|Ibiza / Eivissa|
|Largest community||Ibiza town|
|Official languages||Spanish , Catalan|
|Residents||147,914 ( INE 2019)|
|Population density||235.2 inhabitants / km²|
Ibiza ( Spanish [ iˈβiθa ]), Catalan and officially Eivissa [ əjˈvisə ] or [ əjˈbisə ], is the third largest island in the Spanish autonomous region of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean with an area of 572 km² .
With the southern island of Formentera and numerous smaller and uninhabited rock islands, Ibiza forms the archipelago of the Pityuses . The official languages are Spanish (Castilian) and Catalan , the predominant Catalan dialect on the island is called Ibizenk . The island has 147,914 inhabitants (as of 2019), the proportion of foreigners is around 20 percent, the proportion of German residents is around 3 percent. Since 2001, the number of people permanently living in Ibiza has increased by more than 60 percent. The largest communities are the main town of Ibiza Town (catal. Ciutat d'Eivissa ) with around 50,000 inhabitants, Santa Eulària des Riu (around 36,000 inhabitants), Sant Josep de sa Talaia (around 26,000 inhabitants) and Sant Antoni de Portmany (around 25,000 Residents).
The island is about 90 kilometers east of mainland Spain. The distance San Antonio - Dénia is 111 km, Ibiza - Denia 146 km, Ibiza - Palma de Mallorca 154 km. After Alicante is about 200 km, San Antonio - Valencia 150 km, Ibiza - Barcelona 264 km and after Algiers 276 km.
The Balearic Islands are the blasted continuation of the Andalusian Rock Mountains , which stretch from Gibraltar over the Sierra Nevada . An approximately 1,500 meter deep sea trench separates the islands from the Spanish mainland. The Pityuses have their own continental shelf.
Ibiza's biodiversity and culture was declared a World Heritage Site in 1999.
fauna and Flora
Apart from the many famous beaches and bays, the island of Ibiza has an almost completely unknown wealth of animals and plants.
The island can be roughly divided into four landscape zones: the north or steep coast, forests and garigue , cultivated land and farmland, beaches and bays.
The north coast, es amunts , the hills are largely protected. The area extends from the high plateau near Santa Agnès de Corona to the north-eastern tip of the island to Punta Grossa near Cala San Vicente . This region is sparsely populated, there are hardly any towns and only a few accessible bays or beaches and therefore almost no tourism.
In the vast evergreen pine forests and in the garigue, these landscapes, which are often interspersed with juniper bushes , rosemary , thyme and other wild herbs, grow u. a. also the rare holm oak , autochthonous orchids and wild gladioli . It is also the refuge for the gorse cat, which has become very rare .
On the coasts, beaches and bays and in the wetlands like Ses Salines , the water basins for salt extraction and Ses Feixes , the presumably by the Moors in the 11th century two Garden zones applied to Ibiza Town , which the Unesco World Heritage Site include , plants that are particularly resistant to salt water grow. These wetlands are also the breeding grounds for numerous water birds. A flamingo colony now lives all year round in the old salt basins of Ses Salines . Common kestrel (rarer Eleanor's falcon ), osprey and many other bird species such as seagulls ( black-headed gulls , herring gulls , common gulls and, less often, the coral gull ). Swallows , herons ( night herons , egrets , little egrets ), cormorants and stilt also live in these zones.
The culture and farming country of the island of Ibiza is characterized primarily by a form of three-field farming that was known from the Middle Ages . Mostly, in these fields of wheat ( trigo ), barley ( cebada ) or oats ( Avena planted). Typically, almond , olive , carob and fig trees were cultivated at loose intervals . On the edges of the fields, which are often terraced and traditionally enclosed with stone walls in dry construction, grow wild plants and vines for the farmer's wine ( vi payes ). Corn poppies , margarites (Chrysanthemum coronarium ), yarrows , wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and wild asparagus or rock roses . Here live kites , barn owl and Zwergohreneule or Hoopoes . There are also goldfinches , finches , thrushes , velvet warblers or tits , ringlets and lovebirds .
