Philipp Schwartz

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Philipp Schwartz (born July 19, 1894 in Werschetz , Austria-Hungary , today in Serbia ; died December 1, 1977 in Fort Lauderdale , USA ) was an Austrian pathologist . He was a professor at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main (1927 to 1933), in Turkey head of the pathology department at the University of Istanbul and organizer of the rebuilding of the medical faculty there (1933 to 1952) and from 1954 a pathologist at Warren State Hospital in Pennsylvania .


Career until 1933

Schwartz was born in the Banat . He was an Austro-Hungarian soldier in the First World War . After studying medicine in Budapest , he went to Frankfurt am Main in 1919 to the pathological-anatomical institute at the university there as an assistant to Bernhard Fischer . After his habilitation in 1923 Schwartz was appointed private lecturer and in 1927 non-civil servant extraordinary professor for pathology (at the time Germany's youngest professor). At times he also worked at the University of Belgrade.

As a Jewish professor, Schwartz was dismissed without notice on the basis of the “ Law to Restore the Civil Service ” passed on April 7, 1933 .

Emergency community of German scientists abroad

After his release, Schwartz moved with his family to live with his in-laws in Zurich , where his father-in-law Sinai Tschulok ran a private school. Schwartz recognized the hopeless situation of hundreds of German scientists and in April 1933 founded a “Central Advice Center for German Scholars” in Zurich , later known as the Emergency Association of German Scientists Abroad , who had their offices in a building that is now used by the Rämibühl Cantonal School .

Schwartz very soon made contact with Turkey , because he had learned that the Geneva education professor Albert Malche had been tasked with analyzing and analyzing the Turkish higher education system on behalf of Turkish President Kemal Ataturk and his education minister Reşit Galip since 1932 to reform. The aim was to re-establish the universities based on the western model. But only some of the previous professors were suitable for this. According to Turkish sources, 157 of the 240 university lecturers were dismissed, including 71 professors and professors, so that European university teachers were in demand.

On July 5, 1933 Schwartz came to Istanbul, where he was received by Kerim Erim, the dean of the natural science faculty, and then traveled to Ankara. During his visit to Ankara on July 6, Schwartz was able to convince the Minister of Education, Reșit Galip, that there were enough qualified candidates who had to leave the German Reich so that 30 full professorships could be filled in Istanbul via the “emergency community”. On July 7th, a second meeting with Galip took place in Ankara, who informed Schwartz of Kemal Ataturk's satisfaction with the outcome of the conference and of the planned opening of the new university on August 1st. Schwartz, who, at the request of the Turkish government, should conclude the employment contracts with the German professors as quickly as possible and return to Turkey, reported on the talks in his publication Notgemeinschaft . Schwartz went back to Switzerland, made contact with professors from Zurich, received commitments from those imprisoned in concentration camps (including Alfred Kantorowicz ) and came back to Turkey on July 25, where he gave Galip a list of those for the Professors assigned to professors at the new Istanbul University . Also there was the surgery professor Rudolf Nissen who came to Istanbul instead of Ferdinand Sauerbruch , who was also invited by the Turkish government, who was not available in Berlin .

After Galip's resignation in August 1933, his acting successor until Bayur took office on October 27, 1933, Refik Saydam , Schwartz and Nissen confirmed the validity of all signed contracts. The two professors then returned to Zurich.

In the academic year 1933/34, 42 German professors started their work at the University of Istanbul - from Arndt (head of the chemical institute) to Winterstein (head of the physiological institute). According to Schwartz, who had arrived by ship on October 27, the contracted professors with their families and assistants arrived in Istanbul from October to November 1933 - a total of 150 people. A Turkish source puts the total number of foreign professors from 1933 to 1953 at 220, including 166 Germans, most of whom were emigrants.

Schwartz, appointed full professor at Istanbul University by Turkey in 1933, took over the Institute of Pathology at the Faculty of Medicine in October 1933.

Career and appreciation after 1945

In 1951 Schwartz was awarded the title of full professor at the Goethe University in Frankfurt in the course of reparation , but initially he did not get a position - a fate that he shared with the pedagogue Hans Weil , who was expelled from Frankfurt in 1933 . For a few months in 1953, however, he worked at the Pathological-Anatomical Institute in Frankfurt, where he had already worked as an assistant, before moving to the USA a few months later. There he was employed as a pathologist at Warren State Hospital in Pennsylvania in 1954 and received (according to Doyum) the position of director.

In 1957 he tried to return to the Goethe University. However, the medical faculty refused him a professorship, stating that at 63 he was too old. “Schwartz's academic merits and his close ties to Frankfurt have apparently hardly been noticed by the faculty. Schwartz tried several times to get a job in Frankfurt. Without success. Philipp Schwartz was last in Frankfurt in 1972, during which he also visited the dean, who later congratulated him on the 50th anniversary of his habilitation. Apparently Schwartz was never invited to a guest lecture or lecture. The argument that Schwartz was too old at 63 seems very strange. "Winkelmann suspects that Schwartz's age was not the actual reason for his non-appointment, and draws attention to another exclusion:" The Frankfurt Medical Society has on May 8, 2002 a memorial meeting under the heading “Philipp Schwartz (1894-1977) and the emigration. The Frankfurt Medical Faculty during and after the Nazi era ' . When the Senckenberg Institute for the History of Medicine wanted to refer to this meeting in the clinic's internal news paper, the dean at the time refused to do so without giving any reason. ”On the other hand, at Frankfurt University there was less fear of contact with members of the Nazi regime. This is shown, among other things, by the career of radiation researcher Boris Rajewsky . And so it is not surprising that in Notker Hammerstein's two-volume work on the history of the Goethe University ( The Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main ) the subject of the return of university members expelled by the Nazis is hardly mentioned. The name Philipp Schwartz appears exactly once on almost 2000 pages. With reference to the emergency community , it says: “It was from the extraordinary professor of general pathology PHILIPP SCHWARTZ,› a Hungarian Jew ‹, who was expelled from Frankfurt, together with the Swiss professor ALBERT MALCHE, who organized the placement of German scholars at the Istanbul University, was launched. "

