Heather family


from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heather family
Corn heather (Erica spiculifolia)

Corn heather ( Erica spiculifolia )

Systematics
Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Eudicotyledons
Nuclear eudicotyledons
Asterids
Order : Heather-like (Ericales)
Family : Heather family
Scientific name
Ericaceae
Yuss.
Illustration of Epacris longiflora

The heather plants (Ericaceae) form a family in the order of the heather-like (Ericales) within the flowering plants (Magnoliopsida). With about 126 genera and about 4000 species they have a worldwide distribution. Species from this family are used as ornamental plants , food, and medicines.

description

In the broad scope of the Ericaceae family based on molecular genetic studies today. l. there are few morphological characteristics common to all subfamilies. The Monotropoideae in particular differ from the more general characteristics of the family.

Vegetative characteristics

They are mostly woody plants: often evergreen or, more rarely, deciduous, small trees , (often heather-like = ericoid) shrubs , rarely lianas or epiphytes . Herbaceous plants are less common. The species of the subfamily Monotropoideae are fleshy, chlorophyllless, mycotrophic plants. Some species form rhizomes , stolons or lignifying tubers from the hypocotyl , which can be up to 1 meter in diameter. Parts of the plant are often hairy with single to multicellular trichomes or scales, which can sometimes be glandular . The shoot axes are more or less pencil-shaped or sometimes clearly winged.

The leaves are alternate and spiral or two-lined, rarely opposite or whorled. Petioles are different or absent. The simple leaf blade is tiny to very large, leathery or herbaceous. The leaf margin is usually smooth or curled, less often toothed or notched. Young leaves are often red in color. Stipules are missing.

Generative characteristics

The flowers are rare individually, usually several in axillary or terminal, racemose , ährigen , capitate, schirmtraubigen or rispigen inflorescences , which are often long droopy. There are durable or perishable bracts and often two bracts per flower. Extra-floral nectaries are rarely present. There is usually a flower stalk.

The mostly odorless flowers are mostly hermaphroditic or, more rarely, functionally unisexual. Only the genus Epigaea is dioecious separately sexed ( diocesan ). The small to large flowers are usually fünfzählig (three to siebenzählig) and radial symmetry or rare something zygomorph mostly double perianth (perianth). In the tribe Rhodoreae the flowers are zygomorphic (for example some species of the genus Rhododendron ). There are usually five (four to seven), free or mostly overgrown sepals . The mostly five (three to seven) petals are mostly fused. Often there is a prominent, nectar-forming discus. There are usually two circles with four to five free, fertile stamens each. For example, Loiseleuria has only one circle with five haplostemonic stamens; in the Styphelioideae there are five, four or only two stamens. The same to unequal stamens are mostly straight or rarely S-shaped, free or fused together and spurs can be formed. The anthers have pores. The pollen grains are usually grouped in tetrahedral tetrads, rarely individually. Most four or five (two to ten) carpels are above a syncarp up from constant ovary grown. There are usually many, rarely just one anatropic to campylotropic ovules per ovary compartment. The stylus usually ends in a cephalic, rarely slightly lobed scar.

Loculicidal or septicidal capsule fruits , berries , stone fruits or, rarely, nut fruits are formed. Sometimes there are still fleshy sepals on the fruit. Usually there are many seeds in each fruit, with Gaylussacia only one per fruit compartment. The small, about 1 to 1.5 mm long seeds have wings or, in Bejaria, appendages. The endosperm is fleshy and the straight embryo is usually white or sometimes green.

The basic chromosome numbers are n = 6, 8, 11, 13, 19 or 23.

ingredients

Many taxa contain polyphenols : tannins , flavonoids and phenolic heterosides (phenol glycosides, iridoids), e.g. arbutin, pyroside, rhododendrin. Often there are poisonous diterpenes, for example acetylandromedol, which makes " rhododendron honey " poisonous.

An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus isolated from Woollsia pungens

ecology

Plant species of this family are often found on acidic soil that is poor in minerals, where they receive the necessary nutrients with the help of endomycorrhiza ( symbiosis with soil fungi).

The pollination is done with a few exceptions taxa with upper ovary by insects (often bees , Entomophilie ) and the taxa with inferior ovary by hummingbirds ( ornithophily ).