In areas with available groundwater or deep wells like San Antonio , fruits and vegetables are planted. In particular melons , tomatoes , grapes , citrus fruits , but also legumes such as beans , lentils or peas . In the area around Santa Gertrudis , which is just as fertile as the great plain in front of San Miguel, fruit trees grow with cherries, peaches, apricots, mangoes and avocados. The San Mateo Valley is known for its viticulture. In addition to the Ca Eivissenc Podenco Ibicenco , the most striking animal on the island, there are a number of other autochthonous animals on Ibiza. For example, the farm chicken Pollo payes , the Oveja ibicenca , the Ibizan sheep, a wild rabbit and the pityuse lizard (Podarcis pityusensis pityusensis).
Threats to fauna and flora
Until a few years ago any kind of snake or other poisonous animals were unknown. Adders ( horseshoe snakes and stair snakes ) were only introduced in the course of the import of olive trees for squares and gardens , which are now spreading but are already being hunted by the island government because they decimate small game and clutches of birds.
Since around 2005, palm trees, mostly the Canary Island date palm, have also been decimated by the palm weevil on Ibiza . The island government insists that plants infected by the insect are immediately sprayed with insecticides or destroyed, but the infestation is spreading even further. In the meantime, other plants such as fan palm , dwarf palm or palm lilies are also infested. The damaged palms slowly die off from the core. This can be seen when the fresh palm fronds turn brown in the center of the palm and hang down.
Since 2016/17 the fire bacteria has been discovered in the Balearic Islands, especially in Mallorca, but also in Menorca and Ibiza . This bacterium also attacks fruit trees such as olive and almond trees or grapevines. The external characteristic is the partial drying up of the plant. Since there is currently no suitable antidote, the EU is obligating, as an immediate measure, to cut down and burn all trees and all others within 100 meters of the infected plants. Investigations of the bacterium have shown that this is the aggressive form Xylella fastidiosa pauca , which, in addition to the trees already mentioned above, also includes cherry trees, laurel bushes , willow leaf acacias , lavender, rosemary, oleander, Australian rosemary ( Westringia fruticosa ) and Finials can attack.
Ibiza has the most balanced climate in the Balearic Islands. The average temperatures in summer are around 26 ° C, in winter they reach a very mild 12 ° C.
|Ibiza / Eivissa (1981-2010, Ibiza Airport Station)|
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Ibiza / Eivissa (1981-2010, station Ibiza airport)
There are various cultural institutions in Ibiza, such as museums, island life information centers and event venues.
- In Ibiza's old town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with its fortress walls that were renovated and expanded in 1555, an open-air museum can be visited on the western flank. Here is shown how to protect yourself against enemies and defend the fortress.
- At the highest point in the old town, in Dalt Vila , is the 14th century cathedral . The main altar is dedicated to Maria de las Nieves (Maria Snow). In the cathedral is the Museo Diocesa , the museum of the diocese .
- The Museo Arqueológico de Ibiza y Formentera is located directly on the Plaça de la Catedral .
- Right next door is the Centro de Interpretation Medina Yabisa (C / Major, 2 Edificio La Cúria). A multimedia show and various models depict life during the time of the Moors.
- The Museo d'Art Contemporani d'Eivissa (MACE) is located shortly before leaving the old town fortress and in the immediate vicinity of the drawbridge and Portal de ses Taules . This contemporary art museum houses a collection of artists living or formerly living in Ibiza in one of the oldest surviving buildings in the old town of Ibiza Town. Various works by the international artist group Grupo Ibiza 59 can also be seen. In addition, the museum regularly shows temporary exhibitions by renowned artists, such as B. by Joan Miró or Cy Twombly . During expansion measures some time ago, the foundation walls of a house from Roman times and various artifacts were uncovered, which are visible under accessible glass panels. (Location: Ronda Narcis Putget).
- Another archaeological museum is located at the necropolis of Ibiza , on the Puig des Molins (entrance: Vía Romana, 31). Some underground tombs can be visited here; and some objects from the Phoenician and Roman eras are on display in the newly designed museum.
- Remains of one of the earliest Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean can be seen in the Yacimiento fenicio de Sa Caleta (located on the south coast of Sant Josep). This part, like other areas, is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site of the island.
Theater and music
- In Ibiza Town, Can Ventosa is used as a concert and theater venue (Avinguda d'Ignasi Wallis, 26).
- The convention center in Santa Eulalia is available for this purpose ( Palacio de Congresos de Ibiza , Avenida Salvador Camacho 9-11). There are z. B. concerts by Jordi Savall or opera and dance performances.
