|List of states|
|State motto:||In God we trust|
|Official language :||English|
|Residents:||20,984,400 (2017 estimated) (121 U / km²)|
|Member since:||March 3, 1845|
UTC − 5 ( EST )
UTC − 4 (daylight saving time)
West. of the Apalachicola River
UTC − 6 ( CST )
UTC − 5 (daylight saving time)
|The highest point:||105 m ( Britton Hill )|
|Average Height:||30 m|
|Deepest point:||0 m Atlantic Ocean|
|Governor :||Ron DeSantis ( R )|
|Post / Office / ISO||FL / FLA / US-FL|
Florida (pronunciation American-English [ ˈflɔːɹɪdə ] , also [ ˈflɑːɹɪdə ]; Spanish. [ Floˈɾiða ]) is a state in the southeast of the United States of America . It is known as the Sunshine State , the sunshine state. The peninsula of the same name was discovered by the Spanish explorers during Easter and named after it: Easter is also called Pascua Florida in Spanish . The emblematic animal of Florida is the Florida panther . The capital of the state is Tallahassee .
Florida consists of the Florida Peninsula and the mainland Florida Panhandle and is located in the southeastern United States. The Atlantic Ocean lies on the east coast and the Gulf of Mexico on the west and south coast .
The state has a chain of islands at the southern end, the islands of which are called "Keys". The most famous are the Florida Keys , which are connected by 42 bridges. Key West is at the end of this chain of islands . From there it is only 140 kilometers to Cuba. Key West is also the southernmost point of the continental United States .
With a total area of 170,304 km², Florida ranks 22nd among the states. 30,634 km² (17.99%) of the national territory are water bodies.
Extension of the national territory
The Florida continental shelf is a more than 700 km long bulge on the North American continent. The Florida peninsula is the overseas part of this bulge, the panhandle belongs to the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico. The deep subsoil is composed of Precambrian volcanic rocks, sedimentary rocks from the Devonian and later volcanic rocks from the Triassic and Jurassic . Above it lie young sedimentary rocks from all periods between the Jurassic and the Holocene . Formative structure is limestone which is predominantly highly porous. The central aquifer, which is important for Florida's fresh water supply, is located in this porous limestone . The chemical erosion on the surface of the limestone leads to karst phenomena .
Florida is particularly hard hit by rising sea levels. In Miami Beach , the sea level has risen by 23 cm since about the 1920s. The rising salt water penetrates the aquifer and has led to the loss of drinking water supplies since the 1990s. In addition, drainage ditches lose their slope towards the sea, so that floodplains can no longer be drained.
Florida is divided into two climatic zones: the northwest region is subtropically humid and the rest is tropically humid. In the period from June to November Florida is often hit by sometimes violent tropical storms ( hurricanes ). Winters are warm with temperatures around 25 ° C. Snow is very rare in Florida.
|Day temperature ° C||18th||20th||23||27||30th||32||33||33||31||27||23||19th||26.3|
|Night temperature ° C||6th||7th||10||14th||18th||21st||23||23||20th||15th||10||7th||14.5|
|Hours of sunshine per day||6th||7th||8th||9||10||8th||8th||8th||6th||7th||6th||6th||7.3|
|Water temperature ° C||17th||17th||18th||20th||23||26th||29||30th||29||27||24||20th||23|
|Day temperature ° C||24||25th||26th||28||30th||31||32||32||31||29||26th||25th||28.2|
|Night temperature ° C||18th||19th||20th||22nd||24||25th||26th||26th||25th||23||20th||19th||22.1|
|Hours of sunshine per day||8th||9||10||11||11||11||10||10||9||9||8th||7th||9.3|
|Water temperature ° C||24||24||24||25th||26th||27||29||30th||29||28||27||25th||27|
|Day temperature ° C||24||25th||26th||28||30th||31||32||33||32||30th||27||25th||28.6|
|Night temperature ° C||15th||15th||18th||19th||22nd||23||25th||25th||24||22nd||19th||16||20.2|
|Hours of sunshine per day||7th||8th||9||10||10||10||10||9||9||9||8th||7th||8.8|
|Water temperature ° C||22nd||22nd||23||25th||27||29||30th||31||30th||28||26th||24||26th|
|Day temperature ° C||24||23||26th||28||31||32||33||33||32||29||26th||23||28.1|
|Night temperature ° C||9||10||13||15th||19th||22nd||23||23||22nd||19th||14th||11||16.6|
|Hours of sunshine per day||6th||7th||8th||10||10||9||9||8th||8th||7th||7th||6th||7.9|
Flora and fauna
In Florida there are mainly subtropical wet forests - consisting mainly of pines and various palm species - which change into tropical vegetation forms in the extreme south and on the southern coastal areas - here are mainly the bald cypress forests, the "tropical forest islands" in the Everglades swamps (hammocks) and the mangrove forests on the coast. In the interior of the country, the forests form partly open areas, which are referred to as “ prairies ”, although they contain not only grasses but also a high proportion of woodland. The state's biodiversity and biodiversity are among the highest in the United States.