Systematics and distribution

Plant species of this family occur almost worldwide. All climatic zones and altitudes are populated except for the permafrost zone, so it is only missing on the Antarctic continent. Few species thrive in the tropical lowlands.

The Ericaceae family was founded in 1789 as "Ericae" by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in Genera Plantarum. Pp. 159-160 first published. Type genus is Erica L. Only synonyms for Ericaceae Juss. are: Vacciniaceae Lindl. Nuttall , Monotropaceae , Pyrolaceae Dum. , Siphonandraceae Klotzsch .

The Ericaceae have long been in the order of the Ericales Bercht. & J.Presl , which has been expanded to include a few families over the past decade. Within the Ericales, the Ericaceae form a clade with the Clethraceae and Cyrillaceae .

The Ericaceae family is divided into eight subfamilies and a total of 24 tribe. There are about 126 genera with about 4000 species in the family .

Here is the complete breakdown of the family into subfamilies and tribe:

  • Subfamily Arbutoideae (Meisn.) Nied. : It differs from the other subfamilies mainly in the reduced number of ovules, here there are only a few to one per ovary chamber. The alternate leaves are not needle-like (not "erikoid") reduced. Berries or stone fruits are formed. It contains only one tribe:
    • Tribe Arbuteae Meisn. : It contains about six genera ( Arbutus L. , Arctostaphylos Adans. , Arctous (A.Gray) Nied. , Comarostaphylis Zucc. , Ornithostaphylos Small , Xylococcus Nutt. )
  • Subfamily Cassiopoideae Kron & Judd :
    • Tribe Cassiopeae HTCox ex Stevens : It contains only one genus:
  • Subfamily Enkianthoideae Kron, Judd & Anderb. : The alternate or pseudo-whorled leaves are not needle-like (not "erikoid") reduced. It contains only one tribe:
    • Tribe Enkiantheae Stevens : It contains only one genus:
  • Subfamily Ericoideae Link (including Rhododendroideae (Juss.) Sweet) : With five tribe:
    • Tribus Bejarieae Copeland : The petals are free. The anthers have no horns (appendages). It contains about three genera ( Bejaria Mutis , Bryanthus J.G. Gmel. , Ledothamnus Meisn. ).
    • Tribus Empetreae D.Don : There are only two or three stamens and only two carpels . The anthers have no horns (appendages). Stone fruits are formed. With three to four genera ( Ceratiola Michx. , Corema D. Don , Diplarche Hook. F. & Thomson , Empetrum L. )
    • Tribe Ericeae DC. ex Duby : anthers with or without two horns (appendages). It contains about three genera ( Calluna Salisb. , Daboecia D. Don , Erica L. )
    • Tribus Phyllodoceae Drude : There are five to ten stamens. The anthers have no horns (appendages). Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about seven genera ( Elliottia Muhl. Ex Elliott , Epigaea L. , Kalmia L. , Kalmiopsis Rehder , Loiseleuria Desv. , Phyllodoce Salisb. , Rhodothamnus Rchb. )
    • Tribus Rhodoreae DC. ex Duby : There are 5 to 15 stamens present. The anthers have no horns (appendages). Capsule fruits are formed. It contains - if you put Diplarche and Menziesia to Rhododendron - only two genera ( Rhododendron L. , Therorhodion (Maxim.) Small ).
  • Subfamily Harrimanelloideae Kron & Judd : It contains only one genus:
  • Subfamily Monotropoideae Kostel. (including Pyroloideae): They are mycotrophic plants. It contains three tribes:
    • Tribus Monotropeae Dum. : Chlorophyll is absent. It contains about eight genera ( Allotropa Torr. & A. Gray , Cheilotheca Hook. F. , Hemitomes A. Gray , Monotropa L. , Monotropastrum Andres , Monotropsis Schwein. Ex Elliott , Pityopus Small , Pleuricospora A. Gray ).
    • Tribus Pterosporeae Baillon : chlorophyll is absent. It contains about two genera ( Pterospora Nutt. , Sarcodes Torr. )
    • Tribus Pyroleae Dum. : There is chlorophyll. It contains about four genera ( Chimaphila Pursh , Moneses Salisb. Ex Gray , Orthilia Raf. , Pyrola L. )
