|Full name:||Cordoba de la Nueva Andalucía|
|Surface:||562 km 2|
|Height above d. M .:|
|Density:||2366 inhabitants / km²|
|Agglomeration :||Gran Cordoba|
|Mayor:||Ramón Javier Mestre|
|Postal code :||5000|
|Telephone code:||0351, 03543|
With 1.3 million inhabitants, Córdoba is the second largest city in Argentina after Buenos Aires . It is located a little north of the geographic center of the country, is the capital of the province of Córdoba , the largest city in the Región Centro and the industrial and cultural center of Central Argentina with one of the most important universities in the country, the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, founded in 1613 . Because of the many buildings from the colonial times, it is also visited by numerous tourists .
The city is located in the transition area between the mountain ranges of the Sierras de Córdoba in the west and a plains geographically divided between the Pampas and Chaco in the east, which is one of the most productive agricultural areas in Argentina. It takes on the function of the most important traffic and service center for a large part of the surrounding area and in parts also for north-west Argentina.
The full name is Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía (Córdoba of New Andalusia) and is derived from the Andalusian city of Córdoba . Córdoba is popularly known as La Docta ("the scholar") because of the universities and other teaching institutes , and also as ciudad de las campanas ("city of bells") because of the many churches. Today it is often only called Capital by the inhabitants of the province and especially the suburbs .
Córdoba is located in the valley of the Río Suquía (alternatively Río Primero ), which runs in an east-west direction, which makes numerous bends in the urban area and separates the center on the south bank from the so-called Upper Córdoba (Alta Córdoba) in the north. To the west of the center, the only other watercourse of importance, the Arroyo de La Cañada stream, which is now largely canalized, flows into the Suquía.
The area around Córdoba belongs to the intersection of two large landscapes: the Sierras de Córdoba as the easternmost mountain range of the Sierras Pampeanas in the west and the plains in the east, a transition area between the Pampa and Gran Chaco . The urban area itself is wavy. The lowest point is 352 m above sea level at the intersection of the Río Suquía with the eastern border of the city, the highest point is 544 m in the extreme southwest of the city.
The center and the districts near the Río Suquía are located in a basin up to four kilometers wide at about river level, the more distant areas are 50 to 150 meters above this level. Apart from a few low hills in the northwest such as the Cerro de las Rosas, there are no elevations to speak of; but this changes just a few kilometers further west in the areas of the suburbs Villa Allende , Mendiolaza , Unquillo , La Calera and Saldán , where the first foothills of the Sierras de Córdoba can be found. The highest point in the greater Cordoba area is the Cerro Pan de Azúcar ( Sugar Loaf ) (1,290 m) west of Unquillo.
nature and environment
The original vegetation in the area around Córdoba was dry forest , which until the mid-19th century covered the entire province of Córdoba with the exception of the extreme southeast. With the agricultural development of the area, this vegetation was strongly pushed back; today it is only predominant in the Sierras de Córdoba and in the northwest of the province. In this context, one often speaks of the encroachment of the wet pampas , since today the landscape around Córdoba can hardly be distinguished from the region of the wet pampas (e.g. the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe ). Exceptions are some areas in the north-west of the urban area, in which dry forest can still be found; this has been under nature protection as Reserva San Martín since 2009 . Of the 562 km² of the urban area, around 300 are built up today, 180 are reserved for agricultural activities. The rest is spread over unused areas and parks.
Like any big city, Cordoba also has to struggle with environmental problems. Air pollution is high in the city center and some parts of the city, even if there is hardly any smog worth mentioning due to the relatively windy climate . Nevertheless, despite the modernization of the vehicle fleet, road traffic causes high pollutant rates on the main traffic axes, and in some parts of the city there are particularly high numbers of cancer cases , probably due to the proximity to fields on which insecticides are applied and, until 2002, due to the use of carcinogenic substances in transformers in the power grid . The water pollution, especially of the Río Suquía, is still a major problem despite several sewage treatment plants and reduces the quality of the drinking water in the towns below Córdoba.
A growing problem is the urban sprawl , especially on the northwestern periphery and in the Valle de Punilla west of Córdoba, where large areas with weekend house colonies, new city quarters and country clubs ( closed residential complexes ) have been built and the population of several animal species, such as the Puma , widespread only recently , has been greatly reduced in recent decades. A 15,000 hectare area between Córdoba, La Calera and Villa Carlos Paz , which formerly belonged to the armed forces and whose future was long unclear, was placed under nature conservation in early 2010 to prevent the city from expanding into this important buffer zone. Another problem associated with the growth of the city is the sealing of the surface due to the increasing density of buildings and the expansion of the built-up area, which hinders the water cycle in the city. Therefore, with heavier precipitation, especially with the thunderstorms that are frequent in summer , floods almost always occur in numerous urban districts. These negative effects are gradually being alleviated by expanding the sewerage system .
Neighboring municipalities and departments
The city not only forms its own municipality (municipio) , but also its own Departamento Capital ("capital department", comparable to an urban district), which has the shape of a square with a side length of 22 km. This area is bordered to the northwest, north and northeast by the Department of Colón , which is home to the city's largest suburbs, and to the southeast, south and west by Santa María .
In a clockwise direction, the city borders the following municipalities ( municipios and comunas ) of the Department of Colón in the densely populated north : in the northwest on La Calera , the oldest and now largest directly adjacent suburb, Dumesnil , Saldán , Villa Allende and Mendiolaza , all of them wealthy dormitories , in the north to the Villa Los Llanos - Güiñazú Norte, which is almost a slum , and the rural Colonia Tirolesa and in the northeast to the fast-growing working-class suburb of Malvinas Argentinas on Ruta Nacional 19, the connection to Santa Fe .
In the much less densely populated south, the following municipalities of the Department of Santa María border on Córdoba (clockwise): the fast-growing dormitory city Toledo in the southeast on Ruta Nacional 9 , the small towns Lozada , Bouwer (seat of the most important prison) and Los Cedros in the south as well as Malagueño , which is characterized by closed residential complexes on the Córdoba - Villa Carlos Paz motorway , which is forecast to grow very quickly due to its strategically favorable location.
The climate in the city is warm and temperate with an average temperature of 17.6 ° C per year; the average daily extremes are 24.5 / 10.6 ° C and the precipitation rate is 678 millimeters per year.
There is a pronounced rainy season in summer (November to March) with a maximum of rainfall in December. The winter, on the other hand, is so dry that there is often a water shortage in some suburbs of the city in late winter. In terms of the type of precipitation, thunderstorms predominate in the summer half-year, while light drizzle dominates in the winter half-year and thunderstorm activity decreases significantly.
Strong temperature fluctuations are characteristic throughout the year. On the one hand, these stem from the relatively unprotected location of the central Argentine region, which means that both tropical and polar air masses can quickly spread over large areas, depending on the weather; this takes place in the form of wind systems such as the Pampero (dry southwest wind), Sudestada (humid southeast wind) and Norte (humid northeast wind). Second, the maritime influence is limited by the relatively large distance from the Atlantic Ocean, which allows far higher and lower extreme temperatures than in the region around Buenos Aires ; the absolute maximum of Córdoba, at 45.6 ° C, is well above that of Buenos Aires (37.8 ° C) and only slightly below the value of the South American heat pole (49.1 ° C in Villa de María ). Third, local winds shape the climate. The most important is the Zonda , a downwind comparable to the foehn , which from the Andes , especially in late winter and spring, ensures extremely low humidity and very high shock temperatures, sometimes over 40 ° C, which often last only a few hours and then drop again drastically .
Especially at night, the temperature in the valley basin of the center is up to 5 ° C higher than in the higher suburbs. Because of the more pleasant, cooler climate and the lower air pollution, the richer districts are mainly on the hills of the north-west city.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cordoba
The city has been divided into ten zones since 1994, which are subordinate to the so-called CPC (Centros de Participación Comunal - municipal participation centers). At the CPC, the citizens of the city can complete all formalities with a few exceptions. Most CPCs and their dependent zones are named for the neighborhoods in which they are located, but not identical to them. Other CPCs have been named for the street they're on or some prominent facility nearby.
|No.||CPC zone||area||population||Map (dark gray: built-up area)|
(as of 2001, with CPC zone Guiñazú)
|2||Monseñor Pablo Cabrera||north||87,242|
|6th||Villa El Libertador||southwest||127,668|
|10||Mercado de la Ciudad||center||130,632|
The CPC Guiñazú emerged as the last CPC in 2006 from a sub-CPC (SubCPC) of the CPC Centro América, founded in 1997 . The population of the district under it has not yet been clearly established due to the lack of data from the 2010 census. A SubCPC is still in the José Ignacio Díaz district in the southeast of the city to relieve the large CPC Empalme.
Cordoba is also divided into 401 neighborhoods, some of which are in turn divided into different sections. If these are also seen as independent quarters, the number increases to 456. The high number is explained by the fact that larger building areas on the periphery are usually considered new quarters, which is why their number is constantly increasing. Many of these districts have only a few hundred inhabitants, but this figure does not include the approximately 100 informal settlements ( Villas Miserias ).
