Subgenus Vaccinium Section Cyanococcus : American bilberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum )
The blueberries ( Vaccinium ) are a genus of plants from the heather family (Ericaceae). The 450 to 500 species of Vaccinium are mainly found in the northern hemisphere . Some species are generally referred to as bilberries or blueberries in German, although the designation in the narrower sense only applies to the most common species in Europe, the bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus ).
Appearance and leaves
The Vaccinium species grow as evergreen or deciduous, creeping, spreading, independently upright or climbing dwarf shrubs , shrubs or trees . Mostly they grow terrestrially, more rarely also epiphytically . The above-ground parts of the plant can be bald or hairy; The hairs ( trichomes ) are stalked or sessile, as well as glandular or non-glandular.
The alternate and spiral or very rarely pseudo-whorled leaves can be stalked. The membranous to leathery leaves are glabrous or hairy. The simple leaf blades are elliptical, egg-shaped, oblong-lanceolate or spatulate. The flat or bent back edge of the leaf is smooth or serrated.
Inflorescences and flowers
The terminal or axillary, racemose inflorescences usually contain two to ten flowers; sometimes the flowers are solitary or in groups in the leaf axils. There are durable or soon perishable bracts available. Small bracts are only present in the Oxycoccus section . The flower stalks can be widened near the flower and they are usually articulated.
The hermaphrodite flowers are radial symmetry and rarely four or mostly fünfzählig double perianth (perianth). The rarely four or mostly five sepals are only fused at their base. The usually five, rarely four or six petals are usually fused together over almost their entire length in the shape of a ball, bell, urn or tube; seldom are they almost free. The colors of the petals range from mostly green, white to cream to pink and bronze, rarely they are red. The straight to back curved corolla lobes are usually shorter than the corolla tube. There are usually two, rarely one, circles with four or five stamens each, which usually do not protrude above the crown. The bald or hairy stamens are straight and flat. The anthers can have horns. The discus in ring shape. Four or five carpels are fused into a subordinate, four to five-chambered or mostly eight to ten pseudo- chambered ovary. There are many ovules . The scars are heady or inconspicuous and truncated.
Fruits and seeds
The egg-shaped to spherical, fleshy berries are characteristic of the genus Vaccinium . The berries, red or blue when ripe, contain two to forty seeds. The relatively small, egg-shaped to ellipsoidal seeds have a net-like, hard or slimy seed coat (testa).
The basic chromosome number is x = 12.
Most Vaccinium fruits are edible. There are a few varieties that are grown as soft fruit. The medicinal effects of some species have been studied.
In Europe, blueberries ( Vaccinium myrtillus ) and lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea ) are traditionally collected and eaten in nature , but in some regions also cranberries ( Vaccinium oxycoccos ) and bogberries ( Vaccinium uliginosum ).
The North American wild forms served the North American indigenous people, for example in the area of today's US state Washington , as food. Drying areas were found that can only be recognized by rectangular depressions. Eleven of them were found in the Indian Heaven Wilderness in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest .
Cultivated blueberries (cultivated blueberries, bush blueberries), which are grown in plantations today, are predominantly crosses of the North American species Vaccinium angustifolium and Vaccinium corymbosum as well as cultivated forms of the parent species themselves, other hybrids from the American blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum ) and others Vaccinium species. 75 to 100 new varieties have been cultivated since the beginning of the 20th century.
The Vaccinium species usually grow on nutrient-poor and acidic soils , mainly in heather and moorlands or in sparse forests . In the mountains they can be found in the subalpine and alpine altitude levels .
Systematics and distribution
The genus Vaccinium was first published in 1753 by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum , 1, pp. 349-352. Type species is Vaccinium uliginosum L. The botanical genus name Vaccinium possibly goes back to baccinium for berry bush and bácca for berry. The genus Vaccinium belongs to the tribe Vaccinieae in the subfamily of Vaccinioideae within the family of Ericaceae . Synonyms for Vaccinium L. are: Hornemannia Vahl , Hugeria Small , Neojunghuhnia Koord. , Oxycoccus Hill , Rigiolepis Hook. f. The genus Vaccinium includes cranberries, blueberries, bogberries and cranberries.
The genus Vaccinium is widespread mainly in the northern hemisphere . In tropical Asia, Central and South America, it is limited to the high mountains. Some species are found in Africa and Madagascar . 92 species occur in China , 51 of them only there. 25 species are native to North America.
