Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ), illustration
The name rosemary comes from the Latin ros marinus and means " dew ( ros ) of the sea ( marinus )", ie "sea dew". The reason given is often that rosemary bushes grow on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and that dew collects in their flowers at night. An older interpretation of the origin of the name went back to the Greek term rhops myrinos (balsamic shrub). This includes a possible namenskundlicher context of the Greek words libanotis (rosemary) and Libanos (incense).
The evergreen, bushy, branched shrub smells intensely aromatic and reaches a size of 0.5 to 2 meters. The branches are brown and mostly upright. Older branches have peeling bark. The 10 to 40 mm long and 1.5 to 3 mm wide leaves are opposite, sessile and narrowly linear. On the upper side they are deep green and wrinkled and covered with a thick epidermis , on the underside of the leaf they are hairy white to gray tomentose. The edges are rolled down. This protects the leaf from drying out.
The flowers can appear all year round. They stand on two- to ten-flowered, star-haired, felt whorls . The calyx is bell-shaped, two-lipped and significantly larger at the fruit time. The upper lip is in two parts, the lower lip three-lobed with large middle lobes. The crown is light blue, rarely pink or white, 10 to 12 mm long, two-lipped with a bent back upper lip. The middle lobe of the lower lip is hollowed out in the shape of a spoon and curved downwards. The two stamens protrude far from the flower. The Klausen are brown, obverse-shaped.
The number of chromosomes is 2n = 24.
The plant grows wild in the western and central Mediterranean area, especially in coastal regions from Portugal to the Ionian Sea . The species has also been cultivated in the eastern Mediterranean and on the Black Sea since antiquity and occasionally occurs in the wild, sometimes even forming populations, e.g. B. on Santorini . Rosemary prefers sunny, dry, lime-rich locations. It is typical of the scrub vegetation of maquis and garigues . He is a species of the Rosmarino-Ericion Association.
Rosemary is often cultivated as an ornamental and aromatic plant. It is not known when rosemary came to Central Europe, but it is already recorded in the country estate ordinance Capitulare de villis vel curtis imperii on the decree of Charlemagne . Rosemary was introduced to England in 1328 by Queen Philippa of Hainaut .
One can distinguish the following subspecies:
- Rosmarinus officinalis subsp. officinalis
- Rosmarinus officinalis subsp. palaui (O.Bolòs & Molin.) Malag. (Syn .: Rosmarinus officinalis var. Palaui O.Bolòs & Molin. ): It occurs only in the Balearic Islands.
- Rosmarinus officinalis subsp. valentinus P.P. Ferrer, A.Guillén & Gómez Nav .: This subspecies was first described in 2014 and occurs in southern Spain.
According to BT Drew & al. (2017) these subspecies or varieties are best grouped under the genus Salvia under the name Salvia rosmarinus Spenn.
Propagation, care and harvest
The plant can be propagated vegetatively using cuttings . The generative reproduction via seeds is possible, but requires a warm climate. The germination time is about four weeks. The rosemary is susceptible to long-term moisture and needs well-drained, humus-rich soil. The plant will grow better in dry conditions. It is not hardy north of the Alps. In late winter, the small shrub is cut back so that it becomes bushier.
Whole twigs are ideally harvested, not individual leaves. It can be harvested all year round.
Rosemary contains between 1 to 2.5% essential oils , together with various terpene compounds ( cineol , borneol , ursolic acid , bornyl acetate , camphor , carnosol , oleanolic acid , carnosic acid , terpineol , betulin , betulinic acid ). In addition, 8% tannin (mainly rosmarinic acid ), flavonoids , glycolic acid , caffeic acid , bitter substances , saponins , resin and various vital substances . The individual active ingredient concentrations in the leaves and stems differ significantly.
Use as a scented plant
Rosemary has a very intense, aromatic smell and a resinous, slightly bitter taste that is somewhat reminiscent of camphor and eucalyptus . It was also used as a substitute for incense because of its similar odor .
Rosemary was a component of one of the first distilled perfumes that combined essential oil with alcohol . The mixture was called "Hungarian Water" after Queen Elisabeth of Hungary (1305-1380). Legend has it that a hermit who gave the queen the perfume assured that it would preserve her beauty until her death.
Eau de Cologne still contains rosemary oil.
Use in the kitchen
Rosemary was first used in religious cults and in pharmacists ' remedies before it found its way into the kitchen. Rosemary is an important spice in Mediterranean cuisine (especially in Italy and Provence ) and is part of the Provence herb mixture . It is also considered a classic grill spice and goes well with meat, poultry, lamb, zucchini, potatoes and pasta. The leaf or rosemary honey is also used for desserts. Apple jelly can be flavored with rosemary, for example. Rosemary is often used in herb butter . Rosemary is or was temporarily used as a bitter substance in beer .