To the south of the center is Nueva Córdoba , which originated at the end of the 19th century and has evolved over time from a middle-class neighborhood into the preferred residential area for students at the University of Córdoba. Nueva Córdoba, together with the Barrio Güemes to the west , which has the character of an old town with numerous historical buildings, is one of the centers of nightlife and gastronomy in the city. To the south, the university town (Ciudad Universitaria) connects with the campus of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba , which covers around five square kilometers and is designed like a park. Behind it are the peripheral quarters typical of Argentine cities.
Alberdi is a traditional neighborhood west of the center, south of the Río Suquía. It gained particular fame during the Cordobazo uprising in 1969, when it was the center of unrest and demonstrations, together with the Bella Vista district to the south of it . Alberdi is a student and working class neighborhood with some dangerous areas at night.
Alta Córdoba is one of the most populous districts with 34,828 inhabitants (as of 2009). It was built in 1881 on the north bank of the Río Suquía by Antonio Rodríguez del Busto and Ramón Marcos Juárez Carcano under the name Altos de Petaqueras and is characterized by numerous old buildings, restaurants and cultural centers. On November 2, 2014, there was a momentous explosion in a chemical plant, in which much of the city district was badly damaged. Around 66 people were injured in the detonation due to the escape of toxic gases.
The San Vicente district to the east of the center is also characterized by old buildings and is known for its traditional carnival , which today takes place in the Parque Sarmiento south-west of this district due to the increased public interest .
The Cerro de las Rosas (Spanish for Rosenberg) and the adjacent neighborhoods of Villa Belgrano and Argüello are relatively new, but have developed into the city's trendy neighborhoods. Cerro de las Rosas, usually just called Cerro , is located on a hill in the northwest of the city eight kilometers from the center and has a lot of restaurants and discos as well as its own shopping center. The distinct identity of this quarter is evident from the fact that it publishes its own tabloid magazine (Las Rosas) . The area is characterized by villas with extensive plots.
Gran Córdoba agglomeration
Since the Departamento Córdoba Capital, the official urban area, has a generous area of 562 square kilometers, the city, unlike most other large cities in Argentina, began to gradually outgrow its arteries beyond the city limits only in the 1970s. Since then, the growth of the suburbs of the so-called Gran Córdoba , the metropolitan area around the city, has accelerated significantly, while Córdoba itself is only growing relatively slowly. Nevertheless, the empty spaces in the urban area are quickly covered by new development, in particular due to the relocation of slums to social housing districts on the periphery.
The fastest growth was seen in an extensive area northwest of the city called the Sierras Chicas , which extends up to about 50 kilometers outside the city along the Sierra Chica mountain range. Most of the places in this region were shaped by tourism for a long time, but have now turned into residential suburbs. The largest cities in this region are La Calera , Villa Allende , Río Ceballos and Unquillo . Its character is characterized by continuous but loose development, country clubs , sports grounds, beaches and nighttime entertainment venues as well as some industry and agriculture.
It was not until the 1980s that Córdoba grew to the north and east, where poorer settlements in particular emerged, such as Güiñazú , Juárez Celman , Malvinas Argentinas and Monte Cristo . These places experienced strong population growth in the crisis years 1989–1991 and 1998–2003, mainly because of the low base prices.
In addition, the Gran Córdoba counts other cities that are not connected to Córdoba by continuous development, but by commuters and a close-knit transport network. The most important are Villa Carlos Paz , Cosquín and the southern Valle de Punilla , Alta Gracia , Jesús María and Río Segundo . In total, the metropolitan area covers around 10,000 square kilometers.
In 2007, the Instituto de Planificación del Área Metropolitana (Iplam) , initiated by the provincial government, was founded to coordinate urban development in the Córdoba conurbation. It created a first cross-community zoning plan, initially for the first ring of Gran Córdoba, in order to regulate the largely uncontrolled expansion of new building areas up to this point. This came into force in 2009.
Colonial times and independence
Even before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Quisquisacate settlement was located in the northwest of today's city on the Río Suquía , and was inhabited by Comechingones Indians. Like the other settlements of this ethnic group, Quisquisacate consisted of half-buried houses around which agriculture was practiced. Quisquisacate is now a district of Córdoba, but remains of the Indian settlement have not been preserved.
The city itself was founded by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera on July 6, 1573 and named after the city of Córdoba in Spain Córdoba la Llana de la Nueva Andalucía . The original city was located north of the Río Suquía in what is now the Yapeyú district , where a fortress was built and today a monument commemorates this historical date.
In 1577, after the retreat of the Indians from Quisquisacate, the city center was moved to the current location of Plaza San Martín south of the Río Suquía. At the same time, the urban area was determined, which was essentially the same size as today's Departamento Capital - today's urban area. It was divided into the ejido , the residential zone, and military and agricultural areas.
Around 1600 the city had about 500 inhabitants. At this early stage a number of religious institutions were founded whose task it was to evangelize the inhabitants. The Jesuits who settled at the beginning of the 17th century were of particular importance . They founded the Colegio Máximo college in 1608 and the first university in Argentina in 1613, today's Universidad Nacional de Córdoba , which is also the second oldest university in South America. This marked the beginning of the rise of Cordoba to the center of the region. In 1622 a customs post was established and in 1699 the city became the seat of the Bishop of Tucumán; Tucumán was then the name for the entire north-west of what is now Argentina. In 1767 the Jesuits were expelled.
Until the middle of the 18th century, the city was the most important in Argentina, it prospered mainly because of the favorable conditions for agriculture in the area and its location on the important trade route between Buenos Aires and the silver city of Potosí . After the establishment of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, the city lost this role, as the port city of Buenos Aires became increasingly important as the capital of the Viceroyalty. In 1782, Córdoba became the capital of the Intendencia Córdoba del Tucumán sub-area , which included the present-day provinces of Córdoba , La Rioja , Mendoza , San Juan and San Luis .
The Spanish margrave Rafael de Sobremonte became governor and mayor between 1784 and 1797. During his reign numerous important public buildings such as the Cabildo and the first amusement park, the Paseo de Sobremonte , still preserved today, were built ; he also founded numerous settlements in the surrounding area.
After the May Revolution of 1810, when Argentina gained independence, the city only recognized the new government after the new government junta had sent troops to the area. The first governor and mayor of the city in autonomous Argentina was Juan Manuel de Pueyrredón . There followed a period of bloody clashes between Unitarians and Federalists. The governor of Cordoba was traditionally federal. In 1831, however, after a battle lost for Cordoba, a Unitarian governor loyal to the capital was installed. For a detailed description of the conflict, see History of Argentina .
Rise and industrialization
After the situation had calmed down again around 1860, things started to improve again for the city and its surrounding area. In 1857 the current political system, that of the municipio (comparable to a municipality ), was introduced and in 1870 the city council was founded. In the same year Córdoba was connected to the railway network; this resulted in a large influx of immigrants and internal migrants . During this time the so-called traditional neighborhoods of Alberdi , Alta Córdoba , General Paz and San Vicente were founded.
The liberalism established in the late 19th century as a new dogma in economic policy and the city brought rapid modernization. A number of scientific institutions were established, such as the observatory , the Escuela Normal (high school) and the academy of science , so that Cordoba soon became the technological and scientific center of the country. In 1871, for example, the first trade fair for Argentine products and works of art was held.
In 1886 the city was expanded south on the drawing board. The French landscape architect Carlos Thays designed the Parque Sarmiento , the largest park in the city at the time, and under the direction of Miguel Crisol , the Nueva Córdoba district , now the most densely populated area of the city , was integrated into this project .
After the establishment of the state-owned aircraft construction company Fábrica Militar de Aviones in 1927, the city expanded increasingly to the west. This tendency intensified in the period after 1936, when the city was extensively modernized and industrialized under Governor Amadeo Sabattini.
In the 1950s, as a result of the economic policy of the then Argentine government under Juan Domingo Perón, several large domestic and foreign companies such as Industrias Kaiser Argentina (IKA) and Fiat , later taken over by Renault , settled; Cordoba thus became the second most important industrial location after Buenos Aires.
On February 25, 1957, a serious railway accident occurred near Cordoba : a train full of tourists derailed in a curve due to excessive speed . Seven cars overturned. The number of people who died ranges from 15 to 40. More than 100 were also injured.
In 1969, a violent popular uprising in the city, the so-called Cordobazo, ushered in the end of the reign of the dictator Juan Carlos Onganía . After the provincial governor, who was loyal to the government, breached the collective bargaining agreement, riots broke out in which hundreds of thousands were involved. The insurgents took control of the city and it took three days for the police to restore order. The uprising resulted in 14–34 deaths, 200–400 injured and 2,000 arrests. Onganía resigned after a few weeks, but the dictatorship initially remained. In 1971 there was another popular uprising, the Viborazo , which ushered in the final end of this dictatorship and forced them to open up democratically to Peronism .
British warships withdrawn from patrols carried tactical nuclear weapons on board during the Falklands War . After it became known, conspiracy theories about a planned attack on the Argentine mainland, allegedly with the aim of Cordoba, emerged in the 1990s. President Nestor later requested an apology from Great Britain. The nuclear weapons, however, were torpedoes for use against strategic Soviet submarines, which were also reloaded to other ships that remained outside the Falkland territorial waters in order to comply with blocking agreements.
