|Nickname : Cigar City, The Big Guava, Sunshine City|
Images left to right: Downtown Skyline, Amalie Arena, Ybor City, Henry B. Plant Museum, Raymond James Stadium, Busch Gardens Tampa Bay
|County and state location|
|State :||United States|
|County :||Hillsborough County|
|Time zone :||Eastern ( UTC − 5 / −4 )|
- Metropolitan Area :
|377,165 (as of 2016)
3,032,171 (as of 2016)
|Population density :||1,299.2 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area :||441.9 km 2 (approx. 171 mi 2 ) of
which 290.3 km 2 (approx. 112 mi 2 ) are land
|Height :||14.6 m|
|Postcodes :||33601-33626, 33629-33631, 33633-33635, 33637, 33647, 33650-33651, 33655, 33660-33664, 33672-33675, 33677, 33679-33682, 33684-33690, 33694, 33697|
|Area code :||+1 813|
|GNIS ID :||0292005|
|Mayor :||Bob Buckhorn ( D )|
Tampa is a city and also the county seat of Hillsborough County in the US state of Florida with 377,165 inhabitants (as of 2016). Tampa is Florida's third largest city after Jacksonville and Miami . The city on Tampa Bay is part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater (also Tampa Bay Area for short ) with around 3.0 million inhabitants.
Tampa is located at the confluence of the Hillsborough River with Tampa Bay . The southern part of the city protrudes into the bay as a peninsula. The bay is also called Old Tampa Bay west of the peninsula, and Hillsborough Bay east of it . The Davis Islands in Hillsborough Bay form a separate district of Tampa. The Tampa Bypass Canal runs east around Tampa and connects the Hillsborough River with McKay Bay , which is a small indentation of Hillsborough Bay. The open Gulf of Mexico is located around 40 km southwest of the southern tip of Tampa.
According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has an area of approximately 442 km² (170.6 mi² ), of which approximately 290 km² (112.1 mi²) is land mass. The highest point in the city is 15 m (48 ft ).
Tampa borders the city of Temple Terrace to the east and forms a common urban space with it. To the west, on the other side of Tampa Bay, are the cities of Clearwater and St. Petersburg , with which the city is connected by several bridges. Tampa also borders numerous census-designated places .
The climate is subtropical and is given in the Köppen climate classification as Cfa . Summers are warm to hot with high humidity and higher rainfall than in winter. Occasional light night frosts are expected in winter, but do not occur every year. Snowfall is very rare. The mean daily highs are between 21 and 32 ° C, the lows between 11 and 24 ° C. In general, the climate in the south of the city is warmer and more humid than in the north. The highest temperature ever recorded was 37 ° C on June 5, 1985, and the lowest temperature was −8 ° C on December 13, 1962. A significant onset of winter in 1899 was accompanied by larger amounts of snow, which were caused by the lake effect . The last measurable snow (0.5 cm) fell on January 19, 1977 in the city.
The city is often hit by tropical storms due to its location during the hurricane season from June to November . The last direct "hit" of a hurricane was a long time ago and dated to the year 1921. This should change in 2004 according to the forecast models with Hurricane Charley , but he turned east shortly before the forecast shore leave and instead went further south at Punta Gorda on land. The Charley-related evacuation was the largest in the history of the Tampa Bay Area. Several rivers flow into the sea in the area, which makes them particularly vulnerable to flooding. A study by the World Bank in 2013 classified coastal cities according to how threatened they are with flooding. Tampa ranked 7th in the world in terms of estimated total damage.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tampa, Florida
The name Tampa appears in the language of the Calusa indigenous people who settled south of Tampa Bay. It originally meant something like fire rods and probably refers to the thunderstorms that often occur in the region in the summer months. According to the linguist George R. Stewart , the city name goes back to a misunderstanding between Indians and Spaniards. The place was called "itimpi" by the natives, which simply means "near". It was mentioned by the Spaniard Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda , who was imprisoned by the Indians for 17 years, in his memoirs in 1575 as "Tanpa" and described as an important city of the Calusa. The archaeologist Jerald T. Milanich suspects the location of the earlier indigenous city, however, further south in Charlotte Harbor and assumes that a later Spanish expedition did not notice this bay on their voyage along the coast and finally mistook Tampa Bay for the bay described by Fontaneda . Cartographers used the terms Bay or Bahia Tampa at the earliest since 1695.
