanbul University from 1933 to 1939, then USA
  • Josef Igersheimer (1879–1965), professor of ophthalmology, from November 30, 1933 to 1939 Istanbul, then USA (Boston)
  • Alfred Isaac (1888–1956), economist, with Röpke founder of the Istanbul Economic Institute
  • Alfred Kantorowicz , dentist, professor in Istanbul and Ankara from 1934 to 1948
  • Gerhard Kessler , sociologist and economist, exiled from 1933 to 1951, founded the country's first trade union with a Turkish colleague
  • Curt Kosswig , biologist. In Istanbul since 1937. State act of the Turkish government in Istanbul for burial
  • Walther Kranz , classical philologist and historian of philosophy, 1943 to 1950 Istanbul
  • Fritz Rudolf Kraus , Assyriologist, in Istanbul from 1937 to 1949, then in Vienna and Leiden
  • Benno Landsberger , Assyriologist, 1935 to 1948 in Ankara, then Chicago
  • Marianne Laqueur , computer scientist, exile since 1935
  • Kurt Laqueur , Kırşehir and Istanbul 1936 to 1952, later diplomat
  • Wilhelm Liepmann (1878–1939), professor of gynecology and obstetrics in Berlin, then Spain and from 1933 in Turkey
  • Werner Lipschitz (1892–1948), pharmacologist, 1933–1938 in Istanbul, then USA
  • Hans Marchand , English and Romance scholar, linguist, lived in Istanbul from 1933 to 1953
  • Alfred Marchionini , dermatologist, at the Numune Hastanesi Hospital in Ankara
  • Eduard Melchior (born March 13, 1883 Dortmund, died 1974 Scesana-Vira, Gambarogno ) surgeon, 1936–1954 at the Ankara Numune Hastanesi Hospital and from 1946 also at the Ankara Medical Faculty; 1954 Jugenheim ; from 1966 Switzerland
  • Max Meyer , ENT doctor from 1935 to 1940 director of the Department of Otolaryngology at Numune Hastanesi Ankara until 1947 the ENT Department of the University of Tehran appointed
  • Richard von Mises , mathematician, in Turkey from 1933 to 1939, then in the USA
  • Fritz Neumark , finance scientist, wrote the law on income tax . In Istanbul September 1933 to 1950
  • Rudolf Nissen , surgeon, University of Istanbul 1933 to 1939, then USA and Switzerland
  • Siegfried Oberndorfer , pathologist, Institute for General and Experimental Pathology in Istanbul, Turkey 1933 until his death in 1944
  • Gustav Oelsner , architect, town planner and construction officer, Turkey 1939 to 1949
  • Berta Ottenstein , dermatologist, Turkey 1935 to 1945, lecturer and head of the dermatological clinic at Istanbul University
  • Richard Peters, journalist and author, later USA.
  • Wilhelm Peters , first in England, then in Istanbul from 1937 to 1952 until his retirement. Founder of the University's Psychological Institute
  • Ernst Praetorius , conductor and music historian
  • William Prager , applied mathematician, 1933 to 1940 (Technical) University of Istanbul, then USA, Switzerland
  • Paul Pulewka , pharmacist and toxicologist, worked for the Ministry of Health from 1935 to 1946, then at Ankara University until 1954
  • Hans Reichenbach , physicist and philosopher, Istanbul 1933 to 1938, then USA
  • Margarethe Reininger b. Glasses (* 1896 Vienna; † 1959 Maryland), wife of Walter Reininger, Austrian, X-ray nurse at the Radiological Institute of Istanbul University 1938 to 1948, then USA
  • Walter Reininger (* 1899 Vienna; † 1968), husband of Margarethe Reininger, engineer at the Institute for Radiology and Biophysics of the Medical Faculty of the University of Istanbul 1938 to 1948, onward journey to the USA
  • Ernst Reuter , Turkey 1935 to 1946, later Governing Mayor of Berlin
  • Edzard Reuter , with his father Ernst Reuter in Turkey from 1935 to 1946, from 1987 to 1995 Chairman of the Board of Management of Daimler-Benz AG
  • Rosa Maria Rössler (* 1901 Vienna; † 1954 Turkey), pathologist from Vienna, 1934 to Turkey, 1937 Institute for Pathological Anatomy of the University of Istanbul, 1947 II. Clinic for Internal Medicine with Erich Frank,
  • Wilhelm Röpke , neoliberal economist, taught at Istanbul University from 1933 and in Geneva from winter 1937/38
  • Georg Rohde , Chair of Classical Philology in Ankara from 1935 to 1949
  • Hans Rosenberg , physicist and astronomer, 1934 to 1937 USA, then to Turkey
