Cordoba (Spain)

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coat of arms Map of Spain
Cordoba Coat of Arms
Córdoba (Spain) (Spain)
Finland road sign 311 (1994-2020) .svg
Basic data
Autonomous Community : Andalusia
Province : Cordoba
Coordinates 37 ° 53 ′  N , 4 ° 47 ′  W Coordinates: 37 ° 53 ′  N , 4 ° 47 ′  W
Height : 120  msnm
Area : 1,252 km²
Residents : 325,701 (Jan. 1, 2019)
Population density : 260.14 inhabitants / km²
Postal code : 14001-14014
Municipality number  ( INE ): 14021
Mayor : Isabel Ambrosio ( PSOE )
Website :

Córdoba [ ˈkoɾðoβa ] is the capital of the province of Córdoba in southern Spain and the third largest city in Andalusia . The city, whose precursors go back to Roman antiquity , is characterized by its historical heritage and many buildings from the time of the Moorish rule, when Córdoba was temporarily the center of government and learning on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the largest cities in the world. The Mezquita-Catedral , which emerged from a mosque - one of the largest preserved in Europe - has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984 .


Cordoba on the Guadalquivir River

The city of Córdoba is a municipality and comarca of the same name in the province of Córdoba. It lies at the foot of the Sierra Morena in a basin of the Guadalquivir .


Cordoba has a continental Mediterranean climate that is influenced by the Atlantic. Winters are mild, frost is rare. Summers are usually very hot with large daily temperature fluctuations. The average maximum temperatures are the highest in all of Europe. In summer more than 40 ° C are regularly reached. The average temperatures in July and August are 27 ° C. Due to the influence of the Atlantic, precipitation is concentrated in the cooler months of December to February. The annual amount of precipitation varies greatly, but can exceed 500 mm.

The highest temperature ever recorded by the Observatorio del Aeropuerto de Córdoba is 46.6 ° C (July 23, 1995). "In July 2017, the temperature in Cordoba was 46.9 degrees." The lowest temperature was −8.2 ° C (January 28, 2005).

Cordoba (90 m)
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, period 1981-2010
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cordoba (90 m)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 14.9 17.4 21.3 22.8 27.4 32.8 36.9 36.5 31.6 25.1 19.1 15.3 O 25.1
Min. Temperature (° C) 3.6 4.9 7.4 9.3 12.6 16.5 19.0 19.4 16.9 13.0 7.8 5.5 O 11.4
Temperature (° C) 9.3 11.1 14.4 16.0 20.0 24.7 28.0 28.0 24.2 19.1 13.5 10.4 O 18.3
Precipitation ( mm ) 66 55 49 55 40 13 2 5 35 86 80 111 Σ 597
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 5.6 6.6 7.0 7.8 9.3 10.8 11.7 10.8 8.3 6.6 6.0 4.8 O 7.9
Rainy days ( d ) 7.2 6.1 4.9 6.7 4.9 1.4 0.4 0.6 3.2 6.9 5.9 8.1 Σ 56.3
Humidity ( % ) 76 71 64 60 55 48 41 43 52 66 73 79 O 60.6
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Cordoba goes back to an old Iberian settlement. It was born in 169 BC. Occupied by the Romans and developed as Corduba into the capital of southern Spain. Corduba became a bishopric in the 3rd or 4th century . One of the first bishops is said to have been Ossius (Hosius), who served as adviser to Constantine the Great a . a. significantly influenced the Council of Nicaea .

After being destroyed by the Vandals , Cordoba remained part of the Visigoth Empire . From 554 to 571 it belonged to the eastern Roman province of Spania . After it was reconquered by the Visigoths in 572, it lost its importance and fell into disrepair.

In 711 the city was taken by the Moors , from 716 it was temporarily the seat of the governor of al-Andalus and from 756 the capital of the Umayyad emirate of Córdoba . In the 9th century, the universal scholar ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Habīb and the traditionalist Baqī ibn Machlad , who played a key role in the introduction of hadith scholarship in al-Andalus, worked here. The Cordoba martyrs were executed in the 850s . The Caliphate of Cordoba was established in the 10th century . Around half a million people lived in Córdoba ( Arabic قرطبة, Qurtuba ), which was then one of the largest cities in the known world . Christians , Jews and Muslims mostly lived together peacefully. According to the Andalusian scholar asch-Shaqundī (d. 1231/32), the residents of Córdoba were the most ardent followers of the Maliki school of law, so that they did not appoint a ruler if he did not vow to follow this madhhab in his decisions .

After the fall of the caliphate , during the Taifa kingdoms , the Moorish dynasty of the Jahwarids first gained power in 1031 , which was replaced by the Abbadids from Seville in 1069 . After their fall in 1091, the city belonged to the rulership of the Berber dynasty of the Almoravids . In 1148 the city was conquered by the Almohads , in 1236 by the Christian troops for Castile during the Reconquista ( fall of Cordoba ).