- The Good Friday procession leads from the cathedral through the narrow streets of the old town to the lower town. In the passage of the Torre de ses Taules one can sometimes hear a saeta , a spontaneous pleading song similar to flamenco .
- At the patronage festivals, the island's folklore groups show their dances in original costumes to the music, which are accompanied on the one-handed flute with drum and particularly large castanets .
- At Christmas and Easter, the Caramelles are performed in some village churches . These are the Christmas and Easter stories that are presented with music typical of the island and in the Redoblar singing style.
In the 14th century, the church building , which was only elevated to a cathedral in 1782, was completed. It stands on the highest point of the listed old town (Dalt Vila) and is surrounded by the Renaissance fortress, which was built in the second half of the 16th century .
Some intellectuals such as Walter Benjamin , Wols , Raoul Hausmann , Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier came to Ibiza as early as the 1930s . Everyone recognized what was special about the mostly single-storey construction of the old farmhouses on the island and reported about it. The juxtaposed cubes of these country houses also inspired Bauhaus architecture . In addition to the almost one meter thick stone walls, the arrangement of the rooms is striking. The entrance is almost always south-facing. You enter the Finca Ibicenca via a kind of veranda (porxo) , from which one side leads into the kitchen. A bread oven is attached to this, and a cistern for drinking water nearby . The pantry is attached to the kitchen. From Porxo different bedrooms go off. The houses only have flat roofs to catch the rainwater, which is collected in cisterns. The windows are very small so the rooms are cool in summer. The German emigrant Erwin Broner , who lived in Ibiza for many years, studied the island's architecture extensively and modernized some old farmhouses. In later years, the Canadian Rolph Blakstad carefully studied the island architecture and built it in the neo-Ibizan style. The Belgian architect Philippe Rotthier, who lives in Ibiza, has written the most extensive publication on the architecture of Ibiza's country houses.
The original cuisine of Ibiza is purely rural. Due to the many tourists from all over the world, there are now many restaurants with international or modern Catalan cuisine scattered all over the island . Restaurants in the larger towns and country inns compete with beach restaurants for wealthy individual travelers in the summer months.
The paella , the Spanish national dish, actually a leftover meal, comes in many variations. The best known are the mixta with chicken, pork or rabbit meat, some fish, some shrimp and mussels and the mariscos , only with seafood. The original paella gets its yellow color from saffron .
In addition to the traditional dishes such as Bullit de Peix or Arroz a la Banda , two fish dishes, the Frità de Pulpo , a tapa made from squid with a little potatoes, peppers, onions and garlic, deserve special mention . Lamb dishes (lamb chops, skewers, legs) and the red paprika sausage Sobresada or the dark and light black pudding butifarra are also popular. The island's typical Alioli , made only from garlic with olive oil and salt, should not be missing in many dishes.
As a dessert, the Crema Catalana and especially the Fláo should be mentioned. A cheesecake made from goat and sheep's milk with aniseed and hierbabuena , that's spearmint .
In addition to the more usual sports offers such as hiking, running, swimming, riding, tennis or golf, the following sports are also suitable on Ibiza:
- Diving - there are about ten diving centers , all of which can be found either in the larger towns, in the tourist centers or on the larger beaches. On the official website of the island government, Deportes De Ibiza , 20 diving tours with photos, maps and levels of difficulty are displayed on a PDF list. Due to the seagrass meadows of Posidonia Oceanica , the water is usually very clear. The fish diversity and density is rather low. Mainly you can see mullet ( Coris julis ), writing perch ( Serranus scriba ), thick-lipped mullet ( Chelon labrosus ), golden welt ( Sarpa salpa ), the sea peacock (Thalassa pavo), sometimes also starfish , octopus , the noble pen shell ( Pinna nobilis ) or the Mediterranean moray eel (Muraena helena). The light jellyfish ( Pelagia noctiluca ) can be unpleasant in certain years , as they sting painfully when they touch your bare skin with their nettles.
- Kayak - again on the Deportes De Ibiza page, 20 kayak tours are listed on another PDF list with photos, maps, start and destination, distance and approximate duration.
- Sailing , windsurfing , stand up paddling . Here, too, material can be borrowed and lessons can be taken in some localities, in tourist centers and on some beaches.