Little is known about the history of the area prior to first contact with Europeans. When Spanish explorers first arrived in the 1520s, they found a number of Tocobaga tribe settlements in what is now Pinellas County and Tampa in northern Tampa Bay, as well as several Calusa villages in what is now Manatee County in the southern part of the bay . Led by the explorers Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto , several expeditions went in search of gold and the possibility of establishing permanent Spanish settlements. Attempts by immigrants to settle down and proselytize the local population were rejected and fought against. However, the Indians found no remedy for the diseases brought in by the Spaniards. Any indigenous cultures in Florida died out completely in the following years. Since the Spaniards had no livelihood due to unfavorable conditions, the area remained unpopulated for more than 200 years.
In the middle of the 18th century the native Seminoles were pushed back to the north of Florida by the establishment of American colonies by the English . At that time there were few local fishermen and immigrant Cubans living in the Tampa Bay area. They lived in a village that was in what is now the Tampa metropolitan area on Bayshore Boulevard . In 1821 the Spaniards ceded Florida to the United States with the so-called Adams-Onís Treaty, concluded in 1819 , which then established the Florida Territory .
After 1821, the US government built a large number of fortresses and trading posts in the territory, which were supposed to ensure control of the area, which was largely still dominated by wilderness and lawlessness. Was a fortress thereof among other Fort Brooke , the 1824 under the leadership of George Mercer Brooke and James Gadsden at the mouth of the Hillsborough River was built in the Tampa Bay area. In its place is the Tampa Convention Center in downtown Tampa. After the Second Seminole War broke out in 1835, practically the entire population fled the region. It was not until almost seven years later that the first settlers could return after the defeat of the Indians.
Founding of Tampa and Civil War
On March 3, 1845, Florida was declared the 27th state of the United States. Just under four years later, Tampa was officially founded as a Village on January 18, 1849 with 185 residents (excluding the fort's military forces) . The first Tampa census the following year, including military personnel, counted a total of 974 residents. Tampa was promoted to City on December 15, 1855, and in 1856 Judge Joseph B. Lancaster was appointed first mayor of the city.
In January 1862, after the outbreak of the Civil War in Tampa, a state of emergency was declared. Florida became part of the Confederate States of America as the southern state . Tampa served as a warehouse for Confederate troops during the war . The civil administration of the city was suspended until the end of the war. Union ships blocked access to Tampa Bay, cutting the city off from military and civilian water supplies. The attempt by the Confederation to break the blockade culminated in the Battle of Tampa on June 30 and July 1, 1862, which, however, brought no result. The Confederation was later defeated at the Battle of Fort Brooke on October 17-18, 1863, when the fortress and town were bombed by Union ships and land troops and numerous ships were sunk. The war finally ended in April 1865. Union troops arrived in May and occupied the city until August 1869 as part of the reconstruction . Florida was reintegrated into the Union on June 25, 1868.
The time of the reconstruction had a serious impact on the region around Tampa, as the economic power, which was already small compared to the east coast of Florida, was clearly weakened. In addition, several yellow fever epidemics, caused by mosquitoes in the swamps of central Florida, caused a marked population decline in the area. In 1869, Tampa residents voted to dissolve the city government, and in the 1870 and 1880 censuses the population fell to 796 and 720, respectively. Fort Brooke had lost its purpose and was abandoned in 1883. Except for two cannons on display on the University of Tampa campus , there are no remains of the fortress.
Boom and prosperity
The discovery of phosphate deposits in the Bone Valley, southeast of the city, brought an abrupt boost to Tampa's economy. The raw material, which is used, among other things, for the production of fertilizers , is still an important export commodity for the region. The city was further prosperous when the pioneer Henry B. Plant opened the South Florida Railroad from here Orlando was connected to the railroad network in 1884 by Sanford . In addition to the improved exchange of economic goods, Tampa was also opened up for tourism for the first time by the railroad. In 1890 Tampa was also reached by the Florida Railroad . In 1906 the Tampa Northern Railroad opened a railway line from Tampa to Brooksville , which was bought by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad in 1912 . 1919 was built by the Tampa Southern Railway , a subsidiary of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad , another railway line from Tampa to Palmetto , which was extended to Bradenton in 1920 .