Use in medicine
In naturopathy, rosemary is used internally as a tea to stimulate the circulatory system and against flatulence , above all it has a stimulating effect on the blood supply to the abdominal organs and the formation of gastric and intestinal juice. The drug also has a bile and diuretic effect and is used as a tea to stimulate appetite. Excessive doses can cause intoxication and convulsions. Daily doses of 6 g of leaves for tea infusions, 20 drops of essential oil and 50 g for baths should not be exceeded; Pregnant women are generally not advised to take it.
Externally, rosemary increases blood flow and is therefore used in baths for people with poor circulation, circulatory disorders as well as gout and rheumatism (for example, as rosemary alcohol). In addition to rosemary alcohol, the ointment can also be used against rheumatism and migraines. As a bath, the infusion has a disinfectant effect and promotes the healing process of infected, poorly healing wounds.
Rosemary tea has an antifungal effect on various harmful fungi and can therefore be used as an in-house plant protection or tonic.
In an American study from 2017, a so-called prebiotic and at the same time antibacterial potential of rosemary spice extract is described.
Rosemary essential oil
The essential rosemary oil forms different chemotypes depending on the location, altitude, climate and soil, which differ in completely different ingredients and modes of action. It is obtained by steam distilling the herb. Rosemary oil is one of the skin-irritating essential oils. The main growing regions are Spain , France , North Africa and the Balkans.
The ingredients of rosemary oil are: 1,8-cineol (about 15-55%), camphor (10-25%), 1- pinene (15-25%), 2-ethyl-4,5-dimethylphenol (12%) , Camphene (5–10%), borneol (2%), sesquiterpenes, monoterpenols, phenols , ketones and esters. The density is 0.894 to 0.920.
Rosmarinus officinalis chemotype 1.8 cineole contains 45% oxides, 30% monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenols, phenols, ketones and esters.
Rosmarinus officinalis chemotype Verbenone contains 50% monoterpenes, 15% ketones, monoterpenols, esters and oxides.
- Application of the oil
According to the European Pharmacopoeia, rosemary oil shows antimicrobial activity against numerous bacteria , yeasts and molds and has a circulation-promoting effect on the skin . For circulatory problems, rheumatic diseases, strains, a 6- to 10-percent preparation in the form of bath additives or in 6- to 10-percent ointments is indicated. Internally you take 3–4 drops on sugar or in warm tea.
Rosemary was medicinal plant of the year 2000 and 2011 in Germany.
Single-variety honey, which comes from the flowers of rosemary, has a fresh, light yellow color and a liquid consistency; it turns into a whitish, ointment-like honey. The strong aroma of rosemary honey corresponds to the aroma of the plant itself, to soften the intense aroma it is often blended with other types of honey.
Symbolism of the rosemary
As a symbol, rosemary represented love. In ancient culture, rosemary played a major role as a plant consecrated to the gods, especially Aphrodite . Troubadours presented the lady of their choice with rosemary, while Ophelia tied Hamlet a rosemary wreath as a token of their loyalty. and in Germany brides wore a rosemary wreath for a long time before the myrtle became fashionable.
Rosemary also symbolized the memory of the dead. The Egyptians gave their dead rosemary twigs to sweeten the journey to the land of immortal souls with their fragrance; in Greece, rosemary wreaths were made. In the literature, rosemary appears as a dead plant in Shakespeare and Hebel . Rosemary and thyme were often worn as bouquets at funerals and processions. It was hoped in this way to be immune to contagious diseases. In London at the beginning of the 18th century, it was customary for every mourner who accompanied a coffin to the cemetery to receive a sprig of rosemary from the servant of the house. On the one hand, this rosemary sprig was worn as a symbol of memory, but its scent also helped to mask the stench of death. As soon as the coffin was placed in the grave, all the mourners threw their rosemary sprigs down into the grave. In Dresden , according to tradition, the Rosmaringasse (today built over by the Kulturpalast and moved to its northern edge) goes back to the custom of selling rosemary to visitors to the Frauenkirchhof here .
As a symbol of death, rosemary appears in the song I dreamed the night , whose lyricist August Zarnack . This also applies to the song Rosmarin from Des Knaben Wunderhorn , which was set to music by Johannes Brahms , Robert Schumann and others.