Economic crises and recovery
The growth of industry in the city was unbroken until the 1970s, but then it collapsed significantly after the neoliberal measures of the military dictatorship of the National Reorganization Process (1976–1983); another slump happened after the economic crisis in 1989.
The 1990s were characterized by the modernization of the cityscape and the privatization of numerous municipal businesses in the initial economic euphoria of the Menem government. In 1994 the structure of the township was reformed and decentralized. The so-called CPC (Centros de Participación Comunal) emerged, ten relatively autonomous branches of the city government in outlying city districts. Their common external feature is an extremely modern architecture dominated by cubic forms.
The economic crisis at the turn of the millennium also left its mark on Córdoba. On December 19 and 20, 2001, as in Buenos Aires, there was the Cacerolazo , a large-scale demonstration carried out by middle-class housewives who beat pots. At the same time, supermarkets were looted in some parts of the city, but they did not reach the extent of the tumult in the state capital, Buenos Aires.
As an aftermath of the economic crisis and the dissatisfaction of the population with the deterioration of numerous urban services, especially the transport infrastructure, the regional party Partido Nuevo under the leadership of Luis Juez , which in its early days was a pure protest party against the politics of the Peronist provincial and provincial government City government under Governor José Manuel de la Sota (since 1998) and the menemist Mayor Germán Kammerath (1999-2003). In 2003, Juez won the mayoral election with an absolute majority in the first ballot like a landslide and thus established the new party in the city's political landscape.
After the end of the economic crisis, the city and the rest of Argentina saw economic growth again. On December 26, 2003, a tornado devastated a large part of the southwest of the city area. Numerous destroyed and damaged buildings were rebuilt with the help of the city.
In the 2007 elections, the Partido Nuevo candidate, Daniel Giacomino , won the post of mayor. His term of office was marked by conflicts with the civil servants' union SUOEM , which severely strained the city's infrastructure through frequent strikes despite the economic boom. In the following local elections in 2011, the candidate of the Unión Cívica Radical , Ramón Javier Mestre , won the mayoral election.
In December 2013, after a police strike, a wave of violence and vandalism lasted more than 30 hours, during which around a thousand shops were attacked and some of them were looted by larger groups. In some neighborhoods there were clashes between residents, armed gangs and the few non-strike security forces, in which a 20-year-old was shot dead by a police officer and more than 100 people were reported injured. The unrest subsequently spread to other provinces and sometimes lasted for several days.
The incumbent mayor of the city has been Ramón Javier Mestre from the Unión Cívica Radical since December 2011 . Since then, the UCR has also been the strongest force in the Concejo Deliberante (City Council), followed by the Partido Justicialista , which has split into two wings: Fuerza de la Gente (formerly Movimiento Eva Duarte de Perón ) and Unión por Córdoba . The Partido Nuevo and the party alliance Frente Cívico that formed around it , which provided the mayor from 2003 to 2011, slipped to fourth place with significant losses. Nevertheless, the PN was again the strongest force in the city's provincial elections in 2011, but it is only of secondary importance in the interior of the province.
For Córdoba, as for all other cities in the province, the municipal and municipal law of the province of Córdoba applies, which regulates the political system. The head of the city is the mayor, the intendente . It is elected directly by the population every four years. The legislature is the city council, the composition of which depends on the outcome of the mayoral election.
Composition of the city council
The city council ( concejo deliberante or concejo municipal ) has 31 seats, which are divided among the participating parties according to the results of the local elections, which also determine the mayor. The strongest party receives at least 16 seats, even if there is only a relative majority , the remainder is allocated to the remaining forces.
In the current electoral period (2011-2015) the following distribution of seats in the city council after the 2011 elections resulted:
- Unión Cívica Radical : 16 seats (2007: 6)
- Fuerza de la Gente (regional division of the PJ , dissident to UPC): 7 seats (2007: 5 as Movimiento Eva Duarte de Perón )
- Unión por Córdoba (Regional Division of the PJ): 6 seats (2007: 4)
- Frente Cívico y Social (alliance of Partido Nuevo and some small parties): 2 seats (2007: 16)
Córdoba maintains the following cities a twinning :
There is also a cooperation agreement with the Spanish region of Andalusia .
Culture and sights
Cordoba is mainly known for the well-preserved buildings from the colonial times in the center, but there are also a large number of museums. The city continues to have a diverse cultural scene that is constantly renewed, mainly because of the over 150,000 students who live in the city. In 2006 the city was named the Capital of Culture of America .
Many of the remarkable buildings from the colonial era are located in the vicinity of the city's central square, Plaza San Martín . At this plaza, from whose northwest corner all house numbers in the city are calculated, all streets also change their names.
On the plaza itself is the cathedral (Iglesia Catedral), built in 1782 , the interior of which contains significant Indian carvings and was redesigned in 1914 by the artist Emilio Carraffa. Right next to the cathedral is the Cabildo , the historic council building that was built between 1610 and 1784. Today it houses a museum with changing exhibitions.
A little off the plaza is the Convent of the Discalced Carmelites with the Church of Santa Teresa , a pink building in the colonial baroque style. The church dates from 1717, the other parts were added later. It houses the Juan de Tejeda Museum of Religious Art . One of the most magnificent buildings of the turn of the century is the construction of the Banco Provincia de Córdoba , built in 1889.
100 meters south of Plaza San Martín is the Manzana de los Jesuitas , the Jesuit block with several buildings from colonial and post-colonial times, including the oldest surviving church in Argentina, the Compañía de Jesús from 1671, and the school building Colegio de Montserrat im Plateresque style (from 1687) and the former rectorate of the University of Córdoba (from 1613, considerably rebuilt in the 19th century), which today houses part of the Faculty of Law and a museum. The block was 2000 on the World Heritage of UNESCO explained.
The government district around the canalized La Cañada stream is home to numerous public buildings, some of which are worth seeing. The largest is the Palacio de Justicia (Palace of Justice), a neo-classical monumental building from 1936. In front of the palace is the Paseo Sobremonte , built in 1785 and renovated in 1957 , a round, somewhat recessed square with a fountain. A church worth seeing in the area is the Basilica Santo Domingo , built in 1861. Inside, English flags from the time of the invasion in 1806 are displayed (see on this topic: History of Argentina ).
The Nueva Córdoba district dates from the late 19th century and is now populated by many students because of its proximity to the campus of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba . In this area you can find the neo-Gothic Sagrado Corazón church , built in 1929 by the Capuchins. A palace worth seeing is the Palacio Ferreyra near Plaza España , a modern, busy round square that was designed in a rationalist style.
In Barrio Güemes , near the Cañada, is the Paseo de las Artes , a neo-colonial-style social housing complex built in 1890 that now houses several galleries, antique shops, and an extensive craft market. The area is sometimes called San Telmo de Córdoba after the famous Buenos Aires neighborhood.
In Alberdi, about one kilometer west of the center, there are also some remarkable buildings: the Iglesia María Auxiliadora , built from 1915 and previously unfinished , a monumental church in neo-Gothic style that can be seen from afar, and the Casa Emiliani , a building in the Art Nouveau style .
In the old quarters of San Vicente, General Paz and Alta Córdoba, several old buildings from around 1900 have been preserved. What stands out in San Vicente is today's San Vicente cultural center , a former market hall built in 1886, the Barrio Kronfuss ensemble built in the Central European style and the Eiffel House (1917) built entirely from metal . In Alta Córdoba there is the large neo-Gothic church Inmaculada Concepción de María (1912).
Parks and green spaces
Córdoba's central and most popular park is Parque Sarmiento, east of the Nueva Córdoba district. It covers around six square kilometers and has, among other things, integrated a rose garden, zoo, sports facilities and the Super Park amusement park . In the middle of the park there is also an artificial lake with two islands, to the south of which is the large cultural complex Ciudad de las Artes . To the west is the park-like campus of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba , the Ciudad Universitaria .
Another park in the center is the small Parque Las Heras . It is located on the Río Suquía, north of the center. The area around the river is also partly park-like to the west. To the east, the small Parque General Paz connects in the district of the same name, in which the industrial museum is located.
In the south of the city, by the La Cañada creek, is the Parque de la Vida in a hilly and charming area. It also includes sports facilities and recreation areas with places to grill. In the southwest, the Parque del Sol Naciente extends north of the Fábrica Argentina de Aviones .
In the west is the Parque San Martín , which is also called Parque del Oeste (West Park). It is the largest and most natural park in the city (approx. 15 square kilometers). A large part of the park is under nature protection, another large part is pasture land, but the park is surrounded by mostly private, fenced-in districts . There is also a campsite, a fairground (Predio Feriar) , the modern art center Chateau Carreras and next to it the football stadium Estadio Mario Alberto Kempes , which is located directly on the Río Suquía. Next to it is a nightlife mile with several large discos. The Botanical Garden is located near the Chateau Carreras in the immediate vicinity of the Río Suquía.
In the northwest are the Parque de las Naciones and the Parque Autóctono , two small neighboring parks on a hillside with good viewpoints of the city.