  • Walter Ruben , Indologist, Ankara and Kırşehir from 1935 to 1948, then Chile
  • Alexander Riistow , neoliberal sociologist and economist, from 1933 to 1949 University of Istanbul
  • Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky , architect, Istanbul 1938 to 1941, then arrested in Vienna, survived the high treason proceedings before the People's Court thanks to a forged letter from her husband Wilhelm Schütte , a ministerial employee in Turkey
  • Philipp Schwartz , doctor, Turkey 1933 to 1953, then USA
  • Andreas Bertalan Schwarz , legal scholar, University of Istanbul since 1933, until retirement
  • Max Sgalitzer (* 1884 Prague; † 1973 Princeton / USA), radiologist, head of the Radiological Institute at the University of Istanbul from 1938 to 1943 as successor to Dessauer, then USA
  • Karl Süssheim , also Süssheim , orientalist and historian, after German concentration camp imprisonment from 1941 until his death in 1947 in Istanbul
  • Leo Spitzer , Romanist, Turkey 1933 to 1936, then USA
  • Bruno Taut , architect, in Istanbul from 1936 until his death in 1938
  • Andreas Tietze , Turkologist, in Istanbul from 1937 to 1958, among other things as a language teacher, then UCLA , and later return to the University of Vienna
  • Robert Vorhoelzer , architect, from 1939 to 1941 in Istanbul (successor to Bruno Taut), expelled after allegations of espionage
  • Martin Wagner , in Turkey since 1935, in the USA from 1938
  • Edith Weigert , psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, worked as a psychoanalyst in Ankara from 1935 to 1938, then moved to Washington DC, where she also worked practically and was involved in the institutionalization of psychoanalysis and the teaching of psychoanalysis. Wife of:
  • Oscar Weigert , administrative lawyer and labor rights expert, government advisor in the Turkish Ministry of Commerce from 1935 to 1938, then professor at the American University in Washington DC and a civil servant in the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the US Department of Labor
  • Carl Weisglass (born December 13, 1898 in Vienna, † January 1987 in New York). Graduated engineer, Austrian of Jewish faith, head of the workshop of the Radiological Institute of the University of Istanbul 1939 to 1948, then USA, with his wife Valerie Weisglass
  • Hans Wilbrandt , agricultural expert, in Ankara from 1934 to 1952, founded the Turkish cooperative system
  • Hans Winterstein , physiologist, Istanbul from 1933 until his retirement in 1953, founder of the Physiological Institute
  • Eduard Zuckmayer , musician and music teacher, from 1936 until his death in 1972 in Ankara, founded the academy for music teachers there


“In gratitude to the Turkish people who, under the leadership of President Ataturk , gave refuge to German university teachers at their academic institutions from 1933 to 1945 . On behalf of the German people, Richard von Weizsäcker, President of the Federal Republic of Germany, May 29, 1986. "

- Memorial plaque at the entrance to the University of Istanbul

See also


  • Istanbul Üniversitesi: Açiliş dersleri 1933/1934 ve 1934/1935. (Inaugural lectures, including several German lecturers) Ihsan, Istanbul 1935. In Turkish language
  • Horst Widmann: Exile and educational aid. German-speaking emigration to Turkey after 1933. With a bio-bibliography of the emigrated university professors in the appendix Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1973, ISBN 3-261-00731-1 .
    • in Turkish: Ataturk ve University Reformu Translator Aykut Kazancigil. Kabalcı Yayınevi, Istanbul 2000, ISBN 975-8240-27-7
  • Klaus-Detlev Grothusen (ed.): The Scurla report. Report of the Upper Government Council Dr. rer. pole. Herbert Scurla from the Foreign Department of the Reich Ministry of Education in Berlin on his business trip to Ankara and Istanbul from May 11th - 25th 1939: "The Activity of German University Teachers in Turkey 1933-1939" Dağyeli, Frankfurt 1987. Series of publications by the Center for Turkish Studies, volume 3 (New edition see: Faruk Şen et al., 2007).