The musicians of the Pagan Folk group Faun, on the other hand, use rosemary in their song of the same name as a symbol of love and longing. Rosemary has a similar meaning in the English folk song Scarborough Fair .
In the first century Dioscurides wrote about two species of "libanotis", which were interpreted as "incense trees" based on the description he gave (also with reference to the corresponding passages about the "libanotis" in the natural history of the plants of Theophrastus ) ( Cachrys libanotis L, Ferula nodifera L. ...). Dioscurides then described rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L. ) as "the» libanotis «, which the Romans call» rosmarinus « , and characterized it as a plant with an aromatic smell, which not only wreathers use. It has warming power, cures jaundice and is added to the invigorating ointments.
Pseudo-Apuleius , which was decisive in northern European medicine from the 4th to the 12th century , gave the following indications for »rosmarinus«:
- Against toothache. Let the juice from the root act on the aching teeth.
- Against fatigue (ad languentes). Rub the herb with oil on the outside.
- Against itchy grind (prurigo). Drink the juice obtained from the crushed herb with old wine and hot water for three days.
- Against pain in the liver and intestines. Soak a bunch of rosemary herbs in water, add a little Amomum or Spica nardi , two dates and a small goblet of rue to the boil and give the liquids to drink.
- Against coughing. Rub rosemary herb with pepper and honey into lozenges. Enter a lozenge in the morning and in the evening. Soothes the cough.
- Against internal pain. Add rosemary, green or dried as above.
- Against white spots in the eyes. Rub the ashes of the rosemary herb with Attic honey.
- For the treatment of fresh wounds. Place the crushed rosemary herb with fat. Works very well.
- Against three-day fever. Ingest the crushed rosemary herb in hot water during the attack.
The preparation and the use of a "wine of rosemary" is detailed in the Arnald of Villanova among pushed - "Liber de VINIS treaty ... from Bewarung and Beraitung the wine" portrayed. This treatise was written in Africa, was translated into Hebrew in 1358 and was in circulation as a Lower Franconian manuscript by 1400 at the latest. It was translated into High German in 1478 by Wilhelm von Hirnkofen and printed in Esslingen.
A medical treatise on rosemary that was widespread from the Middle Ages to the 16th century and beyond is the so-called rosemary tract, which has been documented since the 14th century and probably first originated in the Mediterranean region in the 13th century .
Sources on plants with the names - »libanotis« - »rosmarinus« - »anthos« - »arbor marie« - »corona montana« - »rose marin« - »hymeltau« - which are now interpreted as being related to Rosmarinus officinalis (selection )
- Antiquity - late antiquity: Theophrastus of Eresos around 371 - around 287: "libanotis" --- Pedanios Dioscurides 1st century: "libanotis" - "rosmarinus" --- Pliny the Elder 1st century: "libanotis" ("rosmarinus") --- Galen 2nd century: »libanotis« - »rosmarinus« --- Pseudo-Apuleius 6th century: »rosmarinus«
- Arab Middle Ages: Circa instans 12th century: "rosmarinus" --- Pseudo-Serapion 13th century: "arbor marie" "rosemary" --- Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar 13th century: "corona montana"
- Latin Middle Ages: Pseudo-Arnaldus (Liber de vinis) and rosemary tract : see above. --- Nikolaus Frauenlob . Herbal book 15th century: »hymeltaw« --- Herbarius moguntinus 1484: »ros marinus« - »rose marin« --- Garden of Health 1485: »anthos« - »rosmarinus« - »rosenmaryn« --- Hortus sanitatis 1491: » anthos «--- Hieronymus Brunschwig . Small distilling book 1500: "rosemary"
- 16th century: Otto Brunfels Herb Book 1532 --- Hieronymus Bock Herb Book 1539 --- Leonhart Fuchs Herb Book 1543 --- Pietro Andrea Mattioli Dioscurides Comment 1554 »libanotis« »rosmarinum« --- Revision and translation of the Mattiol Dioscurides Commentary by Georg Handsch 1563 "libanotis" "common rosemary" --- Further revision by Joachim Camararius the Younger 1586 "libanotis" "common rosemary"
- 17th to 19th centuries: Joseph Pitton de Tournefort . Traité de la matière médicale 1717 (posthumous): Romarin --- Pierre Pomet . Histoire générale des drogues 1694: Huile de Romarin - Essence de Romarin - Eau de la Reine d'Hongrie… --- Nicolas Lémery . Cursus chymicus 1675 to 1754: Eau de la Reine d'Hongorie - Hungarian water --- Onomatologia medica completa 1755: Rosmarinus --- William Cullen . A treatise of the materia medica 1789/1790: Rosmarinus --- Jean-Louis Alibert . Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale 1808: Romarin --- Encyclopedic dictionary of the medical sciences 1842: Rosmarinus --- Theodor Husemann . Handbook of the entire pharmacology 1883: Oleum Rosmarini
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- Kurt Sprengel . Theophrast's natural history of plants . Friedrich Hammerich, Altona 1822, Part I, pp. 334–335 (Book 9, Chapter 11): Translation (digitized version ) Part II, p. 370–371: Explanations (digitized version )
- Ernst Howald , Henry Ernest Sigerist : Antonii Musae De herba vettonica; Pseudo-Apulei Platonici Herbarius; De taxone liber; Liber medicinae ex Sexti Placiti Papyriensis Ex animalibus, pecoribus et bestiis vel avibus. Leipzig 1927, Chapter 80. --- Friedrich Wilhelm Tobias Hunger : The herbal of Pseudo-Apuleius: from the ninth-century manuscript in the Abbey of Monte Cassino together with the first printed edition of Joh. Phil. De Lignamine both in facsimile. Brill, Leyden 1935, p. 148 --- Kai Brodersen : Apuleius, Heilkräuterbuch / Herbarius , Latin and German. Marix, Wiesbaden 2015, pp. 142–144.