The Córdoba observatory , located just 1 km southwest of the center of the city, was one of the most important observatories in the 19th century. At the Observatory of Córdoba was in 1892 the star catalog Córdoba screening , southern counterpart to Bonner survey created. However, no astrophysical measurements were possible on it. The district in which it is located was named after the observatory: it is called Barrio Observatorio .
The more modern Bosque Alegre observatory replaced the old Córdoba observatory from 1941 and was one of the most important observatories in the southern hemisphere until around 1980. It is located about 25 kilometers southwest of Córdoba near the city of Alta Gracia . With its 18 meter wide dome you can observe objects up to 600 million light years away. In Bosque Alegre, astrophysical measurements are made to determine the composition and structure of stars. In addition, the system was invented here to use polished mirrors to observe space.
The Teófilo Tabanera space center is the control center of Argentine space travel, which has so far been limited to satellites . It is located in Falda del Cañete , about 15 kilometers southwest of Córdoba. Its large control antenna is visible from afar. The building also houses a museum that displays models of the Argentine satellites.
Cultural institutes and art schools
There are universities of music, visual arts, literature and film in Córdoba. The Facultad de Artes (formerly Escuela de Artes ) as the most renowned art school has been an independent faculty of the University of Cordoba since 2011 and was founded in 1948 as Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes ; since 1959 it has been at its current location on the main UNC campus. The Ciudad de las Artes , which was established in a former barracks in 2005, is another large complex that functions as a cultural educational institution as well as a theater, opera house, gallery and arthouse cinema. It houses the art schools Escuela Lino Enea Spilimbergo , Figueroa Alcorta (visual arts), Roberto Arlt (theater), Fernando Arranz (ceramics) and the Conservatory Félix Garzón .
There are also several foreign cultural institutions in the city: a Goethe-Institut , an Argentine-Spanish cultural center ( Centro Cultural España Córdoba ), the French cultural institute Alianza Francesa , the Asociación Argentina de Cultura Británica and the Instituto Italiano de Cultura de Córdoba .
The most important art museum is the Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes Emilio E. Carrafa with changing exhibitions. The neo-baroque building is located in the Nueva Córdoba district in Plaza España. It was renovated in 2007 in a postmodern style. The Museo Superior de Bellas Artes Evita in the Palacio Ferreyra , named after Eva Perón , houses sculptures, paintings, drawings and copperplate engravings by artists from Córdoba, other cities in Argentina and abroad and shows the development of painting and sculpture in the city and region.
The city's religious art museums are important because of the Jesuit heritage, especially the Déan Funes Ecclesiastical Museum and the Juan de Tejeda Religious Art Museum in the Discalced Carmelite Monastery (see Buildings). Also important is the Museo Municipal de Bellas Artes Dr. Genaro Pérez , and the Obispo Salguero Museum , where art and historical documents can be viewed. Mention should also be made of the Cristóbal de Aguilar theater and music museum in the building of the El Libertador theater and the Chateau Carreras contemporary art center in Parque San Martín in the west of the city.
Less known than the art museums are the natural science museums. The Natural Science Museum Dr. Bartolomé Miter in Parque Sarmiento houses, among other things, the fossil of the world's largest prehistoric spider , also worth mentioning is the Dr. Pedro Ara . In the vicinity of the observatory is also the most important museum in Argentina for meteorology , the National Museum of Meteorology Dr. Benjamin Gould .
Because of the city's industrial past and present, there are several technical museums in the city. In the southwest of the city (Barrio Santa Isabel) is the Automobile Museum in the CIADEA industrial complex . The industrial museum is located in Parque General Paz and, in addition to various vehicles and machines, also houses the first rotating house in America (built in 1951 by Abdon Sahade), which stood in the Nueva Córdoba district until 2004 and was transported from there to the museum about 4 km away to make way for a high-rise building.
Some historical museums provide information about the past of the city, the focus is on the colonial times. There are two famous historical museums: the Marqués de Sobremonte Historical Museum , and the Obispo Fray José Antonio de San Alberto Museum in the Manzana de los Jesuitas. Interesting for numismatists are the Provincial Bank's Bank Museum (Museo Banco de la Provincia de Córdoba) and the National Bank's Numismatic Museum , which exhibits coin collections.
The Museo de la Ciudad in the Cabildo offers changing exhibitions on various topics such as music, history, art and culture in Cordoba and Argentina in general. There are also changing exhibitions on various topics in the José Malanca and Obispo Mercadillo exhibition centers and in the General Paz Culture Museum in the district of the same name. Another exhibition center is the Pabellón Argentina , part of the University of Córdoba .
Several important painters and sculptors come from the city. Her works are mostly exhibited in the Emilio Carraffa Museums (run by the Provincial Government) and the Genaro Pérez Municipal Art Museum , the Chateau Carreras Modern Art Center and several independent galleries.
The Franco-Argentine painter and sculptor Antonio Seguí (* 1934) , who is often classified as Pop Art , is particularly well-known in today's scene, but also controversial . The artist, who lives in Paris, created, among other things, the sculpture group La Familia Urbana ( Mujer Urbana , Hombre Urbano and Niños Urbanos ) in a style often described as childlike , built on three important roundabouts and at the city's airport .
The literary business in Cordoba is relatively little known in Argentina. The city of Córdoba is home to a few publishers, but their importance cannot compete with those from Buenos Aires, which is why writers with ambitions usually conclude contracts with publishers from the capital. A well-known writer from Cordoba in the first half of the 20th century was the novelist Hugo Wast , who also wrote non-fiction books influenced by conservatism . In the 1960s and 1970s, Córdoba developed a rich comic tradition that was grouped around the magazine Hortensia , which was one of the few inland publications to be successful in all of Argentina.
Recently , the best-selling bestseller from Córdoba was the book Sin Tapujos - La vida de un cura (Spanish for Without taboos - The life of a priest) by the Catholic priest Guillermo Mariani from 2003, in which he describes the everyday life of a priest in an autobiographical manner. It became known in large parts of Latin America and became a scandal, as it also deals with Mariani's sexual experiences.
Theater and film
Cordoba's largest theater is the Teatro del Libertador General San Martín , an opera house in the Italian style from around 1900. It has an opera season, but there are also other theater events of various kinds. Other well-known theaters are the traditional Teatro Real , also a neo-baroque opera house, and the Teatro Comedia , where both serious plays and humorous events take place. There are also about 30 other smaller theaters. There are many independent theater groups that often perform in pubs or at craft markets. The Festival de Teatro del Mercosur , one of the most important theater festivals in Latin America, takes place every two years in Córdoba.
Córdoba has a relatively large film school, which depends on the state university UNC. However, local production has great difficulty stepping out of the shadow of Buenos Aires and even Rosario , as little is invested in the film sector and talent mostly migrates to these cities. The city's cinemas, for the most part multiplexes, show mostly the Argentinian and international box office hits. There are also some film clubs, the most important of which is the city-dependent cine club Municipal Hugo del Carril , which also show local productions.
Several important orchestras and ensembles are active in the city. The best known are the Symphonic Orchestra of the University of Córdoba , the Symphonic Orchestra of the Province of Córdoba , the String Orchestra of the City of Córdoba , and the Symphonic Band of the Province of Córdoba . The Coricor International Choir Festival took place in winter until 2007, making Cordoba important for choral music . The International Festival of Contemporary Music Córdoba , founded by the composer Juan Carlos Tolosa and the contemporary chamber ensemble Córdoba Ensamble , has been taking place in spring since 2003 .
In pop music , the city developed its own musical genre in the 1940s, the cuarteto , a fast, happy dance that is related to the Caribbean merengue and has also mixed with it in the sub-genre Merenteto since the 1970s. The cuarteto is danced in discotheques and mainly on the so-called bailes ("balls") on which the bands play live for several hours in sports stadiums, gyms and ballrooms. These bailes take place every day from Wednesday to Sunday and are mainly attended by the youth of the lower classes; The exception is the band La Barra , which is also popular with the upper class. The most famous cuarteto singer and one of the personalities most associated with Cordoba is Carlos Jiménez , known as "La Mona"; Another well-known singer was Rodrigo Alejandro Bueno until his death in 2000 , who also made the music known in Buenos Aires and triggered a cuarteto boom across the country in the second half of the 1990s.
In the field of rock music there is a large and diverse scene, but only a few bands (e.g. Juan Terrenal and Armando Flores ) have achieved national recognition . The same applies to other areas of pop music such as Latin rock ( Los Caligaris , Los Cocineros ) and synth pop / Britpop ( Enhola , Esporádica ). De Boca en Boca , an ethno-pop / world music - a cappella - vocal band, are known throughout Latin America with their mixture of chants from different original cultures of the world in a modern guise.
In the field of electronic dance music, there has been a scene in Cordoba since the late 1980s that has become a mass movement, especially after 1995. Important DJs in the field of house , techno and dubstep from Córdoba are Simbad Segui , Paul Nova , Cristóbal Paz , Martín Huergo , Facu Carri and Andrés Oddone . There are several bands that make experimental electronic music, the best known are Zort , who have performed several times in Europe, and the electro-funk project Frikstailers .