    • ders .: The immigration of German Scientists to Turkey after 1933. in: Belleten. Türk Tarih Kurumu - Turkish Historical Society Review 1981; 45, pp. 537-550 ISSN  0041-4255
  • Jan Cremer & Horst Przytulla: Exile Turkey. German-speaking emigrants in Turkey 1933–1945 2. Erw. Ed. Lipp, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-87490-843-7 Bilingual German-Turkish
  • Stanford Shaw : Turkey and the Holocaust. Turkey's role in rescuing Turkish and European Jewry from Nazi persecution 1933-1945 Review: the book is described as apologetic (Rother is of the opinion that Shaw is glossing over the role of T.)
  • Philipp Schwartz: Notgemeinschaft. On the emigration of German scientists to Turkey after 1933 Ed. & Einl. Helge Peukert . Metropolis, Marburg 1995, ISBN 3-89518-038-6 .
  • Anne Dietrich: Being German in Istanbul. Nationalization and orientation in the German-speaking community from 1843 to 1956 Leske & Budrich (renamed: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften), Opladen 1998, ISBN 3-8100-2188-1 (series of publications by the Center for Turkish Studies 13), also Diss. Rer. soc. Univ. Tubingen 1996.
  • Bernd Nicolai: Modernity and Exile. German-speaking architects in Turkey 1925–1955 Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1998 (also Habil. TU Berlin 1996) ISBN 3-345-00642-1 .
    • dsb .: Bruno Taut's revision of modernity. Stratigraphies from the Turkish exile 1936 - 1938. In Hermann Haarmann (Hrsg.): Innen-Leben. Views from exile. Fannei & Walz, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-927574-34-1 , pp. 41-55.
  • Cem Dalaman: Turkey in its modernization phase as a land of refuge for German exiles Berlin, Freie Univ., Diss., 1998 (digital version: see web links / archive server of the German National Library)
  • Aras Ören : Privatexil, a program? Three lectures on Cem Dalaman. Tuebingen poetics lectureship. Bankruptcy book, Tübingen 1999, ISBN 3-88769-711-1 .
  • Active Museum Association (ed.): Haymatloz. Exile in Turkey 1933–1945 Exhibition catalog, Berlin 2000. Large format, without register, 235 p. Also available on CD. New version of the exhibition from 2009, for the first time in Hamburg: Alfred Toepfer Foundation FVS
    • Turkish short version: Haymatloz. Özgür lie giden yol. Translated from Ülkü Azrak, 2007 (72 pp.)
  • Kemal Bozay : Exile Turkey. A research contribution on German-speaking emigration to Turkey (1933–1945) Lit, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-8258-5103-6 (out of print; readable online).
  • Arnold Reisman: Turkey's Modernization. Refugees from Nazism and Ataturk's Vision New Academia, Washington DC 2006, ISBN 0-9777908-8-6 (English, previous text from 2004 as abstract here under web links)
  • Friedrich Stadler (Ed.): Displaced reason. Emigration and exile of Austrian science 1930–1940. Series: Emigration - Exile - Continuity. Writings on contemporary cultural and scientific research. 2 volumes. 2nd edition each. Lit, Münster 2004. Volume 1: ISBN 3-8258-7372-2 ; Volume 2: ISBN 3-8258-7373-0 (also on Nissen, Hirsch, Neumark).
  • Fritz Neumark : Refuge on the Bosporus. German scholars, politicians and artists in emigration 1933–1953. Verlag Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main, 1980, ISBN 3-7820-0443-4 .
  • Georg Stauth , Faruk Birtek (ed.): Istanbul. Spiritual wanderings from the “World in Shards” Transcript, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89942-474-4 (especially about Traugott Fuchs and Hellmut Ritter , who is not one of the refugees after 1933)
  • Faruk Şen, Dirk Halm (Red.): Exile under the crescent moon and the star. (With) Herbert Scurla's report on the activities of German university lecturers in Turkey during the Nazi era Klartext, Essen 2007, ISBN 3-89861-768-8 (Scurla was an active Nazi, later a GDR functionary; some of his questions to the emigrants in Ph. Schwartz 1995. His report here p. 31-92. See also above: Grothusen 1987) Several short biographies & complete list of names in the appendix (Turkish version in English review see web links: Online-Zs. Turkofamerica)
  • Christopher Kubaseck, Günter Seufert (Ed.): German Scientists in Exile in Turkey: The Science Migration to Turkey 1933-1945 (Series: Istanbul Texts and Studies, Ed. Orient-Institut Istanbul, Volume 12) Ergon, Würzburg 2008, ISBN 978- 3-89913-665-4 .