In the sometimes still largely unspoiled landscapes have over fifty from extinction threatened species their homes, including the Caribbean manatee , the leatherback , Kemp's ridley sea turtle and loggerhead turtle and the American crocodile in the waters, the mammals Florida panther (Puma subspecies), Key - Whitetail deer and Florida bulldog bat, as well as numerous species of birds including the bald eagle .
Florida is one of the world's hotspots for invasive alien species introduced by humans. These include the mugwort ragweed , the Asian ladybird or the dark tiger python in the Everglades. The proximity of the natural areas to the densely populated coastal cities with plenty of tourism and trade favors this development. Not all newcomers are necessarily harmful. In Florida, however, there are a number of species that have become a major threat to the endangered native species. The python in particular has multiplied enormously in South Florida and (as of 2015) destroyed up to 99 percent of the existing possums , raccoons and marsh rabbits . From Southeast Asia native snake was probably abandoned by private snake holders, as an import and sale of constrictors in Florida were still legal. In view of the problem, this has now been banned. Today the water authority pays a premium for every python hunted. In view of the suspected 30,000 animals, however, this is a hopeless fight.
1900–1990 2000 2010
Florida has 21.47 million inhabitants (as of July 2019), of which 77.3% are white (26.1% Hispanics and Latinos ), 16.9% African-American , 3.0% Asian-American . Based on population estimates from the United States Census Bureau, Florida overtook New York state and became the third most populous state in the United States in 2014. The two states with larger populations are California and Texas .
The population of Florida mainly belongs to various Protestant churches . However, the proportion of Catholics is increasing rapidly, mainly because of the immigration of immigrants from Cuba , the Dominican Republic and other Latin American countries. In contrast to other southern states in the USA, Florida has a relatively high proportion of Jews at around 4% .
The most important religious communities in 2000:
→ For the colonial history of Florida see also: Spanish Colony Florida
The archaeological site of Windover near Titusville provides important information about the early settlement of Florida. In 1982 the remains of at least 168 bog bodies from the 6th millennium BC were found in Windover there . Chr. Were excavated.
Archaeological finds suggest that Florida had been inhabited for several thousand years before it was discovered by European settlers. The east coast of Florida was discovered in 1513 by the Spaniard Juan Ponce de León . In 1521 Ponce de León - equipped and accompanied by a group of settlers - traveled to Florida again to found a La Florida colony for Spain , which was broken up by the indigenous population. In 1528 the conquistador Pánfilo de Narváez , who hoped to find gold in Florida, explored the west coast of the peninsula, but also failed because of the hostility of the locals. Narváez was shipwrecked, but his officer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca survived and returned to Spain, where he was able to report on the expedition. Hernando de Soto was encouraged to try an invasion again in 1539. Like Narváez, De Soto landed on the west coast and embarked on an extensive expedition through the southeastern part of what is now the United States, but neither gold nor a suitable location for founding a colony was found, so that the Spaniards after De Soto's death Expedition tasks. In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano built a settlement in the Pensacola area , but gave it up again two years later.
Huguenot and Spanish settlements
In 1562 the Frenchman Jean Ribault , who was looking for a possible settlement site for Huguenot emigrants, explored the mouth of the St. Johns River on the east coast of Florida. In 1564 his compatriot René Goulaine de Laudonnière founded the first Huguenot settlement there, Fort Caroline . The Spaniards saw themselves challenged and in 1565 appointed a governor of Florida, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés , who had the French fort demolished that same year and founded 60 km south of San Agustín , the first permanent European settlement on the North American mainland should. From San Agustín the Spaniards began to cover the southeast with a network of Catholic missions .