Gastronomy and night life
An independent food culture has only rudimentarily developed in Córdoba. Compared to other Argentine cities, there are many simple Arab restaurants, as many of the city's residents have Arab ancestors. Arab-Argentine specialties such as the characteristic triangular Arab empanadas with a filling of minced meat, peppers and onions, niños envueltos (minced meat rice wrapped in chard leaves) and quepi (minced meatballs mixed with bulgur wheat) are often cooked in families, as well as Arabic sandwiches such as the doner kebab and shawarma are less well known. A particularly large number of restaurants are clustered next to the center in Nueva Córdoba, in the General Paz and Cerro de las Rosas districts and in the centrally located Alberdi.
The city's nightlife is diverse. The Arte Bars are typical, offering live music from various styles, theater and works by local artists. In addition, the Argentine LGBT club movement had its origin in Cordoba ; the first discotheque in the country specially tailored to this target group was located here.
The entertainment venues are concentrated in Nueva Córdoba , on Cerro de las Rosas, in Parque San Martín near the Chateau Carreras in the north-west of the city and on the central bank of the Río Suquía in an area where the large market Mercado de Abasto was located until 1990 . Numerous market halls have been converted into discos there. In the rest of the city, the discos and pubs are widely spread. Some clubs can also be found outside the main town in the suburbs, especially in Villa Allende , La Calera and Saldán . In summer, part of the scene also shifts to the holiday resort of Villa Carlos Paz , which has a few large discos.
Celebrations and events
Most of the festivities in Cordoba are based on the Christian calendar. The city also has two separate holidays: Founding Day or Día de Córdoba on July 6th and the day of the city's patron saint, St. Jerome ( San Jerónimo in Spanish) on September 30th.
In summer, the festivities focus on the nearby suburbs and tourist centers in the Sierras de Córdoba . Well-known festivals are held there, such as the Cosquín Folklore Festival and the Cosquin Rock Rock Festival .
The carnival begins at the end of January and is celebrated with traditional parades. It has its own character in Córdoba, because unlike in most other parts of Argentina there are no moving trucks, but the focus is on the dances that are performed. Characteristic costumes are vicious , Indian and folk, created by Italian immigrants figure of Cocoliche among men, next to accompany drum groups ( batucadas ) to Brazilian tradition with scantily clad dancers groups of the removals. There are more than a hundred murgas (dance groups) who take part in the parades and usually each represent their own neighborhood. The epicenter of carnival activity is in the San Vicente neighborhood , where the carnival tradition began in 1895 and where major parades continued until the early 2000s when they were relocated to Parque Sarmiento. Recently, Murgas from other cities and neighboring countries have also been taking part in the parades. A jury evaluates the various Murgas and selects those who are allowed to perform at the largest event on Carnival Sunday. In addition, a carnival queen is elected. There are also alternative carnival parades and events in other parts of the city, for example in Villa El Libertador .
The Easter festivities draw a particularly large number of tourists to the city. On Good Friday , an internationally known passion play is played by theater groups in the city , in which the various stations of the Stations of the Cross are shown in different places in the city. On Easter Sunday, after the traditional mass in the cathedral, an oversized Easter cake, the rosca gigante , is consumed in the central square Plaza San Martín . In many of the tourist-oriented suburbs of the Sierras, numerous events are on the program on these days.
Around the same time in March or April the Feria Internacional de Artesanías , the international handicraft fair, is held. It takes place on the exhibition grounds and hosts artisans from all over the world, mainly from Latin America.
In autumn, the Sexpoerótica, the largest erotic fair in Argentina, takes place.
The Argentine part of the World Rally Championship , which takes place every year from late autumn to winter (between May and July) in Cordoba and the surrounding area, is more sporty. Since 2006, this event, which has attracted up to a million visitors, has also included a skill test in the Estadio Mario Alberto Kempes stadium .
In September and October, the most important industrial fair in Córdoba and the entire interior of the country, the FICO Mercosur (Feria Internacional Córdoba), is held at the Predio Feriar exhibition center. At the FICO, which covers several branches from the food to the automotive industry, mainly companies from Argentina and neighboring countries present themselves.
The festival of immigrants, the Fiesta de las colectividades , takes place in October and November . The main event will be held in the Feriar exhibition center in the west of the city, where the traditional gastronomic specialties of the various immigrant groups as well as cultural contributions will be presented.
Also at this time in spring, the Feria del Libro (Book Fair) is held in several tents in Plaza San Martín. Argentine publishers in particular present their new publications there.
Most of the city's residents are descendants of immigrants. The native inhabitants of the region, the Comechingones and Sanavirones , on the other hand, were deported and almost exterminated by the Spaniards and then by the Argentines in the early 19th century. Today, 2.1 percent of households in the province of Cordoba belong to this population group.
In the first wave of immigration at the end of the 19th century, Italians , Spaniards and Germans, as well as people from the Arab cultural area, the so-called Turcos, came . This literally means Turks , but most of them are descendants of Syrians and Lebanese ; the name comes from the fact that all of these countries were earlier part of the Ottoman Empire . The second wave of immigration in the 20th century, which continues to this day, brought the city a large influx of Bolivians and Peruvians , who together make up about ten percent of the population today. However, there is also a high proportion of internal migrants from the north and northeast of Argentina, many of whom are of American Indian descent. Another significant group of inland migrants are students from inland who settle there permanently after completing their studies in the city's universities.
The population of Cordoba grew particularly rapidly in three phases: first with the rise of the city in the 17th century, then as a result of the wave of immigration from 1870 to 1920, in which the city became a major city, and from 1940 to 1970 parallel to the growth of industry which attracted many inland migrants.
The city's growth has slowed since the 1990s (less than one percent a year since 2001), while the suburbs are now growing rapidly. According to the 2010 census, Córdoba had 1,329,604 inhabitants, which corresponds to a growth of only 3.5 percent or the value of the 2001 census.
|1573||111 vecinos fundadores (founding citizens )|
|1980||970,570 (agglomeration: 1,004,929)|
|1991||1,157,507 (agglomeration: 1,208,554)|
|2001||1,267,521 (agglomeration: 1,368,301)|
While the suburbs counted as part of the agglomeration in the narrower sense (continuously built-up area without satellite cities) had just 34,459 inhabitants in 1980, there were 51,047 in 1991 and 100,780 in 2001. The full results for 2010 are still pending.
This goes hand in hand with the phenomenon of urban exodus that is widespread in Argentina and has economic and socio-cultural reasons: the significantly lower basic prices in the area and the tendency, especially among the upper class, to withdraw to green, often closed city districts (e.g. country clubs ), to escape the hustle and bustle and the crime and to be "among yourself". The space between Córdoba and Salsipuedes, 35 kilometers to the northwest, in the Sierras Chicas, is already continuously built on. Despite the fact that there was still more open space, the city showed a tendency towards the mid-2000s, through the establishment of large country clubs, to merge in a few decades with the city of Villa Carlos Paz, 40 kilometers to the west, and thus with a decidedly tourist area. In the zoning plan, which has been in force since 2010, however, numerous areas have been designated as non-buildable, thus stopping this development.
Problems with this growth on the periphery are, on the one hand, the destruction of nature, as particularly attractive areas are very popular with house builders and building permits were quickly granted before the zoning plan came into force. On the other hand, particularly in poorer areas, the explosive growth of some suburbs, whose infrastructure cannot keep up, leads to the formation of slums , as in Estación Juárez Celman , which increased its population almost tenfold between 1991 and 2001.
Economy and Infrastructure
Córdoba is the most important industrial and service center in central and north-western Argentina.
Most of the businesses (77%) are located in the service sector. Of these, 24% are in retail, 10% in wholesale, 8% in transport, 5% in health and 1% each in technology, finance, insurance and education. The industry accounts for 18% of the companies, of which 25% in the production of food and beverages, 22% in the construction industry, 16% in the metal industry, 7% in the textile industry, 5% in the furniture and wood industry and 2% in the chemical industry . The primary sector accounts for 5% of the holdings.
It should be noted in these figures that the largest sectors are also those with the most small businesses; therefore, this type of counting skews the actual importance of the sectors.
In a comparison within Argentina, Cordoba is considered a relatively wealthy city. The average wage, like the cost of living, is somewhat below the national average and well below the corresponding values from Buenos Aires . On the other hand, the social indicators such as unemployment (8.4%, 2nd quarter 2010) and the poverty rate are lower than the values in the capital region, which suggests a more favorable distribution of national income.
In market research, the urban area is divided into different zones or corridors, which take into account the socio-economic situation of the districts: center, northwest, northeast, southeast, south (Nueva Córdoba) and southwest. The most prosperous is the north-west, the most scenic and climatically attractive area, followed by the center, Nueva Córdoba, the south-east, the south-west and the north-east as the poorest area of the city and the most affected by environmental problems (especially water pollution).
Numerous important national and international companies have their headquarters or branches in Córdoba.