  • Corry Guttstadt: Turkey, the Jews and the Holocaust . Association A, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-935936-49-1 (For a detailed online review, see Stanford Shaw above) (Statement: The refugees were accepted solely out of Turkish self-interest.)
  • Hans-Joachim Dahms: Turkey as a destination for academic emigration from Austria. An overview . In: Friedrich Stadler (Ed.): Displaced reason. Emigration and exile of Austrian science 1930–1940. Volume 2nd row: Emigration, Exile, Continuity. Writings on contemporary cultural and scientific research, 2nd 2nd edition. Lit, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-8258-7373-0 (deviating from the title: also about the Germans Nissen, Hirsch, Neumark)
  • Philipp Gaier: The German-speaking academic emigration to Turkey and its social environment. The “German-German” relationship in Turkey 1933–1945. Grin, (Munich) 2008 ISBN 3-638-93641-4
  • Michael Egger: Austrian scientists in emigration in Turkey from 1933 to 1946. Unprinted diploma thesis at the University of Graz 2010.
  • Caris-Petra Heidel (Ed.): Jewish Medicine - Jewish in Medicine - Medicine of the Jews? Series: Medicine and Judaism, 10. Mabuse, Frankfurt 2010, ISBN 3-940529-85-0 therein on this lemma:
    • Gerald Kreft, Ulrich Lilienthal: "... beşeriyetin ezeli ve lâyetegayyer ahlâkî gayesi ... the eternal and unchangeable moral goal of humanity ..." Philipp Schwartz: Three lectures in Istanbul (1936–1944). Pp. 235-255
    • Gerhard Gaedicke: A Jewish doctor from Germany as a modernizer of academic medicine in Turkey. Erich Frank's work at Istanbul University. Pp. 255-264
  • Gerald Kreft: " Dedicated to Represent the True Spirit of the German Nation in the World": Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977), Founder of the Notgemeinschaft. In: In Defense of Learning. The Plight, Persecution, and Placement of Academic Refugees, 1933-1980s. Edited by Shula Marks, Paul Weindling and Laura Wintour. The British Academy, Oxford Academy Press 2011, pp. 127-142.
    • Gerald Kreft: Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977) - Zurich and the Emergency Association of German Scientists Abroad. In: Series of publications by the German Society for the History of Neurology. , 18. Königshausen & Neumann , Würzburg 2012, pp. 101–129.
  • Leonie Breunung, Manfred Walther : Biographical manual of the emigration of German-speaking legal scholars after 1933. Volume 1: Western European states, Turkey, Palestine / Israel, Latin American states, South African Union. E-book (PDF). Verlag Walter de Gruyter , Berlin 2012, ISBN 3-11-025910-9 .
  • Reiner Möckelmann : “Ankara waiting room.” Ernst Reuter: Exile and return to Berlin. Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-8305-3143-2 .
  • Childhood and Youth in Exile - A Generational Issue. (= Exile research. An International Yearbook, 24) Ed. on behalf of the Society for Exile Research Claus-Dieter Krohn, Erwin Rotermund, Lutz Winckler and Wulf Koepke with the collaboration of Inge Hansen-Scharberg, edition text + kritik, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-88377-844-3
  • Silvia Rohde: School years in Ankara. In: Active Museum Association (ed.): Haymatloz. Exile in Turkey 1933–1945 . Exhibition catalog, Verlag wie Hg., Berlin 2000, pp. 80–81.
    • therein: Sabine Hillebrecht: Emigrant children in Ankara. Pp. 112-129
      • revised Barrel: freedom in Ankara. German-speaking children of emigrants in exile in Turkey. In: Childhood and Youth in Exile. A generation issue. (= Exile research. An International Yearbook, 24), ed. on behalf of the Society for Exile Research by Claus-Dieter Krohn, Erwin Rotermund, Lutz Winckler and Wulf Koepke with the collaboration of Inge Hansen-Scharberg. edition text + kritik, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-88377-844-3 , pp. 198–214.