  • Subfamily Styphelioideae Sweet (Syn .: Epacridoideae Link ): The alternate leaves are not needle-like (not "erikoid") reduced. It contains about seven tribe with about 35 genera and about 420 species:
    • Tribus Archerieae Crayn & Quinn : There are only five stamens with short, straight stamens. It contains only one genus ( Archeria Hook. F.)
    • Tribus Cosmelieae Crayn & Quinn : There are only five stamens. Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about three genera ( Andersonia R. Br. , Cosmelia R. Br. , Sprengelia Sm. )
    • Tribe Epacrideae Dum. : There are only five stamens. Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about five genera ( Budawangia I. Telford , Epacris Cav. , Lysinema R. Br. , Rupicola Maiden & Betche , Woollsia F. Muell. )
    • Tribus Oligarrheneae Crayn & Quinn : There are only two or four stamens. The stylus is very short. Stone fruits are formed. It contains about two genera ( Needhamiella L. Watson , Oligarrhena R. Br. )
    • Tribus Prionoteae Drude : There are only five stamens with long stamens. It contains about two genera ( Lebetanthus Endl. , Prionotes R. Br. )
    • Tribe Richeeae Crayn & Quinn : There are only five stamens. The heady scar is small. Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about three genera ( Dracophyllum Labill. , Richea R. Br. , Sphenotoma (R. Br.) Sweet ).
    • Tribe Styphelieae Bartl. : There are only five stamens. Brightly colored drupes are formed. It contains about 19 genera ( Acrotriche R. Br. , Androstoma Hook. F. , Astroloma R. Br. , Brachyloma Sond. , Coleanthera Stschegl. , Conostephium Benth. , Croninia J. M. Powell , Cyathodes Labill. , Cyathopsis Brongn. & Gris , Decatoca F. Muell. , Leptecophylla C. M. Weiller , Leucopogon R. Br. , Lissanthe R. Br. , Melichrus R. Br. , Monotoca R. Br. , Pentachondra R. Br. , Planocarpa C. M. Weiller , Styphelia Sol. Ex Sm. , Trochocarpa R. Br. )
  • Subfamily Vaccinioideae Am. : They are epigynous and there are stamen appendages. With five tribes:
    • Tribe Andromedeae Klotzsch : Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about two genera ( Andromeda L. , Zenobia D. Don ).
    • Tribus Gaultherieae Nied. : Capsule fruits or berries are formed. It contains about ten genera ( Chamaedaphne Moench , Diplycosia Blume , Eubotryoides (Nakai) H. Hara , Eubotrys Nutt. , × Gaulnettya Marchant , Gaultheria L. , Leucothoe D. Don , Pernettya Gaudich. , Pernettyopsis King & Gamble , Tepuia Camp ).
    • Tribus Lyonieae Kron & Judd : Capsule fruits are formed. It contains about four genera ( Agarista D. Don ex G. Don , Craibiodendron W. W. Sm. , Lyonia Nutt. , Pieris D. Don ).
    • Tribus Oxydendreae Cox : It contains only one genus:
      • Oxydendrum DC. : With the only kind of sour tree ( Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. ). It is a deciduous tree that produces capsule fruits.
    • Tribe Vaccinieae Rchb. : Berries or stone fruits are formed. Most generic tribe with about 32 genera ( Agapetes D. Don ex G. Don , Anthopteropsis A.C. Sm. , Anthopterus Hook. , Cavendishia Lindl. , Ceratostema Juss. , Costera J.J. Sm. , Demosthenesia A.C. Sm. , Didonica Luteyn & Wilbur , Dimorphanthera ( F. Muell. Ex Drude) F. Muell. , Diogenesia Sleumer , Disterigma (Klotzsch) Nied. , Gaylussacia Kunth , Gonocalyx Planch. & Linden , Macleania Hook. , Mycerinus A.C. Sm. , Notopora Hook. F. , Oreanthes Benth. , Orthaea Klotzsch , Pellegrinia Sleumer , Plutarchia A.C. Sm. , Polyclita A.C. Sm. , Psammisia Klotzsch , Rusbya Britton , Satyria Klotzsch , Semiramisia Klotzsch , Siphonandra Klotzsch , Sphyrospermum Poepp. & Endl. , Symphysia C. Presl , Themistoclesia Klotzsch , Thibaudia Ruiz & Pav . ex J. St.-Hil. , Utleya Wilbur & Luteyn , Vaccinium L. )

.