- There is a harness racing track ( Hipodromo de Sant Rafal )
- For some years now, more and more half-marathons , distance runs and mountain bike races have been organized on Ibiza .
The three largest towns on the island of Ibiza are the capital Ibiza and the towns of Santa Eulària des Riu and Sant Antoni de Portmany . These three places also have their own harbors for ferry operations and marinas, yacht clubs and fishermen.
In contrast to the surroundings of the capital Ibiza, where the airport is located (which actually belongs to the municipality of Sant Josep de sa Talaia ), the settlement of the other regions of the island is characterized by hamlets and individual farms. Individual fincas scattered across the country are typical of the Ibizan landscape.
The island's capital, Ibiza Town, is eight kilometers northeast of the airport . In the old town and in the harbor district there are numerous restaurants and shops, many entertainment options and Ibiza's nightlife with well-known, expensive discos and bars. There is no beach in the city and only relatively few, mostly small tourist accommodations.
Economy and Infrastructure
Salt pans, agriculture
In the Middle Ages , Ibiza owed a certain prosperity to the salt fields Ses Salines , located in the southwest near the airport. The salt fields were common property ("Universida") until the 19th century and every Ibizenko was obliged to contribute to the cultivation of the salt fields. Even today, salt is extracted and exported in the salt pans of Ibiza. In 2016, 65,000 tons of salt were skimmed off from an area of 450 hectares. Due to the drought of the year, this was the highest amount that could be extracted so far after 18 years. About 19,000 tons of the salt are shipped to northern Europe for de-icing . Buyer countries are Norway and Scotland . However, the largest amount is sold to the Faroe Islands and Denmark for processing stockfish .
The interior of the island is used for agriculture and livestock , especially sheep breeding . Until the mid-1960s, the island's farmers produced self-sufficient for their own use and only a small part for export .
Tourism - historically
The island was first discovered by British tourists in the mid-1930s. Due to the Spanish Civil War and a short time later by the Second World War , tourism quickly came to a standstill. Shortly after the end of the war the first tourists (and in the 1960s also many dropouts and hippies ) returned to the island, but it was not until the 1970s that tourism developed on a larger scale.
Tourism - current
Today, the small amount of agricultural production is no longer enough to feed the island itself, so most of the goods have to be imported from the mainland. As in the rest of the Balearic Islands, tourism is the Ibizenkos' main source of income, even if it does not reach the size of Mallorca . In 2002 the island was visited by around 1.5 million tourists, almost half of them were British tourists, followed by Germans , Italians and French .
2016 has been the most successful year for the Pityuses (Ibiza and Formentera) so far, with more than 3 million tourists on the islands. In contrast to the other popular Spanish tourist destinations such as Mallorca, the Canary Islands, Catalonia or the Costa del Sol, most of the hotels (and hotel chains such as Fiesta , Insotel , Sirenis and Invisa ) have remained in the hands of Ibizan families to this day.
For 2017, the Balearic Port Authority ( Autoridad Portuaria de Balears ) is expecting another increase in cruise tourism . 191 ships are expected, which together will bring more than 340,000 visitors to Ibiza. An increase of 38.4% over the previous year. The number of ships landed doubled between 2009 and 2017 and the number of passengers rose from 80,000 to 340,000.
The international club scene with its most famous disc jockeys has been established in Ibiza since the early 1990s . In summer, visitors can also enjoy an international range of radio programs with the island's DJs. In the mountains of Ibiza there are regular Goa parties on full moon that can last several days.
The biggest discos in Ibiza:
- Privilege , Sant Rafel : The Privilege is the largest discotheque in the world with a capacity of around 14,000 people (entry in the Guinness Book of Records ). In the high season from July to August there are an average of 10,000 guests per night on the dance floors. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Privilege was still called Ku and was a meeting place for the international jet set .
- Amnesia , Sant Rafel : Founded in 1970, it can now accommodate around 5,000 people. Amnesia wasvoted “Best Global Club” in 2006, 2007 and 2008at the Winter Music Conference . The most popular DJs are Armin van Buuren , Paul van Dyk , Sven Väth , Richie Hawtin , Tiësto , Marco Carola , Carl Cox , Marco V or Paul Oakenfold .
- Es Paradis , Sant Antoni de Portmany : Es Paradis is the smallest of the popular large clubs on Ibiza with a capacity of 1,675 people. It is known for its parties Twice As Nice or Extreme Euphoria Vs Tidy, among others. Es Paradis is mostly visited by the British.