During the Spanish War of Independence , the city was captured on June 8, 1808 by French troops under General Pierre Dupont de l'Étang , looted and largely destroyed.


Córdoba is the only major city in Spain where the Izquierda Unida (IU) or the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) has led the city government for a long time since the transition to democracy. In the local elections on May 22, 2011, the candidate of the Popular Party ( Partido Popular ), José Antonio Nieto , was elected as the new mayor with 48% of the valid votes. The People's Party received 16 of the 29 city council seats. Thus, the People's Party was able to govern Cordoba without a coalition with other parties. In 2015 he was followed by Isabel Ambrosio from PSOE .

Town twinning

Córdoba maintains the following city ​​partnerships :

There are friendship agreements with:

The town twinning with the city of Nuremberg (Germany) was signed on May 6, 2010. The mayors of both cities signed a declaration of intent on this on October 3, 2009 in Nuremberg. The partnership goes back to the friendship and town twinning initiative Nürnberg-Córdoba, an initiative of the Centro Español Nürnberg eV, which has existed since 1961.


Cordoba is well connected. It is located on one of the Spanish high-speed routes (Madrid - Seville with high-speed connections also to Zaragoza and Barcelona) operated by the Spanish state-owned rail network operator Adif. The nearest major cities Seville and Granada can be reached by car in a short time . Córdoba is located on the Spanish A 4 (Autovía del Sur) Madrid - Córdoba - Seville - Jerez de la Frontera, from which the A 41 branches off in Córdoba to Ciudad Real . Cordoba has only one small airport, which is planned to be expanded. So far, travelers have largely relied on the surrounding airports of Málaga , Seville or Madrid .

In recent years, special attention has been paid to promoting cycling . From 2003 onwards, a network of cycle paths and cycle routes was built through the city and a rental cycle system was established. As a result, the share of cycling in the modal split was increased from 0.2% to 6.6% within a very short period of time, and is to be increased further to 15% by 2015.

Culture and sights

The city is considered one of the tourist attractions in Spain . The Mezquita-Catedral has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984, and the entire old town since 1994 .


Inside the mezquita
Roman bridge
Cordoba City Hall
Templo romano
Courtyard of the Posada del Potro
  • The Mezquita-Catedral is the most important building in the city, which was built as a mosque from 784 and expanded several times. With an area of ​​23,000 m², it would be the third largest mosque in the world today. Around 860 marble columns in parallel rows each support two arches lying one above the other, creating a special play of light and shadow. Probably the most important prayer niche of Moorish origin is the mihrab, a vaulted shrine with Byzantine mosaics , built by al-Hakam II around 960 . In 1236, the year it was reconquered by the Christians, the mosque was consecrated as a Christian cathedral. In the middle of the mosque, a huge nave was built in the Renaissance style over a period of 234 years from 1523.
  • The Puente Romano ("Roman Bridge") leads over the Guadalquivir to the Mezquita and has 16 arches. It was built by the Romans after the Battle of Munda (45 BC) and was once part of the Via Augusta . The bridge was completely renewed by the resident Moorish caliphs in the 10th century and renovated several times after the Reconquista. A 17th century monument to the Archangel Raphael is located in the central part of the bridge. It serves as the filming location for the Long Bridge of Volantis in the TV series Game of Thrones .
  • The Torre de la Calahorra was built in the Middle Ages as a watchtower at the end of the Roman Bridge facing away from the old town. Today it houses a museum of the Roger Garaudy Foundation , which deals with the coexistence of the various religions during the time of the Caliphate.
  • The Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos is a palace complex built in the 14th century on the ground plan of an older Arab palace with an extensive garden area divided into levels. In the rooms of the palace there are two mosaics from the 2nd century and some Roman sarcophagi from the 3rd century.
  • The Palacio de Viana is one of the most historically important palaces in Córdoba with the construction of the 16th century, which has been crisscrossed with terraces and galleries and which has been rebuilt again and again. In the museum there is an important library and various rooms with Flemish tapestries, muskets, silver and historical furniture.
  • The ruins of the Medina Azahara palace are located approx. 8 km west of the city. On October 9, 2009, the Spanish Queen inaugurated a museum on the extensive ruins.
  • The Judería is the old town where Jews and Arabs used to live. In its narrow streets you can find restaurants and the only one of the 300 synagogues in Cordoba that was not destroyed by the Christian Reconquista after the expulsion of the Jews . The Sinagoga de Córdoba , built in the 14th century, is one of the few preserved in Spain from this period. It can be reached via an inner courtyard, above the entrance portal are rich stucco decorations in Mudejar style .
  • The Baños Califales ("Baths of the Caliph") were built in the 10th century and are now accessible not far from the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos as an exhibition on the functioning of the old Arab baths.
  • All the buildings on the Plaza de la Corredera are in the Castilian style of the 17th century (architect Antonio Ramos). The square was originally the venue for bullfights and horse races.
  • The Plaza del Potro ("Square of the Foal") was named after a fountain that was built in 1577 and shows a foal. On the square is the building of the 15th century inn "Posada del Potro", which was mentioned in Miguel de Cervantes ' novel Don Quixote and who often stayed here. As a typical building of that time, it has been preserved in its original state: the rooms are arranged around a flower-decorated inner courtyard.
  • The Plaza de los Capuchinos is a quiet place far away from the tourist flow with a statue of Jesus ("Cristo de los Faroles") worshiped by the residents.
  • In the city center next to the town hall are the ruins of a Roman temple (Templo Romano) with mighty columns from the time of the Flavians in the 1st century.
  • The Plaza de las Tendillas ("Square of the Small Shops") is located between the historic old town and the modern city center and contains fountains and water features as well as the equestrian statue of the Gran Capitan in the middle .
  • The Puerta de Almodóvar ("Gate of Almodovar") is of Arab origin, was originally called the Walnut Gate (Bab al-Chawz) and is one of the entrances in the western wall of the old town. Its current appearance from the 14th century is characterized by two prismatic towers with a massive archway between them. The stone masonry was supplemented with bricks. There is a viewing grille above the gate. Both the parapet above the gate and the entire city wall are reinforced with battlements. A garden was laid out in front of the gate in the early 1950s and a statue of the Cordoba-born philosopher Seneca was placed.
  • The Palacio de la Merced , a former Mercedarian monastery, is now the seat of the provincial administration.
  • The Church of San Hipólito was built in the 14th century by the Castilian King Alfonso XI. donated.