The companies in the automotive industry that settled in the 1950s are historically significant . Industrias Kaiser Argentina (IKA) in the Santa Isabel district in the southwest is now part of the Renault group. For a long time it was the city's most important automobile manufacturer and, among other things, manufactured the most famous purely Argentinian car model, the Torino , until the 1980s . Fiat Argentina produces automobiles and individual parts in the Ferreyra district in the southeast of the city; the production of cars was temporarily stopped in the crisis year 2002, but resumed in 2006. Volkswagen produces transmissions and automobiles in the San Carlos district in the south. There is also the Argentine company Materfer , which manufactures agricultural machinery, railway wagons and, since 2006, buses.
The most important aircraft manufacturer in Argentina is the Fábrica Argentina de Aviones (formerly Fábrica Militar de Aviones ) in the southwest of the city. The company originally belonged to the armed forces and was operated from 1995 by a local branch of Lockheed Martin , from which the Argentine state acquired the majority of shares in 2009 and in this way nationalized the company again. The reconnaissance and training aircraft Pampa is manufactured here.
Since the 1990s and especially since the devaluation of the peso in 2002, Córdoba has increasingly distinguished itself as an important center of the hardware and software industry in Argentina. A software development center of the Motorola group has been located here since the end of the 1990s , and Intel , which produces software in the city, settled here in 2006 . A technology park has been under construction in the immediate vicinity of the airport since 2006.
Furthermore, there are numerous small and medium-sized companies that are located in a wide variety of industries. Many of them were founded by former students; they are often located in the areas of software, media and design and have good location advantages, especially because of the university.
Because of the city's function as a service center for large parts of central Argentina, retail is the branch of the economy with the highest turnover, but the market is considered very competitive, as the density of companies in this area is very high. It is concentrated in the center of the city and some peripheral areas.
In the center, most of the shops are in the pedestrian zone around Plaza San Martín , where there are a particularly large number of fashion stores. In the area around the Mercado Norte , the most important food market in the center about a kilometer further north, specialty shops from a wide variety of industries are concentrated. The same applies, to a lesser extent, to the Mercado Sur one kilometer south of the center near the Nueva Córdoba neighborhood . This, together with the Cerro de las Rosas, is considered an in-shopping center, where fashion stores especially geared towards a young clientele are located.
Since the 1980s, numerous US-style wholesale markets and shopping centers have opened in Córdoba. The most important shopping malls are in the center of the Patio Olmos and the Garden Shopping , in the west the Nuevocentro Shopping and in the north the Córdoba Shopping and the Dinosaurio Mall .
Cityscape, architecture and living situation
The cityscape of Córdoba is inconsistent, as it unites elements of different architectural style epochs in a largely seamless manner.
The center was originally dominated by the Baroque buildings of the Jesuits from the 17th and 18th centuries. There were also several neo-baroque buildings from the period between 1870 and 1930, when the city was in its first major growth phase. However, numerous new buildings from the 20th century have permanently changed the architectural character, so that large parts of the city today have a modern, functional character. In some corners, however, the colonial architecture has still been preserved, and the affected buildings are listed.
In some of the city quarters bordering the center there are still numerous old buildings. They are called barrios tradicionales , traditional neighborhoods. In these quarters, especially in San Vicente, Alta Córdoba, General Paz, Pueyrredón and Juniors , wealthy immigrant families settled in the middle of the 19th century and built their villa-like residences in a wide variety of architectural styles. The same applies to the newer Cerro de las Rosas (from the 1920s), the most famous villa district today, in which one can also find reminiscences of the families' origins in the architecture, for example, there are residences in the half-timbered house style or replica English country houses . A few neighborhoods were named after the immigrant groups who settled there, such as the Barrio Inglés (English Quarter) and the Barrio Armenio (Armenian Quarter), both in the Pueyrredón district; there, the residential buildings cluster with elements from the immigrants' country of origin.
Some districts did not grow naturally, but were planned on the drawing board. This applies in particular to Nueva Córdoba (New Córdoba) south of the center, which was planned in 1886 by the architect Carlos Thays in the project of the Parque Sarmiento. Most of the houses there were built in the Spanish-influenced neo-baroque style, but in the second half of the 20th century these buildings were replaced by high-rise buildings that dominate the area today.
The middle-class and working-class quarters of the suburbs are architecturally similarly heterogeneous as those of most other Argentine cities, an urban concept is often completely lacking here. Simple, functional low-rise buildings alternate with a few more elaborately built residential buildings.
Since the 1990s, some skyscrapers in the futuristic glass concrete style have been built in Córdoba. The best known is the Torre Ecipsa in Nueva Córdoba, next to it is the Sheraton Hotel Córdoba west of the center. The tendency continued after the turn of the millennium, numerous similar buildings are under construction or in planning. In doing so, however, the skyscrapers are nowhere near as high as in the USA; the tallest structure, the Torre Ángela , measures only 115 meters.
Overall, Córdoba has a relatively low population density for a large city. This is due to the fact that in the past, uncontrolled building sites were constantly being developed on the periphery, leaving large unused areas in relatively central parts of the city. Only since 2008 has a zoning plan, the Plan Director , been tried to counteract this tendency, since urban sprawl leads to high costs for the infrastructure. In addition, the unused areas are viewed as hiding places and retreats for criminals, as they are not or only poorly lit.
Like many other South American cities, Cordoba also has numerous slums, most of which were created on an informal basis , i.e. through illegal land grabbing. Around 110,000 people, eight percent of the city's population, lived in one of these settlements, known as Villa Miseria in Argentina , according to the Argentine statistical office INDEC in 2001 ; depending on the estimate, there were between 103 (official estimate) and 158 (study by the non-governmental organization Sehas 2003) of these informal settlements . The largest slum, Villa La Tela, is located in the southwest of the city and with around 15,000 inhabitants has one of the highest population figures of any Argentine slum.
The housing situation has improved in recent years due to a wide variety of construction activities both on the part of the state and on the part of independent housing associations . Since 2002, the number of slums has been falling due to new social housing programs; In a follow-up study in 2007, Sehas found a decrease in informal settlements to 118 and their population from 103,650 (2001) to 63,778.
The most extensive, but also the most controversial program of social housing is the Nuevos Barrios - Mi Casa, Mi Vida (2001 to 2008) financed by the provincial government and the Inter-American Development Bank , which relocates the slums in newly built, large residential areas on the outskirts. The program comprised 11,100 residential units. In this program, however, critics complained that the residents of the lowest social classes in the outlying districts had to travel long distances to their workplaces. The monumentality of the project was also viewed as not in keeping with the times, since it favored the formation of ghetto-like societies and their exclusion by the rest of the city's population. The acceptance of the new social housing estates by the residents of neighboring districts was partly negative, for this reason there was unrest in the district of Matienzo in 2005 for several weeks.
The state-run Promeba (Programa de Mejoramiento de Barrios) program, inspired by the Brazilian favela-bairro , takes a different point of view . It provides for the targeted urbanization of the slums themselves. Integrated into Promeba is the sub- program Arraigo , which provides for the legalization of land titles when the slums are on state territory. Several districts of Cordoba are currently being urbanized according to this model.
The building cooperatives, in turn, are looked after by the non-governmental organizations Serviproh and Sehas with legal advice. They build inexpensive apartments in small quantities near the original settlements, with the aim of maintaining the integration of the residents in their settlement area. In addition, some social housing complexes are also being built by trade unions, such as the high-rise district Barrio SEP in the south of Córdoba .
Construction is also very active in more affluent areas of the city. For example, the Nueva Córdoba district south of the center, which used to be a veritable old town, has become a boom area with many high-rise buildings and high square meter prices since the 1990s. More and more apartment blocks and high-rise complexes are also being built in further outlying areas. The construction of closed, large-scale residential complexes for the upper class in the periphery, which are known as country clubs in Argentina, has also been booming since the 1990s . Newer manifestations are fenced, guarded, integrated high-rise complexes in more central areas as well as closed residential complexes with smaller plots for the middle class.
The city's most important daily newspaper is La Voz del Interior, founded in 1904 . It is politically inconsistent and has some high-quality journalism and, in terms of its circulation, is one of the ten most important daily newspapers in Argentina, but is practically only sold in the province of Córdoba. It belongs to a Spanish-Argentinian group of companies. La Mañana de Córdoba is the second most important newspaper, its focus is on the economy, which is mainly due to the fact that the newspaper has long belonged to the group of the leading Argentine business paper Ámbito Financiero . Día a Día , Hoy Día Córdoba and Reporte 15 cover the low-price segment. In addition, the business newspaper Comercio y Justicia and the free newspaper El Diario del Bolsillo appear . Magazines that are published in the city include the political magazine Orillas , the events paper Aquí , the tabloid and scene magazine Las Rosas and the music magazine Todo Cuarteto .
There are a variety of private and government radio stations in the city . The best known by far is the nationwide FM and MW broadcasting Cadena 3 (LV3), followed by LV2 and the culturally and scientifically oriented Radio Universidad of the University of UNC. Most broadcasters play music-only programs with only sporadic text-based programs, and many are dedicated to cuarteto music.
The national television stations Telefe and Canal 13 broadcast a regional program with their own productions in Córdoba via the partner stations Teleocho and Canal 12 . Canal 10 , which is dependent on the UNC, broadcasts its own productions as well as formats from the state-run Canal 7 and the private channels América TV and Canal 9 from Buenos Aires. It is considered the broadcaster with the most demanding programming and also shows niche topics and alternative productions. There are also some cable channels such as Suquía , which is largely limited to broadcasting Cuarteto music.