The following table shows the complete list of genres according to GRIN with details of the subfamily and tribe; also the approximate number of species and their range:

German and
scientific name
Remarks Subfamily
and tribe
photos
Acrotriche R.Br. about 15 species in Australia Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Agapetes D.Don ex G.Don about 80 species
from the eastern Himalayas through southwest China and Indochina to Southeast Asia
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Agapetes.serpens.1.jpgAgapetes.serpens
Agarista D.Don ex G.Don about 31 species
most in America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Lyonieae
Agauria buxifolia 0.jpgAgarista buxifolia
Allotropa Torr. & A.Gray with only one species of
Allotropa virgata
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae Allotropavirgata.jpg Allotropa virgata
Andersonia R.Br. with about 35 species
in western Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Cosmelieae
Rosemary heather ( Andromeda L.) with 1 to 2 species
in the northern temperate zone
Vaccinioideae
tribe Andromedeae
Andromeda polifolia 002.JPGRosemary heather ( Andromeda polifolia )
Androstoma Hook. f. with only one species in New Zealand
Androstoma empetrifolia Hook. f.
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Anthopteropsis A.C.Sm. only one species Anthopteropsis insignis A.C.Sm.
in central Panama
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Anthopterus Hook. about 12 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae tribe Vaccinieae
Strawberry trees ( Arbutus L.) about 10 species
in North America, Western Europe, and the Mediterranean
Arbutoideae
tribe Arbuteae
Cireres de pastor Cirerer d'arboç Arbutus unedo.jpg Arbutus unedo
Archeria Hook. f. with seven species
in Australia and New Zealand
Styphelioideae
tribe Archerieae
Bearberry ( Arctostaphylos adans.) 50–65 species Arbutoideae
tribe Arbuteae
Arctostaphylos pungens 4.jpg Arctostaphylos pungens
Astroloma R.Br. about 28 species in Australia Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Astroloma foliosum.jpg Astroloma foliosum
Andes roses ( Bejaria Mutis ) about 15 species
in America
Ericoideae
tribe Bejarieae
Bejaria imthurnii Roraima.jpg Bejaria imthurnii
Brachyloma Sond. with seven species in Australia Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Brachyloma daphnoides 2.jpg Brachyloma daphnoides
Moosheiden ( Bryanthus J.G. Gmel . ) only one species, Bryanthus gmelinii D.Don
in Japan and Kamchatka
Ericoideae
tribe Bejarieae
Bryanthus gmelinii (200807) .jpg Bryanthus gmelinii
Budawangia I. Telford with only one species in Australia
Budawangia gnidioides (Summerh.) I. Telford
Styphelioideae
tribe Epacrideae
Common heather ( Calluna Salisb. ) with only one species, Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull
it occurs in Europe and Asia Minor and is naturalized in North America
Ericoideae
tribe Ericeae
CallunaVulgaris.jpg Common heather ( Calluna vulgaris )
Scale heather ( Cassiope D.Don ) around 17 species
circumboreal , as far as China, the Himalayan region, Japan, Russia and western North America
Cassiopoideae Cassiope mertensiana 9197.JPG Cassiope mertensiana
Cavendishia Lindl. about 150 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
121215 Fata Morgana Prague 008 Cavendishia allenii.jpg Cavendishia allenii
Ceratiola Michx. with only one species in the USA
Ceratiola ericoides Michx.
Ericoideae
tribe Empetreae
Florida rosemary (Ceratiola ericoides) (6513263245) .jpg Ceratiola ericoides
Ceratostema Juss. about 33 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae tribe Vaccinieae Ceratostema alatum (14527843182) .jpg Ceratostema alatum
Torfgränke ( Chamaedaphne Moench ) only one species, Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench found
in China, northern Japan , Mongolia , Siberia , northeastern Europe, and North America
Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Chamaedaphne calyculata.jpgPeat sear ( Chamaedaphne calyculata )
Cheilotheca Hook. f. with two kinds
they occur between Assam and western Malesia
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae
Winterlieb ( Chimaphila Pursh ) 5 kinds
in Bhutan , China, Japan, Korea , Russia , Europe, North America and Mexico
Monotropoideae
tribe Pyroleae
Chimaphila2.jpg Winter lovers ( Chimaphila umbellata subsp. Umbellata )
Choristemon H.B.Will. with only one species, Choristemon humilis H.B. Want.
it occurs in Australia
Styphelioideae
Coleanthera Stschegl. with three kinds
they occur in western Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Comarostaphylis Zucc. with 10 kinds
they occur in Mexico
Arbutoideae Comarostaphylis arbutoides 3.jpg Comarostaphylis arbutoides
Conostephium Benth. with six species
they occur in southern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Corema D.Don with two species,
one species in Europe and one species in North America
Ericoideae
tribe Empetreae
Corema album berries.jpgCorema album
Cosmelia R.Br. with only one species, Cosmelia rubra R.Br.
it occurs in southwestern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Cosmelieae
