The perianth or perianth is the totality of sterile leaf organs in the flower of angiosperms . It sits below or outside. The function of the perianth is to protect the fertile organs in the bud stage and to attract pollinators during anthesis .
A flower envelope that is divided into the mostly green calyx (calyx) and the mostly colored crown (corolla) ( double perianth ; dichlamydeic) (biseriat) is referred to as non-uniform or heterochlamydeic . A perianth that is not divided into a calyx and a crown is called uniform. The simple perianth consists of several similar members - the tepals - and is also known as a perigon . It can be single-circle (mono-, haplochlamydeic) (uniseriat) or two- (dichlamydeic) (biseriat) or multi-circle, the multiple perigon (pseudoperigon), it is homoiochlamydeic in both cases.
If either the petals or sepals are completely absent, the simple perianth can be described as mono- or haplochlamydeic.
If the flower cover is missing, as is the case with the common ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ), the flower is referred to as naked or apo, achlamydeic.
The members of the flower cover can be fused together. This is called Sym- or Gamotepalie for the perigon , Sym- or Gamosepalie for the chalice, Sym- or Gamopetalie for the crown . If the individual leaves are not grown together, this is called apo- or choritepal, -sepal, -petal .
An additional outer calyx (epicalyx) can also be present.
The term perianth was first used by Jungius in 1678. Like Ray 1682 and Linné 1751, he used perianth for the chalice. The crown was then considered to be the actual flower. Perianth in today's sense has only been used for the entire flower cover since Mirbel in 1815.
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