- Gatecrasher , Sant Antoni de Portmany : The Gatecrasher (formerly Eden) is one of the youngest clubs in Ibiza. It emerged from Club Kaos in 1999 and moved to a new building shortly afterwards. The discotheque is located in San Antonio directly on the beach promenade and right next to the Es Paradis Club. The Gatecrasher is mainly frequented by visitors from Great Britain.
- Space , Sant Jordi de ses Salines : The Space was within walking distance of the famous Playa d'en Bossa , the beach for party-goers. Like the other well-known discos on the island, the club had many series of events with well-known DJs, including We love Space . Every Tuesday Carl Cox presentedanother series of partieswith Revolution . The Space received the Best Global Club awardat the International Dance Music Awards in 2005 and again in 2006. In 2011, the Space was named the best club in the world by a reader survey by the music magazine DJ Mag. On October 2nd, 2016, the space was closed after 27 years. Around 15,000 people attended the closing ceremony. At the same location, a luxury club called Hï Ibiza opened in 2017, which, like Club Ushuaïa, belongs to Grupo Empresas Matutes .
- Ushuaïa Ibiza Beach Hotel , Sant Jordi de ses Salines: The Ushuaïa is opposite the Hï and is part of the Ushuaïa Hotel complex. Hotel guests can watch the shows from their balconies in the evening. The club has a capacity of 5000 and was voted the second best club in the world in 2018. Weekly series of parties include Ants, Tomorrowland Presents: Garden Of Madness, and BIG By David Guetta. Avicii made its last appearance on August 28, 2016 at this club.
- Pacha , Eivissa : Pacha is the only big club in Ibiza Town that is open all year round. With a capacity of around 3,000 people, however, it is one of the smaller discos. The Pacha is best known for its party series Swedish House Mafia , David Guetta's F *** Me I'm Famous and Erick Morillo's Subliminal Sessions . The club's trademark is its logo, made up of two cherries connected to each other. In 2016, the owner of Grupo Pachá Ricardo Urgell announced that Club Pachá including the hotel, Cabaret Lío and Hotel Destinowould be soldto the private equity group Trilantic Capital Partners for 350 million eurosin October.
The island's road network is oriented towards Ibiza Town. The mostly well-developed roads lead through the landscape, which is strongly characterized by hills. Between Ibiza International Airport and the northern outskirts of Ibiza Town there is a motorway-like road about 10 km in length, the E-20. In addition, since 2011 there has been another expressway with various roundabouts from Ibiza to San Antonio. The cycle path network is of more recent origin and is constantly being expanded.
Native people (around 2000 BC)
Little is known about the indigenous people of the Pityuses. However, it is assumed that the development was similar to that on the neighboring islands of Mallorca and Menorca.
Between 2000 and 1600 BC The Talayot culture (from Arabic Atalayi , outlook) developed on the Balearic Islands . The talayots were stone towers that served as places of worship. In contrast to the neighboring islands, however, no remains of such buildings have been found on Ibiza and Formentera. However, the cave paintings in Ses Fontenelles near Sant Antoni and the megaliths of Ca na Costa on Formentera indicate that the Pityuses were also settled around this time. It was Iberians or Occitans who were the first to explore the island.
Phoenicians (7th to 2nd centuries BC)
In 654 BC The Phoenician Carthaginians founded a colony on the east side of the port bay of Ibiza , which they called Ibes or Ebusim , possibly after the Phoenician god Bes . Other views attribute the name of the island to the Phoenician "i busim" , which would mean "island of fragrance" or "scent island". The city of Ibiza had the right to mint and was an important trading port. The Phoenicians also exploited the rich salt deposits and the lead mines near Sant Carles. The Puig des Molins necropolis (Mühlenberg) is the most important known Phoenician burial place. The cave temple Es Culleram , which was dedicated to the goddess Tanit , was discovered near Sant Vicent de sa Cala in 1907 . According to local historiography, Hannibal is said to have been born on the island of Sa Conillera near Sant Antoni. Officially he was born in Carthage , but there is a guarantee that Hannibal carried the infamous slingshot Els Foners Balears with him on his campaign against Rome ( Second Punic War , 218–201 BC) , who gave the Balearic Islands their name.