sons and daughters of the town


In the city's gastronomy, agricultural products from the surrounding fields and river plains, cattle farming in the Sierra and olive oil from the southern part of the country are processed. The cuisine is dominated by stews and stews. There are Arabic influences such as the spices oregano, mint and tarragon or ingredients of Arabic origin such as rice, spinach, aubergine or bitter orange. Typical dishes of Cordoban cuisine are the rabbit in “salmorejo” (kind of vinaigrette), “flamenquines” (breaded, fried rolls made from boiled ham with cheese filling), the “rabo de toro” (oxtail), “cordero a la miel” ( Lamb in honey), “naranjas picadas” (thinly sliced, spiced oranges) or artichokes a la “montillana” (with ham, garlic and saffron). A typical dessert is the "pastel cordobés" - a cake made of puff pastry filled with lemon peel, which is called "angel hair".


Concurso de Patios Cordobeses

Especially in spring there are several popular festivals in Cordoba, the Ferias . The best known is the Feria de Mayo , which takes place in May. There is also the Cruces , a festival in which the individual districts compete to set up flower crosses. At Easter, processions are organized by the brotherhoods (Hermandades) as part of the Semana Santa . Life-size depictions of the Passion and figures of Mary are carried through the city center. In addition to medieval representations, contemporary works of art (especially by Antonio Bernal Redondo ) are now carried on the shoulders of the costaleros .

Every year in May, the Concurso de Patios Cordobeses takes place, a competition in which the most beautiful patio is chosen. The private, otherwise inaccessible courtyards are open to locals and tourists on this occasion. The festival was declared a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2012 .


  • Antonio Muñoz Molina : City of the Caliphs. Historical forays through Cordoba. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1994, ISBN 978-3-499-13281-0 .
  • Sabine Panzram: Cityscape and Elite. Tarraco, Corduba and Augusta Emerita between republic and late antiquity. Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-515-08039-2 .
  • Xavier Dupré Raventós (Ed.): Córdoba. Colonia Patricia Corduba (= Las capitales provinciales de Hispania . Volume 1). "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, Rome 2004, ISBN 88-8265-271-8 .

Web links

Commons : Córdoba (Spain)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

supporting documents

  1. Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
  2. Weather in Europe: Up to 47 degrees. In: Spiegel Online . August 4, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018 .
  3. See Abū-l-Walīd Ismāʿīl ibn Muḥammad al-Shaqundī: Risāla fī Faḍl al-Andalus. Spanish translation under the title Elogio del Islam español by Emilio García Gómez. Estanislao Maestre, Madrid 1934, p. 104.
  4. Nuremberg and Córdoba are now twin cities ( memento of October 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: Website of the city of Nuremberg (accessed on November 5, 2010).
  5. Ayuntamiento de Córdoba (2010): Córdoba hacia el 2016, "Córdoba en el Mundo". Pp. 142, 143.
  6. ^ Sights of Cordoba. Travelogue about Cordoba (accessed February 13, 2011).