Costera J.J.Sm. with about nine species
they occur in western Malesia
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Craibiodendron W.W.Sm. 5 species in
Cambodia , China, India , Laos , Myanmar , Thailand and Vietnam
Vaccinioideae
tribe Lyonieae
Croninia J.M. Powell with only one species, Croninia kingiana (F. Muell.) J. Powell
it occurs in Western Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Cyathodes Labill. with three kinds
they occur in Tasmania
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Cyathopsis Brongn. & Gris with only one species, Cyathopsis floribunda Brongn. & Gris
it occurs in New Caledonia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Gloss heather ( Daboecia D.Don ) with only two species
they occur from Ireland to Spain and the Azores
Ericoideae
tribe Ericeae
Daboecia cantabrica1373917974.jpg Daboecia cantabrica
Decatoca F. Muell. with only one species, Decatoca spenceri F. Muell.
it occurs in New Guinea
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Demosthenesia A.C.Sm. about 11 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Didonica Luteyn & Wilbur with 4 kinds
in Central America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Dimorphanthera (F.Muell. Ex Drude) F.Muell. with about 75 kinds
they occur in Malesia, especially on New Guinea
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Diogenesia Sleumer about 13 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Diplycosia flower with about 111 species Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Disterigma (Klotzsch) Nied. 35–40 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Dragon leaves ( Dracophyllum Labill. ) with about 48 kinds
they occur in Australia, New Caledonia and especially in New Zealand
Styphelioideae tribe
Richeeae
Dracophyllum secundum.JPG Dracophyllum secundum
Elliottia Muhl. ex Elliott with four kinds
they occur in Japan, North America and Alaska
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Elliottia pyroliflora 18455.JPG Elliottia pyroliflora
Crowberries ( Empetrum L. ) 3–18 species
with disjoint area in North America, southern South America, northern Eurasia and on southern Atlantic islands; circumboreal, subarctic, alpine, bipolar
Ericoideae
tribe Empetreae
Empetrum nigrum a1.jpg Black crowberry ( Empetrum nigrum )
Magnificent bells ( Enkianthus Lour. ) about 12 species
from the eastern Himalayas to China to Japan and Indochina
Enkianthoideae Enkianthus perulatus3.jpg Enkianthus perulatus
Australheide ( Epacris Cav. ) with about 40 species
they occur in Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia
Styphelioideae
tribe Epacrideae
Epacris impressa Pink Form.jpgPink shape of Epacris impressa
Soil Laurel ( Epigaea L. ) with three species of
a species in Japan, one in the Middle East and one in eastern North America
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Epigaea asiatica.JPG Epigaea asiatica
Heather ( Erica L .; Syn .: Bruckenthalia Rchb. , Philippia Klotzsch ) with about 860 species
they occur mainly in southern Africa, but also in the mountains of tropical Africa, in Madagascar, in the Mediterranean region, in Macaronesia and in Europe
Ericoideae
tribe Ericeae
Erica scabriuscula Loddiges 1821 Kirstenbosch (1) .jpg Erica scabriuscula on site
× Gaulnettya Marchant Hybrid genus Gaultheria × Pernettya Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Mock berries ( Gaultheria L. ) about 115 species
in eastern and southern Asia, southeastern Australia , Tasmania , Pacific Islands (New Zealand), North and South America
Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Gaultheria miqueliana aka Miquels spicywintergreen in botanical gargen gothenburg sweden.jpgGaultheria miqueliana
Humpbackberries ( Gaylussacia Kunth ) about 50 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Gaylussacia brachycera.jpgGaylussacia brachycera
Gonocalyx planch . & Linden about nine species
in Central America and on Caribbean islands
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Harrimanella Coville with only two species
they occur in the Arctic and Subarctic
Harrimanelloideae Harrimanella hypnoides upernavik kujalleq 2007-07-24 2.jpgHarrimanella hypnoides
Hemitomes A. Gray with only one species, Hemitomes congestum A. Gray,
it occurs in the western USA
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae Hemitomes congestum 030713 shoot nocp.jpgHemitomes congestum
Laurel roses ( Kalmia L. ) 7 species
in the New World
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia 'Olympic Wedding' Young Old Flowers 3264px.jpgKalmia latifolia 'Olympic Wedding'
Kalmiopsis Rehder with only one species, Kalmiopsis leachiana (L. Henderson) Rehder,
it occurs only in Oregon
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Kalmiopsis Leachiana.jpg Kalmiopsis leachiana
Lebetanthus Endl. with only one species, Lebetanthus myrsinites (Lam.) Dusén
it occurs in southern South America
Styphelioideae
tribe Prionoteae
Ledothamnus Meisn. 7 species
only in the Guiana highlands
Ericoideae
tribe Bejarieae
Ledothamnus sessiliflorus flower2.jpg Ledfothamnus sessilifolius
Leptecophylla C.M.Weiller with about 13 species