Projects, other media

  • Traveling exhibition “Haymatloz”, see literature: Verein aktivives Museum 2000, revised. 2009
  • School project “Haymatloz” at the Goerdeler-Gymnasium Paderborn goerdeler.lspb.de
  • Refuge on the Bosporus Documentary by Nedim Hazar & Pavel Schnabel , 2001. First broadcast 3sat October 28, 2001 with contemporary witnesses Cornelius Bischoff , literary translator from Turkish, * 1928 (in Istanbul: 1939 to 1949) and Addi Scholz, daughter of Gerhard Kessler , she only lived in Turkey for a short time.
  • One of the few literary appreciations of exile in Turkey was given by the writer Esmahan Aykol . The protagonist of her four novels so far about the Istanbul crime bookseller Kati Hirschel can easily be recognized as the fictional daughter of Ernst Eduard Hirsch , both by name and because of her literary biography .
  • Vanishing point Turkey. A "long night" about the exiles. Author Adolf Stock. This link leads to texts and references (an excerpt from the manuscript) For example Jutta Limbach on Ernst E. Hirsch; Gerhard Ruben on traces left by exiles in the country today. On the site there is a link to the audio file of the entire program (3 hours).
  • Haymatloz. Exile in Turkey . A biographical documentary by Eren Önsöz (director & screenplay) about the German exiles, in which their children or grandchildren tell their family history. 95 min. Original languages ​​German, Turkish (depending on the conversation partner); Subtitles in the other language. Contributors Enver Hirsch , Elisabeth Weber Belling, Munich; Susan Ferenz-Schwartz, Zurich; Kurt Heilbronn, Eschborn and Istanbul; and Engin Bagda, * 1946 Ankara, now Eberstadt (in the same order: descendants of Ernst Eduard Hirsch ; Rudolf Belling ; Philipp Schwartz ; Alfred Heilbronn ; Otto Gerngroß). With family pictures as original recordings from the years of their flight. Funded by the Film- und Medienstiftung NRW . Rental Mindjazz Picture. Cinematography by Andreas Köhler, Hupe Film production, Erik Winker. Trailer (2 min) on the rental site

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Ernst E. Hirsch, lawyer, explains: “By which legal act and at what point in time I lost my German citizenship, I can no longer determine. ... I (have) made no effort to have my German passport, which had expired in spring 1938 at the latest, extended. For either I was already expatriated, as a rumor brought to me with reference to a publication in the German Reichsanzeiger wanted to know; or I had to expect that a “J” and the name “Israel” would be officially entered as an additional first name in my passport in order to brand me in this way. ”In: Als Rechtsgelehrter… 2008, p. 157.
  2. today in the current context often also "haymatlos" with s, for example as a name for cultural events, bars etc.
  3. ^ Stanford J. Shaw: Turkey and the Jews of Europe during World War II
  4. in: Banishment. Records of German writers in exile . Hamburg 1964
  5. Einstein's letter: As honorary president of the world association "OSE" I turn to Your Excellency to allow 40 professors and doctors from Germany to continue their scientific and medical work in Turkey. The persons mentioned above cannot continue to work in Germany because the laws currently in force there do not allow it. The majority of these men have extensive experience, knowledge, and academic merit and could be very useful if relocated to a new country. From a large number of applicants, our association has selected 40 experienced professionals and prominent scholars, and hereby turns to Your Excellency to allow these men to settle in your country so that they can carry out their work. These scientists are ready to work for one year without any remuneration in some of your facilities according to your government's instructions. In supporting this motion, I take the liberty of expressing my hope that if you approve this request, not only will you be performing an act of great humanity, but will also result in benefits for your own country. In English
  6. ^ So in the foreword to Childhood and Youth in Exile - A Generation Issue
  7. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 213
  8. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 200
  9. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 201
  10. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 212
  11. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 209
  12. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 207
  13. Reiner Möckelmann: '' Ankara waiting room. '' P. 83
  14. Whether Zernott or Zernot cannot be clearly proven. In Möckelmann, see above, and other sources, the name is only written with a “t” at the end. The following biographical information is based on the essay by Sabine Hillebrecht: Freiheit in Ankara. Pp. 204-205
  15. Reiner Möckelmann: Ankara waiting room. P. 83
  16. Sabine Hillebrecht points out that Ms. Kudret also taught “Reichsdeutsche children”, but that she made sure that they were strictly separated from the children of the emigrants. Freedom in Ankara , p. 205
  17. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 205
  18. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 204
  19. Reiner Möckelmann: Ankara waiting room. P. 83
  20. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 204
  21. Crucial sentences from teachers: Edzard Reuter about his teacher Mrs. Kudret
  22. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 206, and Reiner Möckelmann: '' Waiting room Ankara. '' P. 84