- Pseudo-Arnaldus de Villanova . The treatise… of the care and counseling of the wine… pressure. Esslingen (?) After 1478. Wine from rosemary (digitized)
- Willem Frans Daems . A Middle Low German fragment of the 'Liber de vinis' by Arnoldus de Villanova. In: Janus 47 (1958) 87-100. --- WL Braekman. A Middle Dutch Version of Arnoldus de Villanovas 'Liber de vinis'. In: Janus 55 (1968) 96-133 --- Gundolf Keil: Arnald von Villanova. In: The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon. 2nd Edition. Berlin / New York 1978, Volume I, Col. 455–458.
- Volker Zimmermann: The rosemary as a medicinal plant and wonder drug. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 64, No. 4, 1990, pp. 353-370. --- Volker Zimmermann: The rosemary tract in handwriting b.VI 35 of the Archabbey of St. Peter in Salzburg. In: “gelêrter der arzeniê, ouch apotêker”. Contributions to the history of science. Festschrift for the 70th birthday of Willem Frans Daems . Edited by Gundolf Keil , Horst Wellm Verlag, Pattensen / Hanover 1982 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 24), ISBN 3-921456-35-5 , pp. 523-532. --- Christine Boot, Johannes Mayer : Two new finds from the old German tradition of the rosemary tract. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 74, 1990, pp. 104-111. --- Gundolf Keil, Hans Staub, Volker Zimmermann: The "Rosemary Tract" from an Alemannic pharmacist autograph from the late medieval Upper Rhine (Darmstadt, Hessian State and University Library, Hs. 1803). In: Gundolf Keil (Hrsg.): Würzburger Fachprosastudien (Festschrift Michael Holler). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1995 (= Würzburg medical-historical research. Volume 38), pp. 178-200. --- Gundolf Keil: Rosemary treatise. In: Author's Lexicon . 2nd Edition. Volume 8, Col. 236-239.
- Kurt Sprengel . Theophrast's natural history of plants . Friedrich Hammerich, Altona 1822, Part I, pp. 334–335 (Book 9, Chapter 11): Translation (digitized version ) ; Part II, pp. 370–371: Explanations (digitized version )
- Julius Berendes . Pedanius Dioscurides' medicine theory in 5 books. Enke, Stuttgart 1902, pp. 311-313 (Book III, Chapter 79) (digitized version)
- Pliny the Elder . 1st century. Naturalis historia Book XIX, § 187. Text and translation according to König: Text: Libanotis locis putribus et macris ac roscidis seritur semine. radicem habet olusatri, nihil ture differentem. usus eius post annum stomacho saluberrimus. quidam eam nomine alio rosmarinum appellant . Translation: The libanotis is sown in musty, lean and dew exposed places. It has a root like the horse carpet and is indistinguishable from incense. After a year, its use is very beneficial for the stomach. Some call it rosemary (rosmarinus) by a different name .
- Galen 2nd century, De simplicium medicamentorum temperamentis ac facultatibus , lib. VII, cap. XI / 14: De Libanotidibus (after Kühn 1826, Volume XII, p. 60) (digitized version)
- Ernst Howald , Henry Ernest Sigerist : Antonii Musae De herba vettonica; Pseudo-Apulei Platonici Herbarius; De taxone liber; Liber medicinae ex Sexti Placiti Papyriensis Ex animalibus, pecoribus et bestiis vel avibus. Leipzig 1927, Chapter 80. --- Kai Brodersen : Apuleius, Heilkräuterbuch / Herbarius , Latin and German. Marix, Wiesbaden 2015, pp. 142–144.