The genus Vaccinium is divided into sub-genera and sections. It includes between 450 and 500 types (selection), depending on the opinion of the various processors:
- Subgenus Oxycoccus :
- Section Oxycoccoides Benth. & Hook.f. :
- Section Oxycoccus :
- Subgenus Vaccinium :
- Section Batodendron (Nutt.) A.Gray :
- Vaccinium arboreum Marshall : It is found in the central and eastern United States.
- Brachyceratium Section :
- Bracteata section :
- Vaccinium acrobracteatum K.Schum. : It occurs in Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea .
- Vaccinium barandanum S.Vidal : It occurs only on the Philippine islands of Luzon and Mindoro .
- Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. : It occurs in about three varieties in Indonesia, Malaysia, Indochina, China, Japan, Taiwan and in southern Korea .
- Vaccinium coriaceum Hook. f. : This endemic occurs only in Sabah .
- Vaccinium cornigerum Sleumer : It occurs in New Guinea .
- Vaccinium cruentum Sleumer : It occurs in Papua New Guinea.
- Vaccinium hooglandii Sleumer : It occurs in Papua New Guinea.
- Vaccinium Horizontal Sleumer : It is found in Papua New Guinea.
- Vaccinium laurifolium (flower) Miq. : It occurs on Java , on the Lesser Sunda Islands , Sumatra and in Sarawak .
- Vaccinium lucidum (flower) Miq. : It occurs on Celebes, Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands and Sumatra.
- Vaccinium myrtoides (flower) Miq. : It occurs on Celebes , the Moluccas and on the Philippine islands of Luzon, Mindanao and Mindoro .
- Vaccinium phillyreoides Sleumer : It occurs only in Kalimantan , Sabah and Sarawak.
- Vaccinium reticulatovenosum Sleumer : It occurs in Papua New Guinea.
- Vaccinium sparsum Sleumer : It occurs in Papua New Guinea.
- Vaccinium varingifolium (flower) Miq. : It occurs on Java, the Lesser Sunda Islands, Sumatra and Malaysia.
- Section Calcicolus Kloet :
- Vaccinium chunii Merr. ex Sleumer : It occurs in Vietnam and in Hainan .
- Vaccinium dunalianum Wight : It occurs in about four varieties in India , Nepal , Bhutan , Myanmar , Vietnam, Taiwan and China.
- Vaccinium glaucoalbum Hook. f. ex CBClarke : It occurs in India, Bhutan, Myanmar and China.
- Vaccinium urceolatum Hemsl. : It occurs in Vietnam and China.
- Section Ciliata :
- Cinctosandra Section :
- Section Conchophyllum :
- Vaccinium corymbodendron Dunal : It occurs in Colombia , Peru , Guiana and Venezuela .
- Vaccinium delavayi Franch. : It occurs in Myanmar, Tibet , Sichuan and Yunnan.
- Vaccinium emarginatum Hayata : It occurs in Taiwan and on the Ryūkyū Islands .
- Vaccinium griffithianum Wight : It occurs in India.
- Vaccinium meridionale Sw. : It occurs in Colombia, Venezuela and Jamaica .
- Vaccinium moupinense Franch. : It occurs in India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Vietnam, Taiwan and in China.
- Vaccinium neilgherrense Wight : It occurs in India.
- Vaccinium nummularia Hook. f. & Thomson ex CBClarke : It occurs in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet and Yunnan.
- Vaccinium retusum (handle.) Hook. f. ex CBClarke : It occurs in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet and Yunnan.
- Section Cyanococcus A. Gray :
- Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton : It is common in North America.
- Vaccinium boreale I.V. Hall & Aalders : It is found in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States.
- Vaccinium caesariense Mack. : It occurs in the eastern United States.
- American bilberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. ): Native to Canada and the United States, it is widespread and is a neophyte in Japan, New Zealand, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.
- Vaccinium darrowii Camp : It is found in the southeastern United States.
- Vaccinium elliottii Chapm. : Found in Texas and the southeastern United States.
- Vaccinium formosum Andrews : It is found in the eastern United States.
- Vaccinium fuscatum Aiton : It is found in Canada and the United States.
- Vaccinium hirsutum Buckley : It occurs in the US states of Georgia , North Carolina and Tennessee .
- Vaccinium myrsinites Lam. : It occurs in the US states of Alabama , Florida , Georgia and South Carolina .
- Canadian blueberry ( Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. ): It is common in Canada and the United States.
- Vaccinium pallidum Aiton : It is common in Canada and the United States.
- Vaccinium simulatum Small : It is found in the southeastern United States.