British and French hostilities
In 1586 San Agustín was attacked and plundered by the English privateer and later Vice Admiral Francis Drake . In the 17th century, English settlers in Virginia and the Carolinas kept trying to push the border of the Spanish colony further south. The French settlers on the lower Mississippi did the same . In 1702 the British colonial governor of South Carolina, Colonel James Moore , had the town of San Agustín destroyed with the help of allied Muskogee Indians; however, he did not succeed in taking the Spanish fort. Two years later, Moore began burning down Spanish missions in northern Florida and killing Indians who were on good terms with the Spanish. In western Florida, the French took the Spanish settlement in Pensacola, which had existed again since 1696, in 1719.
Under British rule
After the Seven Years War , Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain, which in return gave the Spanish control of Havana . This exchange was contractually sealed in the Peace of Paris in 1763 . Up until this point in time, La Florida only covered part of what is now the state of Florida; the southern border was about what is now Gainesville . The British divided the territory into East Florida and West Florida and pursued a consistent settlement policy. They offered the settlers free land and support in setting up export-oriented companies. In order to meet the need for labor, debt servants were brought to Florida in large numbers from Europe . In 1767, the borders of western Florida were expanded so far north that the territory also included the south of what is now the states of Mississippi and Alabama .
Fate of the indigenous people
The natives of Florida died in their thousands after the arrival of the first Spaniards because they were not immune to the diseases they brought in. Entire peoples were wiped out, and it is believed that after the British takeover of Florida, the Spanish brought the few Indians who had survived their Catholic missions to safety in Cuba. In the course of the 18th century, however, the peninsula was repopulated by Indians when parts of the Muskogee, which had fallen apart, began to pour in from the north. As a result of the Yamasee War , many Yuchi and Yamasee refugees also came to Florida. Despite their heterogeneous roots, these Indians were uniformly referred to as " Seminoles ".
Again under Spanish rule
In the American War of Independence , Spain, which was fighting on the French side against the British, regained control of most of western Florida in 1781. In the Peace of Paris (1783) , all of Florida was restored to Spain. There was no significant Spanish settlement afterwards, but the settlement policy of the Spaniards attracted migrants, especially from the United States. Florida also became a haven for slaves who escaped from the southern states because the Spaniards had promised them freedom if they professed their Catholic faith.
In 1810 British settlers revolted against Spanish rule and on September 23 proclaimed a Free and Independent Republic of West Florida , which, however, only lasted a good ten weeks.
On October 27 of the same year, parts of western Florida were claimed by the United States, which alleged that the region was the subject of the Louisiana Purchase , in which the United States acquired the French colony of Louisiana in 1803 . The surrender of the affected areas, which were subsequently incorporated into the Orleans Territory and the Mississippi Territory , took place in December 1810. After the First Seminole War (1817/1818), in the course of which American troops repeatedly invaded Spanish territory, the USA controlled it entire area of West Florida. Since the British-American War (1812-1814) parts of East Florida were also under American control.
Under American rule
The Americanization of Florida found its conclusion in 1819 with the Adams-Onís Treaty , in which the United States waived land claims in Texas in return . On July 17, 1821, the future US President Andrew Jackson officially took control of Florida in Pensacola. Florida became an Organized Territory on March 30, 1822 . East Florida and West Florida were united, but large parts of West Florida remained attached to the Orleans Territory and the Mississippi Territory. Tallahassee became the new capital of the territory.
As a result of the Indian resettlement , Florida experienced an economic boom in the 1830s . This was also promoted by the debt-financed expansion of the transport routes. In 1840, Florida’s national debt had increased massively. With a debt ratio of 77% of economic output, Florida was at the top of the American states and territories. As a result of the economic crisis of 1837 Florida had to declare state bankruptcy in 1840 and no longer serviced its government bonds .
State of the USA
On March 3, 1845, Florida became the 27th state in the United States. During the Third Seminole War (1855 to 1858), a large part of the remaining Seminoles was forcibly resettled to Indian territory. Under the leadership of Governor Madison S. Perry , Florida left the Union on January 11, 1861 and joined the Confederate States . After the defeat in the American Civil War and the suicide of Governor John Milton , Florida was placed under military occupation law as part of the Reconstruction . A new constitution was not drafted until 1868, and on June 25, 1868 it was re-admitted to the Union. The "Reconstruction" ended with the "Compromise of 1877". Florida, South Carolina and Louisiana approved the controversial presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes due to an unclear election result if all US troops were to leave these states at the same time.