Schwartz suspected that his work for emigrants in Germany would not do him credit. In a quote from his biographer, Gerald Kreft, he said in 1972 as follows: “I do not want to fail to point out that my work as the founder and developer of an emigre organization in Germany not only during the Hitler regime, but also after its collapse as a was considered hostile to Germany. "

Philipp Schwartz died on December 1, 1977 in Florida . After his wife also died in Zurich, his daughter, the Zurich psychiatrist Susan Ferenz-Schwartz, had Philipp Schwartz's urn transferred to Zurich. The couple's grave is in the Fluntern cemetery in Zurich .


Fonts (selection)

  • Patolojik Anatomi. Translated by Muhiddin Erel. Istanbul 1939.
  • İnsan Akciğer Veremi Bilgisine Giriş. [Introduction to pulmonary tuberculosis knowledge] Translated by Muhittin Erel. Istanbul 1940 (= İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları. Volume 129).
  • with Rössler and Mammer Yenerman: Otopsi Tekniği. Istanbul 1944; 2nd edition ibid, 1948.
  • İhtiyarlıkta Genel Patoloji Anatomik Patoloji. [General pathology and pathological anatomy of old age]. Istanbul 1947.
  • Tüberkülozun Başlangıç ​​Devrinde Reenfeksiyon. [Initial stages of tuberculous reinfection]. Translated by İlhalmi Güneral, Istanbul 1949.
  • Emergency community. On the emigration of German scientists to Turkey after 1933. Edited and introduced by Helge Peukert . Metropolis, Marburg 1995, ISBN 3-89518-038-6 .


  • Reiner Möckelmann (Ed.): "Exile and educational reform: German law professors in Turkey from 1933". Discussion evening at the German Consulate General in Istanbul on November 29, 2005 ( PDF; 365 kB )
  • Reiner Möckelmann (Ed.): "Exile and Health Care: German Medical Practitioners in Turkey from 1933." Discussion evening at the German Consulate General in Istanbul on June 8, 2006 ( PDF; 4.2 MB ).
  • Gerald Kreft: "... commissioned to represent the true spirit of the German nation in the world." Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977) and the doctors' emigration to Turkey after 1933. In: Albrecht Scholz, Caris-Petra Heidel (ed.): The fates of emigrants. The influence of emigrants on social policy and science in the host countries (= medicine and Judaism. Volume 7). Mabuse, Frankfurt am Main 2004, pp. 99-113.
  • Gerald Kreft: " Dedicated to Represent the True Spirit of the German Nation in the World": Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977), Founder of the Notgemeinschaft. In: Shula Marks, Paul Weindling , Laura Wintour (eds.): In Defense of Learning. The Plight, Persecution and Placement of Academic Refugees 1933-1980s (= Proceedings of the British Academy. Volume 169). Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011, ISBN 978-0-19-726481-2 , pp. 127-142.
  • Gerald Kreft, Ulrich Lilienthal: "... beşeriyetin ezeli ve lâyetegayyer ahlâkî gayesi ..." / "... the eternal and immutable moral goal of mankind ..." Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977): Three lectures in Istanbul (1936–1944). In: Caris-Petra Heidel (Ed.): Jewish Medicine - Jewish in Medicine - Medicine of the Jews? (= Medicine and Judaism. Volume 10). Mabuse, Frankfurt am Main 2011, pp. 235-254 (corrected version: Corrigendum ).
  • Gerald Kreft: Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977): Zurich and the Emergency Association of German Scientists Abroad. In: Series of publications by the German Society for the History of Neurology. Volume 18, Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2012, pp. 101–129.
  • Gerald Kreft: Employee - Admirer - Lifesaver. Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977) in the environment of the Frankfurt Neurological Institute. In: documenta naturae. Volume 2, No. 192, (Munich) 2013, pp. 141–157.
  • Otto Winkelmann: "Refuse for reasons of age". The pathologist Philipp Schwartz (1894–1977) and the Frankfurt Medical Faculty. In: Hessisches Ärzteblatt. Volume 12 (2005), p. 862 f. ( PDF; 2.39 MB ).
  • Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special consideration of his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation, Würzburg 1985, pp. 44-50, 75-77 and 149.
  • Jörn Kobes: "... the eternally clean blue sky of Istanbul ..." The path of Frankfurt scientists into exile in Turkey (1933-1945) , in: Jörn Kobes and Jan-Otmar Hesse (eds.): Frankfurt scientists between 1933 and 1945 , Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8353-0258-7 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special consideration of his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation Würzburg 1985.
  2. a b Otto Winkelmann: “reject for reasons of age” , pp. 862–863
  3. ^ Notker Hammerstein: The Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt am Main. From the Foundation University to the State University , Volume I, 1914 to 1950, Alfred Metzner Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1989, ISBN 3-472-00107-0 , pp. 433-434
  4. Quoted from Brigitte Hürlimann: The legacy of Philipp Schwartz
  5. Brigitte Hürlimann : The legacy of Philipp Schwartz. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , February 23, 2013, p. 37.