- Vaccinium tenellum Aiton : It is found in the southeastern United States.
- Vaccinium virgatum Aiton : It is found in the United States.
- Section Eococcus :
- Section Epigynium :
- Vaccinium vacciniaceum (Roxb.) Sleumer : It occurs in India, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Tibet.
- Section Hemimyrtillus :
- Vaccinium arctostaphylos L .: It occurs in Bulgaria , Turkey , Iran and the Caucasus .
- Vaccinium cylindraceum Sm .: This endemic occurs only in the Azores .
- Vaccinium hirtum Thunb. (Syn .: Vaccinium koreanum Nakai ): It occurs in Japan and in southern Korea.
- Vaccinium padifolium Sm .: This endemic occurs only in Madeira .
- Vaccinium smallii A. Gray : It occurs in Japan, Korea, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin .
- Section Herpothamnus (Small) Sleumer :
- Section Myrtillus Dumort. :
- Vaccinium calycinum Sm . : It occurs in Hawaii.
- Vaccinium cespitosum Michx. : It is widespread from Canada to the United States and Mexico to Guatemala.
- Vaccinium deliciosum Piper : It is found in British Columbia and the western United States.
- Vaccinium dentatum Sm . : It occurs in Hawaii.
- Vaccinium membranaceum Douglas ex Torr. : It is common in Canada and the United States.
- Blueberry , bilberry ( Vaccinium myrtillus L. )
- Vaccinium ovalifolium Sm . : It is found in the United States, Canada, Alaska, Japan, and Russia's Far East .
- Vaccinium parvifolium Sm . : It is found in Alaska, British Columbia, and the western United States.
- Vaccinium praestans Lamb. : It occurs in Japan and in Russia's Far East.
- Vaccinium reticulatum Sm . : It occurs in Hawaii .
- Vaccinium scoparium Leiberg : It is found in western Canada and the United States.
- Neurodesia Section :
- Vaccinium crenatum (G.Don) Sleumer : It occurs in Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru and Bolivia.
- Section Oarianthe :
- Section Pachyanthum :
- Section Polycodium (Raf.) Rehder :
- Vaccinium stamineum L .: It is distributed from eastern Canada through the United States to Mexico.
- Pyxothamnus section :
- Vaccinium Section :
- Bog berry , blackberry ( Vaccinium uliginosum L. )
- Section Vitis-Idaea W.DJKoch :
- Cranberry , Kronsbeere ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. )
- Section Batodendron (Nutt.) A.Gray :
- SP Vander Kloet, TA Dickinson: A subgeneric classification of the genus Vaccinium and the metamorphosis of V. section Bracteata Nakai: more terrestrial and less epiphytic in habit, more continental and less insular in distribution. In: Journal of Plant Research , Volume 122, Issue 3, May 2009, pp. 253-268.
- Fang Ruizheng (方 瑞 征), Peter F. Stevens: genus Vaccinium. , Pp. 476-489 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (ed.): Flora of China. Volume 14: Apiaceae through Ericaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis. 2005, ISBN 1-930723-41-5 . (Sections Description, Distribution and Systematics)
- Sam P. Vander Kloet: Vaccinium. , P. 515 - the same text online as the printed work , In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 8: Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-534026-6 . (Sections Description, Distribution and Systematics)
- M. Leland Stilson, Dan Meatte, and Robert G. Whitlam: A Field Guide to Washington State Archeology , 2003, p. 23.
- Henning Haeupler, Thomas Muer: picture atlas of the fern and flowering plants of Germany . Published by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (= The fern and flowering plants of Germany . Volume 2 ). 2nd corrected and enlarged edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart (Hohenheim) 2007, ISBN 978-3-8001-4990-2 .
- Mark Rieger: Blueberries - Vaccinium spp. : Online ( Memento of the original from March 21, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed March 3, 2008
- Vaccinium at Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
- R. Schubert & G. Wagner: Botanical dictionary. Ulmer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-8252-1476-1
- Vaccinium in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Fang Ruizheng (方 瑞 征), Peter F. Stevens: genus Vaccinium. , Pp. 476-489 - online with the same text as the printed work , In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven, Deyuan Hong (ed.): Flora of China. Volume 14: Apiaceae through Ericaceae. Science Press and Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing and St. Louis. 2005, ISBN 1-930723-41-5 .
- Sam P. Vander Kloet: Vaccinium. , P. 515 - the same text online as the printed work , In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico. Volume 8: Magnoliophyta: Paeoniaceae to Ericaceae. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-534026-6 .