The oil magnate Henry Morrison Flagler began the tourist development of Florida in 1885. He was the builder of the railway line on Florida's east coast ( Florida East Coast Railway ). On January 22, 1912, the first train ran to Key West . Flagler created a kind of American Riviera . The Florida rural boom drew tourists and residents from the north to Florida. The boom was stopped by the Miami Hurricane (1926) , the Okeechobee Hurricane (1928) and the Great Depression . The tourism industry was hit hard by the recession. The arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly hit citrus growers and made Florida's economic situation even worse. During the Second World War , the military built many training barracks in Florida due to the strategic location. Florida's economy only recovered after the end of World War II.
In 1947 US President Harry S. Truman declared the Everglades a national park. It was not until 1967 that Florida was forced by the Supreme Court to become one of the last states in the USA to lift the ban on mixed marriages . Since the 1960s, Florida has also been a destination for tens of thousands of immigrants from Central and South America, many of them Cubans . In 1950, 2.7 million people lived in Florida; in 2006/08 there were already more than 18 million. In 2000, a controversial Florida vote count decided the US presidential election . George W. Bush , brother of then Governor Jeb Bush , became the 43rd President of the United States.
Governor and State Government
The governor exercises executive power at the state level, that is, he leads the state government and determines the guidelines of the policy. He has the right to pardons , appoints senior civil servants and judges to the state constitutional court, and plays a central role in lawmaking by signing or vetoing bills. He is also commander in chief of the state's national guard and represents the state externally. The governor is elected directly by the people every four years. Other important members of the executive are the lieutenant governor , the attorney general , the secretary of state and the state treasurer (roughly equivalent to a finance minister).
The legislative power to level the state is determined by the Florida Legislature exercised. It consists of a state senate with 40 directly elected senators and the House of Representatives with 120 directly elected representatives. The terms of office are four or two years. Republicans hold a majority of the seats in both chambers. The seat of the legislature is the Capitol in Tallahassee, the capital of the state.
Florida, like the other southern states , was heavily influenced by the Democrats until the 1950s . Probably because of the immigration policy of the Democrats, which was viewed as too liberal, there was a republican dominance. The increasing urbanization of the 1940s and 1950s gave Republicans a political base in the suburbs, to which many Republican-elected internal migrants from the northeastern United States moved. The Republicans won their first Congressional mandate in Florida since 1880 in the 1954 election in the Tampa Bay Area ( William C. Cramer ) and their second in the 1962 election on the Central Eastern Space Coast with Edward Gurney , who was the first since the Reconstruction in 1968 United States Senate for Florida won. The southern tip of Florida has become a disputed area due to the mass immigration of Cuban exiles who leaned toward Republicans. Republican presidential candidate George HW Bush won Florida by 22 percentage points in the 1988 election , but centrist Democrat Bill Clinton won many of the suburbs in the 1990s, such as Pinellas and Palm Beach Counties , who have been voting for Democrats with increasing frequency since then .
Right now the Republican to Democratic ratio is roughly 1: 1, although Republicans have grown in strength in recent years. The state is changing demographically due to rapid population growth. The groups that make up most of the immigrants in Florida are the so-called Hispanics and the Snow Belt retirees . In their entirety, both groups cannot be clearly assigned to either party. Therefore, immigration to Florida, which has also been able to break away from its image as a sun-drenched agricultural state, does not bring any political camp clear advantages. The very tight results in the presidential elections in Florida in recent years make the state almost unpredictable for the pollsters . In addition to the change from the southern state to the melting pot , the population growth also resulted in an enormous increase in the number of electoral votes. These have increased the most in Florida since the New Deal in relation to the other states of the USA . In 1940 Florida had seven votes, then eight from 1944, ten in 1952, 14 in 1964, and 17 in 1972. The rapid increase in population began in the 1980s when more refugees from Cuba settled in Florida. The numbers developed as follows: 1984, 21 votes; 1992, 25 votes; 2000, 27 votes. Florida moved up from 31st place in the Electoral College to fourth place, which it has held since 1992. In the 1952 presidential election, Florida always voted in favor of the Republicans except for 1964, 1976, 1996, 2008 and 2012. In the presidential elections between 1992 and 2016, the Democrats received a total of 24,140,463 votes, the Republicans 24,122,710, just 17,753 fewer, which is why Florida is now an important swing state at the presidential level, while at the state level most offices are now in Republican hands .