Romans (from 123 BC)
After the Second Punic War had started victoriously for the Carthaginians, Hannibal's troops were defeated in 202 BC. Defeated at Zama and Carthage was confined to its African territory.
123 BC The Balearic Islands were conquered by the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus . The Romans called Ibiza town Ebesus . As a confederate city , it was able to retain a certain degree of autonomy. So she needed as no tribute to pay and was allowed to continue to exercise the right of coinage. 70 BC Ebesus was incorporated into the Roman Empire under the name Flavia Augusta . Emperor Vespasian had the island's economy and infrastructure expanded. The ports of Portus Salarius on Formentera (today La Savina ) and Portus Magnus (Sant Antoni de Portmany) were built.
The neighboring island in the south of Ibiza was named Frumentaria (the wheat kingdoms) by the Romans . Due to the fertile soil and the abundance of fresh water at the time, it served them as a granary.
In 380 AD Christianity became the state religion of the Romans. The Balearic Islands were also Christianized. In 391 Theodosius issued a ban on all pagan cults. Only a few years later the Roman Empire broke up into the Western and Eastern Empire ( Byzantium ).
Incursion of the Vandals (5th century AD)
In the 5th century, the Vandals under Gunderich invaded Ibiza. In 426 the island was completely devastated by them. It was not until 533/534 that the Eastern Roman general Belisarius succeeded in driving out the vandals. Ibiza came under the rule of Byzantium . Little is known from this period.
Moorish rule (8th to 13th centuries)
In 711 the Moors conquered Spain under the general Tarik , but a few years earlier they had landed in the Balearic Islands. Ibiza was first conquered by the Moors in 711. They called the island Yabisa ( Arabic : "the dry one").
However, it was not until the beginning of the 10th century that the Moors were able to stabilize their power in Ibiza, especially since the island fell victim to a raid by the Vikings in 859 . The Moors called the Balearic Islands the islands east of Andalusia . They belonged to the Caliphate of Cordoba . In 1009 the Balearic Islands became an independent kingdom with the coastal city of Dénia .
Around this time, however, the attacks by Arab pirates , who mainly operated from Mallorca and Menorca, increased. In 1114, the Balearic Islands were therefore the target of a Pisan-Catalan punitive expedition. Palma was completely destroyed.
But the Islamic rule over Ibiza could hold out for years. In 1203 the Almoravids settled on the Balearic Islands and stayed there until 1235.
Catalan Conquest (from 1229)
In 1229 the Christians recaptured Mallorca during the Reconquista ; Ibiza was not conquered until 1235: under the orders of the King of Aragón , James I the Conqueror , the Medina Yabisa was besieged by Guillermo de Montgrí , the Archbishop of Tarragona . According to legend, the Christians were able to take the city very quickly because the ruling Sultan Yebusah had taken away his brother's favorite slave and seduced him. In revenge, the brother let the Christians into the city. Ibiza was divided among the conquerors who, in addition to Montgrí, also included the Infante ( Prince ) of Portugal Don Pedro and the Count of Roussillon Don Nuno Sans. Catalan is introduced as a language on the island.
Kingdom of Mallorca (from 1256)
In 1256 Jaume II proclaimed the Kingdom of Mallorca, which included the Balearic Islands, Montpellier and Roussillon . In 1299 he founded the Universidad in Ibiza , an authority for the administration of public affairs. The Pityuses thus had a limited autonomous administration that lasted until the 19th century.
However, the Kingdom of Mallorca fell back to Aragon in 1349 after Jaume III. was killed by Peter IV of Aragon . With the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon , Spain was finally united. In 1492 Granada fell , the last position of the Moors in Spain. This ended the Reconquista, which had lasted over 500 years.
Ibizan Corsairs (16th to 19th centuries)
Towards the end of the 15th century, the Genoese Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic to find a new sea route to India . With the discovery of the New World, the Mediterranean trade and with it the Balearic Islands lost their importance. The interest of the Spanish crown in Ibiza and Formentera waned.
Since the islands were now almost unfortified, they now attracted the interest of pirates, who mainly specialized in kidnapping. Formentera was completely depopulated and only repopulated in the 17th century. Historians suspect that the Ibizenkos built their fincas so far apart because large settlements attracted the pirates' attention. However, the number of inhabitants was also decimated by the numerous wars.