Hundreds of thousands of tourists visit the city every year. The main goal are the colonial buildings in the center, as well as the museums and cultural institutions. The western outskirts of the city around Villa Carlos Paz , but also in the suburbs of Río Ceballos and Alta Gracia , are among the most famous tourist areas in the country, after the Atlantic coast and the southern Andes.
The city's airport, Ingeniero Taravella ( IATA code COR), also known as Pajas Blancas , is the third busiest in the country after the two airports in Buenos Aires. It was renovated and expanded in 2006 and has had a capacity of three million passengers a year since then. Since the aviation crisis from 2002, as a result of the devaluation in the Argentina crisis, the number of passengers fell sharply, the connections have been thinned out considerably compared to the 1990s. There are currently (2016) international direct connections to Brazil , Chile , Panama and Peru .
The center of medium-haul traffic and domestic long-distance traffic is the bus station (Terminal de Omnibus), from which there are connections to almost all major cities in Argentina, as well as international connections to Chile , Uruguay and Brazil (direct) as well as to Bolivia , Peru , Ecuador and Paraguay (with a change). The bus station was expanded to include a second terminal building in 2011 and has since become one of the largest in the country with over a hundred bus platforms.
The city has several train stations and was an important center of rail transport until 1992, when the privatization policy of the Carlos Menem government led to the closure of almost all passenger lines in the country. Only two of the stations are currently in operation, the Estación Miter in the center not far from the bus station and the Estación Rodríguez del Busto in the northwest, which is only used for the Tren de las Sierras local train . From there, a local train runs daily to Villa María and a long-distance train two to three times a week to Rosario and Buenos Aires . In May 2006, planning began for a high-speed train ( TAVe ) that will run on the same route to Buenos Aires and later to Mar del Plata ; the realization of the project is uncertain after long delays.
The region's trunk road network is star-shaped towards Córdoba. Of particular importance is the Ruta Nacional 9 , which connects the city with Buenos Aires and Rosario in the southeast and with Santiago del Estero , San Miguel de Tucumán , Salta and San Salvador de Jujuy in the northwest. On the section southeast of Córdoba, it has been continuously expanded into a motorway since 2010, while the northern section to Santiago del Estero has only been expanded in parts. The Ruta Nacional 20 to San Juan connects Córdoba with the Cuyo and is a motorway to Villa Carlos Paz . The main connections to Santa Fe ( Ruta Nacional 19 ) and Río Cuarto as well as Patagonia ( Ruta Nacional 36 ) were gradually expanded like a motorway from the early 2010s.
The city's public transportation has its origins in the second half of the 19th century when the city began to grow rapidly due to the influx of immigrants. In 1879, a horse-drawn tram was installed as the city's first public transport system. Because of the warm, but also changeable climate, some of the tracks were built using an open construction method. In 1909 the system was electrified, whereby the open design was retained by equipping the wagons with very large, hinged windows. From 1930 onwards, following the example of Buenos Aires, buses (colectivos) began to run increasingly . In the 1940s and 1950s, the tram operator was increasingly faced with economic problems that could not be resolved, primarily because of this new competition. This led to a drastic measure in 1962: the complete shutdown of the network. As of this year, public transport has been almost exclusively done by road.
The 60 or so inner-city bus routes (urbanos) are organized in a color scheme, with each color representing one of six corridors; there are also two ring lines ( Anillo Interior and Anillo Exterior ) and three trolleybus lines. Magnetic cards are used for payment. The city bus system is operated on the one hand by the city government in the state company TAMSE (Transportes Automotores Municipales Sociedad del Estado), which operates the trolleybus routes, but largely by private companies subsidized by the city ( Coniferal , Transportes Santa Fe and ERSA ). It is often the target of criticism because the frequencies are low and the buses are therefore often overcrowded.
The city lines are supplemented by around 30 suburban lines (interurbanos) , all of which are operated by private carriers. Each bus company has its own tariff system, but there is a framework that is dictated by the province and whose prices must not be exceeded. Some suburban lines, especially the lines to Villa Carlos Paz , have higher frequencies than most city bus lines.
In 2009, the Ferrourbano Córdoba , a light rail network, began operating . The first line, inaugurated on June 18, 2009, ran from Belgrano station in the Alta Córdoba district to Rodríguez del Busto in the north-west. Other lines under construction connect this route to the inner-city long-distance train station Miter and the train stations Ferreyra and Flores in the south of the city. Due to security problems in a slum area, the first line has never been operated as a full-fledged light rail and was discontinued in 2012.
There is also a project to build two underground lines.
The transport system is supplemented by taxis and remises , a kind of radio taxis. While the taxis are painted yellow, the Remises are green and are only officially allowed to accept passengers after ordering by phone. In the crisis years 2002 and 2003, when the bus system was working particularly badly, the taxis and remises took passengers for bus coins, i.e. they acted as shared taxis, even if the very strict legal regulations for this type of transport did not allow this. In addition, there were occasionally private, unauthorized buses and minibuses, so-called piratas , which were often in very poor condition and took passengers for the same price as the normal buses. In 2003 a project to legalize these illegal companies to increase the frequencies caused a sensation, but this was not implemented due to the improving economic situation, which allowed the modernization of the vehicle fleet.
Urban road network
Almost without exception, the streets of Córdoba are laid out according to the checkerboard pattern. In the city center, but also in most parts of the city, the streets are almost all one-way streets, some of which have more than five lanes (the front runner is Boulevard Chacabuco / Avenida Maipú , an eight-lane one-way street).
Córdoba is surrounded by the Avenida Circunvalación , a ring road , of which, however, a section in the northwest of the city is still missing. An inner ring system is currently being built to surround the center. There is also the Anillo del Gran Córdoba , the Ruta C-45 , an outer ring system around the suburban belt of the city, which bypasses it in a radius of about 50 km. However, an extensive section is still missing in the east.
education and Science
The level of education of the city's citizens is above average. Of the residents over 15 years of age, 12.23% have a university education (national average: 8.73%), 33.13% have completed secondary school education (24.49%), 42.60% have completed primary school without secondary school (48.87 %) and only 12.04% did not complete primary school (17.90%). 1.33% are illiterate.
The city has several universities . The largest and best known is the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC), founded in 1613 with around 118,000 students (2005), it is the oldest university in Argentina and the second largest in terms of the number of students. This is followed by the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN), which specializes in engineering and has several branches in the country, the Instituto Universitario Aeronáutico , which is also state-run , offers courses in aviation, and there is also the Universidad Católica de Córdoba , which is dependent on the Catholic Church the private Universidad Blas Pascal and Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21 as well as numerous state and private universities that are not considered universities, the so-called Terciarios , comparable to technical colleges and universities of teacher education. The Universidad Libre del Ambiente, which is dependent on the city government, is not a university in the traditional sense, but rather a somewhat formal institute that offers courses and campaigns on the subject of environmental protection.
Scientific activity takes place mainly in the faculties of the UNC and there in particular in medical research, robotics and bionics as well as in the Centro de Estudios Avanzados (Center for Advanced Studies), which is active in the social sciences . There are also a number of private research institutions in various areas.
The city's schools are organized by several, mostly state-run, organizations, most of them depend on the city (municipio) and the province of Córdoba, but there are also numerous private and church schools. The best-known institutions are the UNC-dependent Colegio Nacional de Montserrat and Escuela Manuel Belgrano , and there is also a German school (Colegio Alemán) .
Security and crime
The city's police force rests on three pillars. The Policía Federal (Federal Police) depends on the state of Argentina and takes care of compliance with federal laws, such as the fight against drug and arms trafficking. The Policía de Córdoba depends on the province and provides by far the largest part of the security forces. She takes care of compliance with provincial laws and also takes on the task of guarding and securing private and public facilities. Its best-known division is the Comando de Acción Preventiva (CAP, German Preventive Action Command ), which takes on the task of preventive patrols through the city and the surrounding area as well as carrying out police checks in all-terrain vehicles. There is also the Policía Municipal , the municipal police, which, however, has far fewer powers than the provincial and federal police, for example they are not allowed to make arrests. It takes care of the compliance with municipal norms , it is under the control of the Policía de Tránsito (traffic police ) and numerous other divisions that control the observance of the norms for the companies and facilities of the city, such as fire protection regulations. The tourist division also has German-speaking staff.
Official crime statistics in Cordoba are only available at the provincial level. In 2003, 136,892 crimes were counted in the entire province of Córdoba, giving a crime rate of around 24 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants. Of all crimes, 139 were homicides , the murder rate is 4.6 (including manslaughter) per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2007 the newspaper La Voz del Interior published murder rate figures for the city proper; according to this, 74 homicides were counted in Córdoba in 2006 (murder rate 5.8 / 100,000 inhabitants), of which only 26 could be solved. The value is higher than the provincial average and also above the value of Buenos Aires (4.6). The largest prison in the Córdoba metropolitan area is located near the village of Bouwer , about 25 kilometers south of the city center.