they come from New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand to Hawaii
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Leptecophylla juniperina.jpg Leptecophylla juniperina
Leucopogon R.Br. with about 23 species
they come from Malesia and Australia to New Caledonia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Beelu National Park Leucopogon.jpg Leucopogon verticillatus
Grape heather ( Leucothoe D.Don ) about 6 species
in eastern Asia and the southeastern USA
Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Leucothoe fontanesiana 02.jpg Leucothoe fontanesiana
Lissanthe R.Br. with nine kinds
they occur in Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Lissanthe strigosa subsp.  subulata.jpgLissanthe strigosa subsp. subulata
Gämsheide ( Loiseleuria Desv. ) with only one species, Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv.
it occurs in Europe, Asia and North America
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Kalmia procumbens bush upernavik.jpg Gämsheide ( Loiseleuria procumbens )
Lyons ( Lyonia Nutt. ) about 36 species
in eastern Asia and North America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Lyonieae
Lyonia ovalifolia1.jpg Lyonia ovalifolia
Lysinema R.Br. with about five species
they occur in southwestern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Epacrideae
Macleania Hook. about 38 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae tribe Vaccinieae Macleania rupestris 1.jpg Macleania rupestris
Malea Lundell with only one species, Malea pilosa Lundell
it occurs in Mexico
Melichrus R.Br. with four kinds
they occur in Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Melichrus urceolatus.jpg Melichrus urceolatus
Mitrastylus Alm & TCEFr. with a maximum of two species
they occur in Madagascar
Ericoideae
tribe Ericeae
Moneses Salisb. ex Gray one or two species
in Eurasia and North America
Monotropoideae tribe Pyroleae Moneses uniflora 13433.JPG Moss eye ( Moneses uniflora )
Monotoca R.Br. with about 17 kinds
they occur in Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Spruce asparagus ( Monotropa L. ) only two species
in cool to temperate areas mainly in the northern hemisphere, but also in South America
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae MonotropaHypopitys.jpg Monotropa hypopitys
Monotropastrum Andres only two species
in Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia ( Sumatra ), Japan (including the Ryūkyū Islands), Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal , Sakhalin , Sikkim, Thailand and Vietnam
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae Monotropastrum humile.jpgMonotropastrum humile
Monotropsis pig. ex Elliott with only one species, Monotropsis odorata pig.
it occurs in the southeastern United States
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae Monotropsis odorata.jpg Monotropsis odorata
Mycerinus A.C.Sm. 3 species
only in the Guiana Hichland
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Needhamiella L. Watson with only one species, Needhamiella pumilio (R. Br.) L. Watson,
it occurs in southwestern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Oligarrheneae
Notopora Hook. f. 5 species
only in the Guiana Hichland
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Oligarrhena R.Br. with only one species, Oligarrhena micrantha R. Br.
it occurs in Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Oligarrheneae
Oreanthes Benth. 7 species
in mountainous regions of South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Ornithostaphylos Small with only one species, Ornithostaphylos oppositifolia (C. Parry) Small
it occurs in Southern California and Baja California
Arbutoideae
Orthaea Klotzsch about 32 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae tribe Vaccinieae
Pear green ( Orthilia Raf. ) only one or two species
circumboreal
Monotropoideae
tribe Pyroleae
OrthiliaSecundaFruits.jpgOrthilia secunda
Sauerbaum ( Oxydendrum DC. ) only one species, Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.
it occurs in the USA
Vaccinioideae
tribe Oxydendreae
Oxydendron arboreum JPG1.jpg Sauerbaum ( Oxydendron arboreum )
Pellegrinia Sleumer 5 species
only in central Peru
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Pentachondra R.Br. with about four kinds
they occur in South Australia to New Zealand
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Pernettya Gaudich. about 14 species Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Gaultheria mucronata.jpgPernettya mucronata
Pernettyopsis King & Gamble with a maximum of four species Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Moosheiden ( Phyllodoce Salisb. ) about 7 species
widespread in temperate areas of the northern hemisphere
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Phyllodoce empetriformis 9246.JPG Phyllodoce empetriformis
Lavender heather ( Pieris D.Don ) about 7 species
with disjoint area (East Asia and North America)
Vaccinioideae
tribe Lyonieae
Pieris Japonica Mountain Fire.jpg Pieris japonica 'Mountain Fire'
Pityopus Small with only one species, Pityopus californica (Eastw.) H. Copel.
it occurs in western North America