The Ibizenkos built watchtowers to protect them against pirates. Each watchtower was in sight with a different one. By means of fire signals, reports of approaching pirates could be passed on quickly, and the population could take refuge in the fortified churches that were built during this period.
Under Philip II (Spain) , the son of Charles V , the new construction of the city walls of Ibiza Town began in 1556. The impressive walls still enclose the old town of Dalt Vila , and after Dalt Vila was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999 , they have been carefully renovated and restored.
The continued pirate attacks, but also the Spanish Inquisition , which ruthlessly pursued any deviation from the Catholic faith, finally brought the Ibizenkos into such economic hardship that they went on the offensive and crossed the Mediterranean in search of enemy ships.
Corsairism flourished until the 19th century. Only with the conquest of Algiers by the French (1830) did piracy end in the Mediterranean . The best known of the Ibizan corsairs was Antonio Riquer Arabi . He raised over 100 ships, including the heavily armed British brig Felicity . An obelisk was erected in his honor in the port of Ibiza Town .
- Emili Pou y Bonet (1830–1888), engineer and builder
- Abel Matutes Juan (* 1941), entrepreneur and politician
- Alejandro Wilbrand (* 1967), German cook and confectioner
- Yolanthe Sneijder-Cabau (* 1985), Spanish-Dutch actress
- Marcos Nader (* 1990), Austrian professional boxer, EBU champion
In 1999, the Dutch band Vengaboys celebrated the island's party life in their summer hit We're going to Ibiza . Twenty years later, the song became an anthem for opponents of the government in Austria in the course of the Ibiza affair in May 2019, which led to the coalition break of the ÖVP - FPÖ government.
- Hans Giffhorn: Ibiza - an unknown natural paradise . Braunschweig 1991; ISBN 3-926207-11-6 .
- Fauna Endèmica - Govern de les Illes Balears - Website of the Balearic Government on fauna and flora
- The Mediterranean Nature - Website of Barbara Klahr with fauna and flora Formentera (similar to Ibiza)
- Raoul Hausmann : Hyle. A dream to be in Spain . New edition, ed. and with an afterword by Adelheid Koch-Didier. Belleville, Munich 2006, (first edition by Heinrich Heine, Düsseldorf 1969.) ISBN 978-3-936298-03-1 .
- Raoul Hausmann: arquitecto - arquitecte 1933 IBIZA - EIVISSA 1936 ; Editions des Archives d 'Architecture Moderne, Brussels; Here: Edicions de SA NOSTRA. Caixa de Balears, Taller d'Estudis de l'Habitat Pitiús, 1991; Catalog for the exhibition of the Museu D'Art Contemporani D'Eivissa. Texts in Spanish and in Catalan. ISBN 84-87128-18-1
- Rafael García Pascuet: arquitectura y espacio rural en ibiza ; Publicacion De La Delegacion En Ibiza Y Formentera Del Colegio De Arquitectos De Baleares, Numero 4 and 5 May 1982; ISBN 84-0780-098-1 .
- Institut Balear d 'Estadística
- Illes Balears: Población por municipios y sexo. (No longer available online.) Www.ine.es, January 1, 2011, archived from the original on November 14, 2012 ; Retrieved November 3, 2012 (Spanish).
- Charles Arnold (ed.): The islands of the Mediterranean . A unique and complete overview. 2nd Edition. marebuch, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-86648-096-4 , Eivissa, p. 86 (English: Mediterranean Islands .).
- "El objetivo de Oliver Martínez ´caza´ una gineta en Ibiza tras cuatro meses de preparativos" . Retrieved on the same day in: Diario de Ibiza of March 1, 2018.
- "La plaga de serpientes se extiende y casi llega al núcleo urbano de Villa". In: Periódico de Ibiza of May 18, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2017
- "Fire bacteria in Mallorca: a bad suspicion". In: Mallorca Zeitung of February 2, 2017, accessed on February 8, 2017.
- "La 'xylella' hallada en Ibiza pertenece a la variant más agresiva." In: Diario de Ibiza of February 11, 2017, accessed on February 11.
- Las murallas renacentistas de Dalt Vila. Ibiza, Islas Baleares
- Official tourism website with a list of museums ( Memento from March 15, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) in German
- Museums and exhibitions in Ibiza. Website in six languages
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