- Approximately instans . 12th century rosmarinus print. Venice 1497, sheet 208v (digitized version )
- Pseudo-Serapion . 13th century print. Venice 1497, sheet 145r (No CCCXXVII) (digitized)
- Abu Muhammad ibn al-Baitar 13th century Kitāb al-jāmiʿ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa al-aghdhiya - Large compilation of the powers of the well-known simple healing and foodstuffs. Translation. Joseph Sontheimer, Hallberger, Stuttgart Volume I 1840, pp. 72–73 (digitized version )
- Among others in: Cpg 583 , Südwestdeutschland 1453–1483, sheet 18v – 19r: hymeltaw (digitized version ) and in Cpg 666 , Südwestdeutschland 1478, sheet 119v – 120v: »hymeltawe« (digitized version )
- Herbarius moguntinus 1484, chapter. 118 (digitized version)
- Gart der Gesundheit , Mainz 1485, Cap. 23 (digitized version)
- Hortus sanitatis, Mainz 1491, Book I (De herbis), Cap. 31 (digitized version)
- Small distilling book of Hieronymus Brunschwig 1500, sheet 92v – 93v (digital copy )
- Otto Brunfels Herbal Book 1532, pp. 310-312 (digitized version )
- Hieronymus Bock Herbal Book 1539, Part I, Chapter 17 (digitized version)
- Leonhart Fuchs Herb Book 1543 Chapter 181 (digitized version)
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli . Petri Andreae Matthioli medici senensis Commentarii, in libros sex Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei, de medica materia. Adiectis quàm plurimis plantarum et animalium imaginibus, eodem authore. Vincentius Valgrisi, Venice 1554, Book III, Cap. 72, p. 370 "libanotis" "rosmarinum" (digital copy) ; Edition 1559, Book III, Chapter 72, pp. 412–414 (digitized version )
- Mattioli / Handsch 1563, Book III, Chapter 62: "libanotis" p. 326 (digitized version ) Chapter 63: "common rosemary" (digitized version)
- Mattioli / Handsch / CAMERARIUS d. J. 1586 Cap. 62, pp. 272v – 273r: "libanotis" (digitized version ) Cap. 63, pp. 273r – 274r: »common rosemary« (digitized version )
- Joseph Pitton de Tournefort . Traité de la matière médicale , Volume II, Houry, Paris 1717, pp. 5–7: Du Romarin, du Thym & du Serpolet (digitized version )
- Pierre Pomet . Histoire générale des drogues, Loyson & Pillon, Paris 1694, pp. 182–185: Huile de Romarin - Essence de Romarin - Eau de la Reine d'Hongrie… (digital copy)
- Nicolas Lémery . Cursus chymicus , Paris 1675, pp. 426-428: Eau de la Reine d'Hongrie (digitized version ) ; edited by Johann Christian Zimmermann, Walther, Dresden 1754, pp. 743–746: Hungarisch Wasser (digitized version )
- Onomatologia medica completa or Medicinisches Lexicon which explains all names and artificial words which are peculiar to medicine science and pharmacy art clearly and completely [...] Gaumische Handlung, Ulm / Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1755, Sp. 1187–1188: Rosmarinus (digitized version )
- William Cullen . A treatise of the materia medica. 2 volumes. Charles Elliot, Edinburgh 1789. Volume II, pp. 151-152 (digitized version ) --- German. Samuel Hahnemann . Schwickert, Leipzig 1790. Volume II, p. 177 (digitized version)
- Jean-Louis Alibert . Nouveaux éléments de thérapeutique et de matière médicale. Suivis d'un nouvel essai sur l'art de formuler. Crapart, Paris, 2nd edition, Volume II 1808, pp. 136-137 (digitized version )
- Rosmarinus. In: Dietrich Wilhelm Heinrich Busch , Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach , Justus Friedrich Karl Hecker (1795–1850), Ernst Horn , Johann Christian Jüngken , Heinrich Friedrich Link , Joseph Müller (1811–1845) (Eds.): Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medicinal Sciences. JW Boike, Berlin 1828-1849, Volume 29. 1842, pp. 427-428 (digitized version )
- Theodor Husemann . Handbook of the entire pharmacology. Springer, Berlin 2nd edition 1883, Volume II, pp. 538-540: Oleum Rosmarini (digitized)