In 1885, among others, the cigar manufacturer Vicente Martinez Ybor settled down and relocated his company headquarters here from Key West due to better transport connections between Cuba and the American mainland . At the time, Tampa had a population of just under 5,000. On the initiative of Ybor, the working-class district of Ybor City was created, which offered living space for thousands of its employees as well as merchants and their families. Until 1900 around 10,000 people lived here alone. On 15 July 1887, the city due to rising population figures was again the City levied. In 1895, the mostly Cuban city of West Tampa was founded, which was incorporated into Tampa in 1925. Most cigars were made in Ybor City and West Tampa in 1929, with about 500,000,000 pieces. During this turn of the century boom, Tampa was named one of the largest cities in Florida and the unofficial "Cigar Capital of the World".
In 1891 Henry B. Plant built the Tampa Bay Hotel, a lavish hotel at a total cost of around USD 2.5 million . The building, built in oriental architecture , had a heated pool inside, the city's first elevator and more than 500 rooms, all of which were equipped with a telephone and electric light. The building now serves as a museum and is listed as a National Historic Landmark .
During the Spanish-American War in 1898, the port of Tampa was an important loading point for American troops and war supplies en route to Cuba. The up to 30,000 soldiers shipped from here gave the city another economic boost.
Tampa was also the birthplace of the illegal lottery game Bolita around 1900, which was hugely popular among the working class and unofficially tolerated thanks to generous bribes to local politics. It was controlled by Santo Trafficante, Sr. and his son , who were assigned to an arm of the American Mafia . It was not until the Kefauver Hearings in 1950 that organized crime came to an end in Tampa.
Since the middle of the 20th century
As early as 1928, the Drew Field airfield was opened west of the city , which was taken over and modernized by the Army Air Forces during the Second World War . In 1950 the airfield was renamed Tampa International Airport after civil aviation began . MacDill Field was opened on the peninsula in the south of the city at the beginning of the World War . It served as a base for aircraft of the Army Air Corps and later the Army Air Forces. Among other things, the facility had two secondary airports, today's Tampa and St. Petersburg-Clearwater airports , but their military purpose was superfluous after the war. With the establishment of the Independent Air Force , the airfield was renamed MacDill Air Force Base .
In the 1950s, Tampa experienced unprecedented population growth, which in particular led to an enormous expansion of the infrastructure. This decade also saw the opening of Lowry Park Zoo (1957) and Busch Gardens (1959). In 1956, the University of South Florida opened in the North Tampa district, creating many new jobs. Many companies and institutions have moved from their traditional location in the city center to districts further out over time.
From 1967 to 1973 a total of five attempts were made to merge the Tampa city government with the Hillsborough County administration. However, they all failed at the ballot box. In the last decision, 33,160 (31%) of the electorate voted for and 73,568 (69%) against this reform.
Most recently, the metropolitan area was expanded in 1988 by the development of a previously rural area between Interstates 75 and 275 north of Tampa by about 62 km², which was named the New Tampa District.
From August 27 to 30, 2012, the 40th meeting of the Republican Party for the nomination of its presidential candidate took place at the Tampa Bay Times Forum in Tampa , from which Mitt Romney emerged as the winner.
A first Methodist church was organized in Tampa as early as 1846. One of the most important church buildings in the city is the Sacred Heart Catholic Church, built in 1905 in the neo-Romanesque style, with stained glass supplied by the Munich Mayer'schen Hofkunstanstalt . Other churches in Tampa include the St. James House of Prayer Episcopal Church (listed in the NRHP ) and the African Methodist Episcopal Church , which was attended by Martin Luther King and Bill Clinton , among others .
Other Christian denominations in Tampa are Presbyterianism , Lutherans , Christian Science , Church of God , United Church of Christ , Independent Philippine Church , Metropolitan Community Church , Seventh-day Adventists , Orthodox Churches , Anglicans , the Quakers , Jehovah's Witnesses, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints .
According to the 2010 census, the then 335,709 inhabitants were distributed over 157,130 households. The population density was 1156.4 inh / km². 62.9% of the population identified themselves as whites , 26.4% as African-Americans , 0.4% as Indians and 3.4% as Asian Americans . 3.9% said they belonged to another ethnic group and 3.2% to several ethnic groups. 23.1% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos .
In 2010 children under the age of 18 lived in 30.0% of all households and persons aged 65 or over lived in 21.0% of all households. 55.7% of households were family households (consisting of married couples with or without offspring or one parent with offspring). The average household size was 2.38 people and the average family size was 3.10 people.