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae
Planocarpa C.M.Weiller with three kinds
they occur in Tasmania
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Pleuricospora A. Gray with only one species, Pleuricospora fimbriolata A. Gray,
it occurs in western North America
Monotropoideae Tribus Monotropeae Pleuricospora fimbriolata (Fringed Pinesap) .jpg Pleuricospora fimbriolata
Plutarchia A.C.Sm. about 10 species
at higher altitudes in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Polyclita A.C.Sm. only one kind of Polyclita turbinata (O.Ktze.) ACSm.
in northern Bolivia
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Prionotes R.Br. with only one species, Prionotes cerinthoides R.Br.
it occurs in Tasmania
Styphelioideae
tribe Prionoteae
Psammisia Klotzsch about 70 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Pterospora Nutt. only one species, Pterospora andromedea Nutt.
it occurs in western North America
Monotropoideae tribe Pterosporeae Pterospora andromedea 1.jpg Pterospora andromedea
Wintergreen ( Pyrola L. ) 20–40 species
mainly in the northern hemisphere
Monotropoideae tribe Pyroleae Pyrola grandiflora upernavik 2007-07-15 1.jpgPyrola grandiflora
Rhododendrons ( Rhododendron L. ) Since 2011 including Diplarche Hook. f. & Thomson , Menziesia Sm. About 850–1000 species
in Eurasia and North America
Ericoideae
tribe Rhodoreae
Rhododendron concinnum MS 4411.jpg Rhododendron concinnum
Pygmy gall rose ( Rhodothamnus rchb. ) with only two species
they occur in the eastern Alps and in northeastern Turkey,
including Rhodothamnus chamaecistus
Ericoideae
tribe Phyllodoceae
Rhodothamus chamaecistus.jpg Rhodothamnus chamaecistus
Richea R.Br. with eleven species
they occur in southeastern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Richeeae
Richea scoparia habit 8497.jpg Richea scoparia
Rupicola Maiden & Betche with up to five types Styphelioideae
tribe Epacrideae
Rusbya Britton only one species, Rusbya taxifolia Britton
in northern Bolivia
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Sarcodes Torr. with only one species, Sarcodes sanguinea Torr.
it occurs in the western United States and Mexico
Monotropoideae tribe Pterosporeae Sarcodes sanguinea 08080.jpg Sarcodes sanguinea
Satyria Klotzsch about 23 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Satyria warszewiczii (9700524937) .jpg Satyria warszewiczii
Semiramisia Klotzsch 4 species
in mountainous regions of South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Siphonandra Klotzsch 3 types
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Sphenotoma (R.Br.) Sweet with six species
they occur in southwestern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Richeeae
Sphyrospermum Poepp. & Endl. about 21 species
in the Neotropic
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
00562 - Sphyrospermum cordifolium.JPGSphyrospermum cordifolium
Sprengelia Sm. with five kinds,
four kinds in Australia and one kind in New Zealand
Styphelioideae
tribe Cosmelieae
Sprengelia incarnata 2.jpg Sprengelia incarnata
Styphelia Sol. ex Sm. with 15 species
they occur in southern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Rigid 030419-0155 Leptecophylla tameiameiae.jpg Styphelia tameiameiae
Symphysia C. Presl with 15 kinds
they occur in Central America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Tepuia Camp 7 species
only in the Guiana highlands
Vaccinioideae
Tribus Gaultherieae
Themistoclesia Klotzsch about 25 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Therorhodion (Maxim.) Small with two kinds
they occur in Northeast Asia and in western Alaska
Ericoideae
tribe Rhodoreae
Therorhodion camtschaticum.JPG Therorhodion camtschaticum
Thibaudia Ruiz & Pav. Ex J.St.-Hil. (Syn .: Calopteryx A.C.Sm. ) about 60 species
in South America
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Wheel fruits ( Trochocarpa R.Br. ) with about 12 kinds
they occur in Malesia and in eastern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Styphelieae
Trochocarpa laurina - Elvina Bay.JPG Trochocarpa laurina
Utleya Wilbur & Luteyn only one species Utleya costaricensis Wilbur & Luteyn
in central Costa Rica
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Blueberries ( Vaccinium L. ) about 100–300 species
with a wide distribution with a focus on the northern hemisphere
Vaccinioideae
tribe Vaccinieae
Vaccinium ashei 'Homebell'1.jpgFlowers of Vaccinium ashei 'Homebell'
Woollsia F. Muell. with only one species, Woollsia pungens (Cav.) F.Muell.
it occurs in northeastern Australia
Styphelioideae
tribe Epacrideae
Wildflower Woodford Blue Mountains.jpg Woollsia pungens
Xylococcus Nutt. with only one species, Xylococcus bicolor Nutt. Arbutoideae
tribe Arbuteae
MissionManzanitaBlooming03-P.jpg Xylococcus bicolor
Zenobia ( Zenobia D.Don ) only one species, Zenobia pulverulenta (Willd.) Pollard
, occurs in the southeastern USA
Vaccinioideae
tribe Andromedeae
Zenobia pulverulenta HRM2.JPG Zenobia pulverulenta
The fruits of different types of Vaccinium (from top right): " Cranberry ", red huckleberry ( Vaccinium parvifolium ), blueberry and lingonberry