|2016||48.6% 4,617,886||47.4% 4,504,975|
|2012||49.0% 4,163,447||49.9% 4,237,756|
|2008||48.1% 4,046,219||50.9% 4,282,367|
|2004||52.1% 3,964,522||47.1% 3,583,544|
|2000||48.9% 2,912,790||48.8% 2,912,253|
|1996||42.3% 2,244,536||48.0% 2,546,870|
|1992||40.9% 2,173,310||39.0% 2,072,698|
|1988||60.9% 2,618,885||38.5% 1,656,701|
|1984||65.3% 2,730,350||34.7% 1,448,816|
|1980||55.5% 2,046,951||38.5% 1,419,475|
|1976||46.6% 1,469,531||51.9% 1,636,000|
|1972||71.9% 1,857,759||27.8% 718,117|
|1968||40.5% 886,804||30.9% 676,794|
|1964||48.8% 905,941||51.1% 948,540|
|1960||51.5% 795,476||48.5% 748,700|
In Miami , the Liberal Democrats compete with the wealthy Cubans in exile, who are more toward the Republicans. Tampa used to be the center of the Democratic Party, but has become a center for Republicans in recent years. The university city of Tallahassee has become a new powerful center for the Democrats. While the Democrats rely mainly on the Afro-Americans as a reliable group of voters and the Republicans can count on the majority of Latinos , both parties have long sought moderation and centrism in order to win over the voters in the suburbs and the retired. In the 2018 gubernatorial election , on the other hand, instead of the moderate candidates favored by the respective party leaderships, Ron DeSantis and Andrew Gillum , who both belong to the right and left wing of their party and who are using polarization to mobilize their own party base, prevailed.
The death penalty is the fourth most popular in the United States in Florida after Texas , Oklahoma, and Virginia , closely followed by Missouri . Florida has the second highest number in the US after California with 400 convicts. There have been 92 executions since 1976, and between 2010 and 2015 there were 21 executions. (As of January 15, 2016). In relative terms, Florida, with a population of 18,801,310, executed 4.9 people per 1,000,000 population in 2010. (In comparison: Texas 21.1, Oklahoma 29.9, California 0.3)
Culture and sights
Biscayne National Park
Dry Tortugas National Park
Everglades National Park
- Big Cypress National Preserve
- Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve
- Canaveral National Seashore
- Gulf Islands National Seashore
There are also 18 National Natural Landmarks (as of September 30, 2017).
- Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
- Fort Matanzas National Monument
- De Soto National Memorial
- Fort Caroline National Memorial
- Gullah / Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor
In Florida there are several teams in each of the four major leagues. Three teams play in the NFL , the world's most important American football league: the Jacksonville Jaguars , Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the Miami Dolphins , who play their home games at Hard Rock Stadium in Miami Gardens . This is where the Miami Marlins baseball team played before they moved to Marlins Park, which was built on the site of the former Orange Bowl Stadium. Another MLB team are the Tampa Bay Rays from Saint Petersburg . There are also two Florida franchises in the National Hockey League : The Florida Panthers from Sunrise north of Miami and Tampa Bay Lightning . The Orlando Magic basketball team is based in Orlando . You play in the NBA with Miami Heat . The only team in the top US soccer league MLS has been Orlando City since 2015 . He plays his home games at Camping World Stadium in Orlando. In motorsport , Daytona Beach deserves special mention, with its Speed Week and the annual races for the US NASCAR racing series.
Economy and Infrastructure
Florida's economic output was $ 926 billion in 2016, making it the fourth-highest economic output in any state in the United States and accounting for 5.02% of the total American economy. Counted as a separate country, Florida's economic output would roughly correspond to that of Indonesia . The real gross domestic product per capita (English per capita real GDP) was USD 44,964 in 2016 (national average of the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 39). The unemployment rate was 3.6% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).
Florida's climate and the many beaches make it an interesting place to relax for vacationers from all over the world and the retirement home of many Americans. The main season is rather apart from the summer months of June / August because of the unbearably humid weather. The various amusement parks Universal Studios , Islands of Adventure , Busch Gardens and SeaWorld and, last but not least, the Walt Disney World Resort with the parks Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Hollywood Studios (formerly: MGM Studios) and Animal Kingdom near Orlando are great attractions for tourists. In addition, the economy focuses on growing citrus fruits (50% of US consumption) including juice production, there are numerous banks and phosphate is mined.
In the top 10 list of the most beautiful beaches in the USA by the well-known beach tester Stephen Leatherman alias Dr. Beach, Caladesi Island State Park in the Clearwater region of Florida was named the most beautiful beach in the United States in 2008.
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