26.6% of the population were younger than 20 years, 31.0% were 20 to 39 years old, 26.9% were 40 to 59 years old, and 15.7% were at least 60 years old. The mean age was 35 years. 48.9% of the population were male and 51.1% were female.
The median annual income was $ 43,957, with 19.2% of the population living below the poverty line.
Tampa has twinned cities with
Culture and sights
Popular Tampa nightlife and entertainment areas include the Channel District , Ybor City , SoHo, and International Plaza and Bay Street . The hotel and casino Seminole Hard Rock are well known . Tampa is ranked the sixth best party city in the United States by Maxim magazine .
Music and theater
Tampa is home to several theatrical stages including The David A. Straz Jr. Center for the Performing Arts, the Tampa Theater , the Gorilla Theater, and the 1-800-ASK-GARY Amphitheater . There is also The Florida Orchestra , Opera Tampa , Jobsite Theater , The Master Chorale of Tampa Bay , Stageworks Theater , Spanish Lyric Theater, and Tampa Bay Symphony .
Tampa is important for the music genre Death Metal , but artists of other genres are also based there. From the city come u. a. the bands Morbid Angel , Six Feet Under , Death , Cynic , Kamelot , Obituary , Monstrosity , Underoath , Brutality and Savatage .
Museums in Tampa include the Museum of Science and Industry , the Tampa Museum of Art , the USF Contemporary Art Museum , the Tampa Bay History Center , the Tampa Firefighters Museum , the Henry B. Plant Museum, and the Ybor City Museum State , among others Park . On the banks of the Channel District has the SS American Victory , a former Victory ship of the Second World War , permanently moored and now serves as a museum ship .
A list of the National Register of Historic Places Buildings of Tampa listed can be found on the page National Register of Historic Places listings in Hillsborough County, Florida (English).
Tampa is home to Busch Gardens amusement park and Adventure Island water park . Parks in the Tampa metropolitan area also include Lettuce Lake Park , Rowlett Park , Al Lopez Field, and Ballast Point Park .
Tampa is represented by professional sports teams in the three leagues, NFL , NHL and MLB . The Tampa Bay Buccaneers American football team and the Tampa Bay Lightning ice hockey team are based in Tampa, while the Tampa Bay Rays baseball team comes from nearby Saint Petersburg . The closest basketball team to play in the NBA is the Orlando Magic of Orlando . Furthermore, the Tampa Bay Storm were located in the Arena Football League .
Tampa was the venue for a total of four Super Bowls : Super Bowl XVIII (1984), Super Bowl XXV (1991), Super Bowl XXXV (2001) and Super Bowl XLIII (2009). The first two finals were played in the old Tampa Stadium , the last two in Raymond James Stadium.
Professional football has been played by the Tampa Bay Rowdies at Tampa Stadium in the North American Soccer League (NASL) since 1975 . The club was the first in Tampa in 1975 to win a professional sports championship with the Soccer Bowl . After the league was dissolved in 1984, the club played in several other leagues before the game was finally stopped in 1993. The Tampa Bay Mutiny played in the first-class Major League Soccer (MLS) from 1996 to 2001 . From 1996 to 1998 they played their home games at Tampa Stadium, in 1999 they moved to Raymond James Stadium. In 2010, a new team called Tampa Bay Rowdies was formed, but had to temporarily change its name to Tampa Bay FC due to licensing issues. After they played in the first year on the Gerorge M. Steinbrenner Field, they moved in 2011, with the establishment of the new second-class North American Soccer League in the Al Lang Field in Saint Petersburg has to offer.
The Skatepark Of Tampa was opened in Tampa back in 1993 - every year skateboarding events that are recognized around the world take place there.
- Gasparilla Pirate Festival
- India International Film Festival (IIFF) of Tampa Bay
- Outback Bowl
- GaYbor Days in Ybor City
- Tampa International Gay and Lesbian Film Festival
Economy and Infrastructure
The metropolitan area of Tampa-St.Petersburg generated a gross domestic product of 142.6 billion US dollars in 2016, making it 24th among the metropolitan areas of the United States. The unemployment rate in the metropolitan area was 3.3 percent, below the American average of 3.8 percent. (As of May 2018). The personal per capita income in 2016 was 43,807 US dollars, which means that Tampa has a below-average income level.
The most famous street in Tampa is 7.2 km long Bayshore Boulevard , which runs along the banks of Hillsborough Bay. The sidewalk that runs between the street and the bank is said to be the longest continuous sidewalk in the world.