use

Many species and their varieties are used as ornamental plants in parks, gardens and buildings.

The fruits of some species are eaten.

The medicinal effects of many species have been studied. For example, drugs from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Uvae-ursi folium - bearberry leaves), Vaccinium myrtillus (Myrtilli fructus - blueberry fruits) and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Vitis ideae folium - cranberry leaves) are used.

swell

Individual evidence

  1. JWG Cairney, AA Meharg: ericoid mycorrhiza: a partnership did exploits harsh edaphic conditions. In: European Journal of Soil Science. Volume 54, 2003, pp. 735-740.
  2. LC Hileman u. a .: Phylogeny and biogeography of the Arbutoideae (Ericaceae): implications for the Madrean-Tethyan hypothesis. In: Syst. Bot. 26, 2001, pp. 131-143.
  3. a b L. A. Craven: Diplarche and Menziesia transferred to Rhododendron (Ericaceae). In: Blumea. Volume 56, 2011, p. 34 doi: 10.3767 / 000651911X568594
  4. a b c Ericaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
  5. CM Bush, L. Lu, PW Fritsch, D.-Z. Li, KA Kron: Phylogeny of Gaultherieae (Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae) based on DNA sequence data from matK, ndhF, and nrITS. In: Internat. J. Plant Sci. 170, 2009, pp. 355-364.
  6. Kathleen A. Kron, E. Ann Powell, James L. Luteyn: Phylogenetic relationships within the blueberry tribe (Vaccinieae, Ericaceae) based on sequence data from MATK and nuclear ribosomal ITS regions, with comments on the placement of Satyria. In: American Journal of Botany. 89, 2002, pp. 327-336.
  7. ^ David John Mabberley: Mabberley's Plant-Book. A portable dictionary of plants, their classification and uses. 3. Edition. Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-82071-4 .
  8. a b Entries on Ericaceae in Plants For A Future . Retrieved October 15, 2017.

Web links

Commons : Heather Family (Ericaceae)  - Collection of images, videos, and audio files