There are some areas in the city that the media refer to as red zones to signal that they have a significantly higher crime rate than others. Most of these areas are located on the southern periphery near the Avenida Circunvalación ring road, especially the large working-class neighborhood of Villa El Libertador is repeatedly mentioned as a focus of crime, as are the large slums in the southwest (La Tela) and northeast (General Savio-La Escuelita) . However, so far there are no official statistical data on the distribution of the offenses across the districts.
The most popular sport in Cordoba, like all of Argentina, is football . In addition to the official sports fields, it is played on countless football fields and on the street.
There are four professional clubs, each of which comes from different parts of the city and thus represents a specific socio-economic class. Since the 2011 season, Club Atlético Belgrano from the working-class Alberdi district has been playing in the first division Primera División . Talleres from the Barrio Jardín (garden district), which is dominated by the middle class, is considered to be Belgrano's arch-rival. The club currently also plays in the first division ( Primera División ) and can boast an international success: winning the South American Copa Conmebol in 1999. Since being promoted again in the 2015/16 season, Talleres was able to play for the Copa Libertadores in the 2017/18 season In 2018, qualify for the largest South American soccer competition because it ended the season in 5th place. Also, Instituto Atlético Central Córdoba to call from the neighborhood Alta Cordoba, also played in the Nacional B. Belgrano, Talleres and Instituto have been top notch several times so far.
Racing de Nueva Italia , whose fans compete with Instituto , play in the fourth division, the Torneo Argentino B. In the same league, General Paz Juniors, the only professional team in the city from a quarter of the upper class, plays. In addition to these clubs active in the nationwide league system and others in the Torneo Argentino C (5th league), there are numerous district clubs that play in the league system of the province of Cordoba.
The largest football stadium is the Estadio Mario Alberto Kempes (formerly Estadio Córdoba ) in Parque San Martín, built in 1978 for the World Cup , which is also called chateau after the neighboring castle Chateau Carreras . After an expansion in 2011, it has a capacity of 57,000 spectators, making it one of the largest sports stadiums in Argentina. Other large stadiums are the Estadio Presidente Juan Domingo Perón in Alta Córdoba (30,000 spectators) used by Instituto and the Estadio Julio César Villagra (also known as Gigante de Alberdi , 28,000) operated by Belgrano . The Estadio Boutique de Barrio Jardín by Talleres is usually only used for minor games due to its small capacity (16,500), otherwise Talleres plays in the Estadio Kempes.
In the Estadio Kempes, the last game so far in the context of a world or European championship in which the Austrian national soccer team was able to win against the German national team took place at the soccer World Cup on June 21, 1978 . The game ended 3-2. From an Austrian point of view, this was irrelevant for the outcome of the World Cup, but it gave Austrian football a boost in self-confidence. “Cordoba” is used in Austria as a synonym for success in football. In Germany, the shame of Córdoba (in Austria Wunder von Córdoba ) is considered one of the worst defeats of all time, and the German national team was eliminated from the tournament as the reigning world champion after Munich in 1974 due to the defeat. The game established the reputation of Hans Krankl , who scored two goals.
In basketball , the record champions of the Argentine league, Atenas (8 titles since 1987) reside in Cordoba . It is considered one of the best clubs in the world outside of the US NBA and has won a South American championship six times.
Tennis is a popular sport among the city's middle and upper classes. The professional David Nalbandian , who was temporarily in the top 10 in the world rankings and was thus the best-placed Argentine, comes from the Cordobes suburb of Unquillo . In addition, hockey is very popular among girls and young women in this social class .
Equestrian sports such as horse racing and polo are far less popular in Córdoba than in Buenos Aires . Only about ten times a year there is a race in the Hipódromo , the horse racing track in Barrio Jardín in the south of the city. Polo tournaments in the Córdoba area belong to the lower divisions and are usually only played in front of a small audience.
Boxing , on the other hand, is relatively popular . The fights are mostly held in the indoor stadium Orfeo Superdomo in the northwest of the city. The most famous boxer is Fabio Moli (heavyweight), known as "La Mole". Moli became known in Germany in 2003 because he was knocked out in a fight against Wladimir Klitschko after 109 seconds in the first round.
Many famous Argentines were born in Córdoba. In addition, many politicians and scientists, especially during the colonial period and in the 19th century, studied at the University of Córdoba, which for a long time was the largest and most important in the country.
Sons and daughters of the town:
- Marcelo Álvarez (* 1962), opera singer
- Roberto Álvarez (* 1968), Roman Catholic clergyman, auxiliary bishop in Comodoro Rivadavia
- Alberto Ammann (* 1978), actor
- Osvaldo Ardiles (* 1952), football player
- Jorge Arduh (* 1923), tango musician and composer
- Héctor Bianciotti (1930–2012), writer
- Efraín Bischoff (1912–2013), writer and historian
- Rodrigo Alejandro Bueno (1973–2000), Cuarteto singer nicknamed "El Potro"
- Arturo Capdevila (1889–1967), writer and poet
- Celia Caturelli (* 1953), visual artist
- Miguel Juárez Celman (1844–1909), President of Argentina between 1886 and 1890
- Roberto Damián Colautti (* 1982), Israeli soccer player
- Fabricio Coloccini (* 1982), football player
- Román Antonio Deheza (1791–1872), general and governor
- Santiago Derqui (1809–1867), President of Argentina between 1860 and 1861
- Clarisa Fernández (* 1981), professional tennis player
- Juan Filloy (1894-2000), writer
- Facundo Gambandé (* 1990), actor, singer and dancer
- Sofía Gatica (* 1967), environmental activist, winner of the Goldman Environmental Prize 2012
- Deán Gregorio Funes (1749–1829), clergyman and politician, member of the first junta in 1810
- Minino Garay (* 1968), jazz drummer and percussionist
- Pedro Giraudo (* 1977), jazz and tango musician
- Raúl Giró , jazz and tango musician
- Javier Girotto (* 1965), jazz musician
- Gerardo Di Giusto (* 1961), composer and pianist
- Gabriela González (* 1965), physicist
- "La Mona" (Carlos Jiménez) (* 1951), singer
- Manolo Juárez (1937-2020), composer
- Luis Juez (* 1963), politician, Mayor of Córdoba
- Malena Kuss (* 1940), musicologist
- Víctor Rubén López (* 1978), football player
- Enrique Martínez Ossola (* 1952), Roman Catholic clergyman, auxiliary bishop in Santiago del Estero
- Juan Carlos Menseguez (* 1984), soccer player (with VfL Wolfsburg until 2007 )
- Tununa Mercado (* 1939), writer and journalist
- Giuliano Modica (* 1991), football player
- Carlos José Ñáñez (* 1946), Catholic Archbishop of Córdoba
- Erik Oña (1961–2019), composer, conductor and music teacher
- Javier Pastore (* 1989), football player
- Cristian Pavón (* 1996), football player
- José María Paz (1791-1854), general in the Wars of Independence
- Gabriel Pérez (* 1964), jazz musician and composer
- Abel Posse (* 1934), writer and diplomat
- Florencia Quiñones (* 1986), soccer and futsal player
- Ana-Maria Rizzuto (* 1932), psychoanalyst
- Eduardo Romero (* 1954), professional golfer
- Fernando de la Rúa (1937–2019), Argentine politician (UCR) and President of Argentina (1999–2001)
- Antonio Seguí (* 1934), painter and sculptor
- José Manuel de la Sota (1949–2018), politician (PJ)
- José Shaffer (* 1985), football player
- Silvana Suárez (* 1958), model (Miss World 1979)
- Alicia Terzian (* 1934), composer
- Pedro Javier Torres (* 1960), Catholic clergyman, auxiliary bishop in Córdoba
- Manuel Trajtenberg (* 1950), Israeli economist and politician
- Jorge Uliarte (* 1962), conductor
- Ernesto Garzón Valdés (* 1927), lawyer and political scientist
- Hugo Wast (1883–1962), writer
- Roberto Yanés (1932–2019), singer
- María del Carmen Angueira: Historia de la ciudad de Córdoba. Biblos, Buenos Aires 1991, ISBN 950-9316-87-3
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- El “San Telmo cordobés” ( Memento of the original from January 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Clasificados La Voz del Interior, accessed January 3, 2015
- Una visita guiada al campanario María Auxiliadora , Día a Día, April 21, 2013
- Casas metálicas Eiffel en Argentina ( Memento of the original from February 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Arquitectura de Casas
- Inauguran hoy el Centro Cultural Córdoba , La Mañana de Córdoba, October 15, 2014
- Se creó la Facultad de Artes de la UNC , La Voz del Interior, November 12, 2011
- Escuela de Artes ( Memento of the original from January 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , History of the School of Art, University of Cordoba web portal
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- Data from the official website of Córdoba ( Memento of the original from February 23, 2011) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. for 2004, according to data from the INDEC statistics office
- Cayó el desempleo en el Gran Córdoba pero creció fuertemente la subocupación ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Comercio y Justicia, August 24, 2010, according to data from the EPH (Encuesta Permanente de Hogares) survey conducted by INDEC
- Source: Cordoba website
- Article in La Voz del Interior
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