Three different bridges connect Tampa with Pinellas County on the other side of Tampa Bay: the Howard Frankland Bridge ( I-275 ), the Gandy Bridge ( US 92 ) and the Courtney Campbell Causeway ( SR 60 ). Interstates 4 , 75 and 275 as well as the Veterans Expressway (SR 589) and the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway (SR 618) run as expressways through the city . In addition, the lead US Highways 41 and 92 and the Florida State Roads 60 , 573 , 574 , 580 , 582 , 583 , 600 and 685 through the town.
The current Union Station was opened in 1912. The station is located between the Channel District and Ybor City and is now served by Amtrak . The Silver Star runs one pair of trains daily south to Miami and north to New York City . Amtrak also offers its own remote bus system called Thruway Motorcoach from Union Station to various cities in southwest Florida and to Orlando, where you can connect to the Silver Meteor .
Since October 2002 a tram has been running through Tampa again with the TECO Line Streetcar System . The 4 km long route with eleven stations connects Ybor City with the Channel District , the Tampa Convention Center and Downtown Tampa .
In 2011 the construction of a high-speed line from Tampa via Orlando to Miami should have started. The route should be driven along the existing trunk road network at a planned speed of 270 to 300 km / h according to the principle of traffic route bundling . However, the plans were stopped by Governor Rick Scott in March 2011.
Tampa is of great importance as the birthplace of commercial aviation. On January 1, 1914, about ten years after the Wright brothers' first attempt to fly , Tony Jannus carried out the world's first commercial flight with an airplane on his St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line on the route from Saint Petersburg to Tampa.
The city's largest airport is Tampa International Airport ( IATA code : TPA, ICAO code : KTPA), which serves domestic and global air traffic. It is located in the far west of the city and is affected by the Veterans Expressway . Also in the city is the smaller Peter O. Knight Airport (IATA: TPF, ICAO: KTPF) in Davis Islands south of the city center. There is also the Tampa Executive Airport (IATA: VDF, ICAO: KVDF), which is located east of the city near the junction between I-75 and I-4. A fourth airport in the city's catchment area is St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport (IATA: PIE, ICAO: KPIE), which is located directly on the other, western side of Tampa Bay north of Saint Petersburg .
Since the port in Tampa did not have enough depth for ocean-going ships and the construction of a corresponding fairway was too expensive, Henry B. Plant had the deep-sea port of Port Tampa built at Black Point (or Gadsen Point) from 1885 to 1888 .
In 1899, the US Congress placed an order to build a 27- foot- deep shipping channel from the Gulf of Mexico to the Port of Tampa . However, it was not until 1917 that further expansion measures made it possible to access the port itself with ocean-going ships. Every year the US Army Corps of Engineers digs a lot of sand from Tampa Bay that could fill Raymond James Stadium ten times .
Today the port is the largest transshipment port in Florida and one of the most important in the United States. Around two thirds of the 37 million tons of cargo handled in 2009 consisted of the raw materials crude oil and phosphate .
The largest daily newspapers appearing are the Tampa Tribune and the Tampa Bay Times . There is also the trilingual newspaper La Gaceta , which is printed in English, Spanish and Italian. There are also a number of smaller newspapers, including Florida Sentinel Bulletin , Creative Loafing , Reax Music Magazine , Tampa Bay Times , The Oracle , Tampa Bay Business Journal, and MacDill Thunderbolt . Television programs are WFTS 28 ( ABC ), WTSP 10 ( CBS ), WFLA 8 ( NBC ), WTVT 13 ( Fox ), WTOG 44 ( The CW ), WTTA 38 ( MyNetworkTV ) and WVEA 62 ( Univision ).
The largest hospitals in Tampa are Tampa General Hospital , St. Joseph's Children's & Women's Hospital , James A. Haley Veterans Hospital , H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute , The Pepin Heart Institute, and Shriners Hospitals for Children .
The crime rate in 2010 was 322 points (US average: 266 points) in the average range. There were 27 murders, 47 rapes, 684 robberies, 1412 assaults, 3131 break-ins, 7484 thefts, 838 car thefts and 107 arson attacks.
Well-known personalities from Tampa are the pilot Joseph Kittinger , the jazz cornetist Nat Adderley , his brother, the alto saxophonist Julien "Cannonball" Adderley , the musician Hughie Thomasson , the wrestler Edward Leslie , the actor Robert Gant and the actress Brittany Snow .
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