  23. They were called "haymatloz"
  24. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 208
  25. ^ Sabine Hillebrecht: Freedom in Ankara. P. 208
  26. Quoted from Sabine Hillebrecht: Freiheit in Ankara. P. 209.
  27. Active Museum Association (ed.): Haymatloz , p. 81.
  28. Crucial sentences from teachers: Edzard Reuter about his teacher Mrs. Kudret
  29. ↑ Habilitated in Jena in 1925 with plant-physiological and physical-chemical studies on water balance and osmosis. In addition, he was a knowledgeable all-round systematic, a good didactic and committed author of easily reproducible (self) instructions for internship experiments of various degrees of difficulty. He laid the foundation stone for the Istanbul Botanical Institute and headed it. Obituary (PDF) by Hubert Ziegler
  30. He came scientifically from Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt and represented his ideas on the citrate cycle. He completed his habilitation in Freiburg (where he headed the chemistry laboratory at the Ludwig Aschoff Institute) in pathological chemistry, roughly at the same time as Hans Adolf Krebs , and examined the tissue metabolism of fats. See also Nachrichten aus Chemie und Technik , vol. 21, September 1973, p. 423, in the Wiley-VCH Verlag archive
  31. The appropriation of the exile home through photography and film. Lecture by Burcu Doğramacı - Abstract (PDF; 3.7 MB). In detail about AE at Reisman, 2006, in English. The book is partially readable and fully searchable in google books online.
  32. online, pp. 18–20 (place of death Istanbul: incorrect information; PDF; 523 kB)
  33. Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special reference to his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation, Würzburg 1985, pp. 50 and 84-89.
  34. Hirsch studied the oxidation of glucose at the Berlin Institute for Fermentation Trade (Seestraßen Institute in Wedding) and completed his habilitation at the Berlin University. He was thrown out of his position in 1933 and was immediately able to take up a full professorship in Istanbul
  35. Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special reference to his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation, Würzburg 1985, pp. 50 and 64-66.
  36. More details about Liepmann in Rudolf Nissen's autobiography "Helle Blätter, dunkle Blätter" and from Andreas D. Ebert: Jüdische Hochschullehrer at Prussischen Universities 1870-1924. A quantitative study with biographical sketches , Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 3-938304-52-9 , p. 439, note 52.
  37. Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special reference to his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). 1985, pp. 50 and 66-68.
  38. ^ Andreas D. Ebert, Namal: Wilhelm Gustav Liepmann (1878-1939) - expulsion from the first chair for social gynecology at the Berlin University to the University of Istanbul , in: Matthias David, Andreas D. Ebert (ed.): History of Berliners University women's clinics. Structures, people and events inside and outside the Charité , Walter de Gruyter, 2010, pp. 238–250.
  39. until 1934 ao. Prof. in Breslau and chief surgeon at the Wenzel Hancke Hospital there.
  40. In Nissen's autobiography “Helle Blätter, dunkle Blätter” there is a very detailed account of the Istanbul years and a register of persons that enables references to other refugees in Turkey to be made.
  41. a b c d Four Austrians emigrated to the radiological institute of Istanbul University 1938-1948, by Arin Namal.
  42. After his return, Ernst Reuter was defamed by the SED because of his place of exile. In many reports and caricatures he was portrayed as a “shoe shiner” or “Fez bearer” - although the Fez had been banned under Ataturk in 1925. He was also accused of having his passport extended by Ambassador Franz von Papen .
  43. Information about Edith Weigert in the Biographical Lexicon of Psychoanalysts
  44. Short name: BERL 4 Information about Weigert's wife Edith Weigert-Vowinckel ; Jochen Oltmer: Migration and Politics in the Weimar Republic , V&R , Göttingen 2005. S. 382 , note 49.
  45. Available in the exile archive of the DNB ; also in electronic form. The table of contents can be viewed
  46. only about Germans, not about Austrians.
  47. Cf. aktivives-museum.de The CD z. B. at the German National Library , Shoah reading room.
  48. only 100 pages, very brief, but an extremely expensive book. Table of contents can be viewed at an online provider.
  49. Hillebrecht's essays are almost the only publications that deal with the situation of German-speaking emigrant children in exile in Turkey.