Order (biology)

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Biological classification de

The order ( Latin ordo ) is a rank of the biological system . It is used to classify and name living beings ( taxonomy ).

With regard to the main levels, there is an order between class and family . In addition, a superordinate order ( superordo ) and a subordinate order ( subordo ) and partial order ( infraordo ) can be present immediately above the order .


In botany , the scientific order names are derived from the genus of the type species and end in -ales (for example Asterales , derived from Aster ). The ending was introduced by John Lindley in 1833, and was established in 1862 by George Bentham and William Jackson Hooker .

Even with Carl von Linné ( ordines naturales ) and Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu , the order denoted a rank above the genus and corresponded more to today's family. After the use of the family had become common, the order was adopted as the next higher rank.

At times there were alternative rank designators such as nixus , cohors or alliance . The term "series", which was used by Adolf Engler until 1959, was particularly important in German-speaking botany . These terms were discarded in favor of the order, however, appropriately described taxa are considered valid orders.


As in botany, in the taxonomy of mushrooms the ending -ales is used for orders. A special criterion for the rank of an order is not defined, orders are usually delimited on the basis of basic common morphological characteristics. More recently, the delimitation using common genetic markers ( phylogenomics ) has been added as an essential new method. In contrast to plants or animals, however, the investigation of fossil forms is meaningless with fungi. Genetically distinct clades defined as an order should have sufficient statistical protection to ensure the stability of the use of names. Orders should always be evolutionary old lines (high divergence time, according to the method of the molecular clock ). In this case, monotypical orders (i.e. those that contain only a single family) are also justified.

With mushrooms , order is often the most important level of representation.


In virology, only subordination of the above subdivisions is currently (as of April 2020) permitted. The name endings are -virales for orders and -virineae for submissions.

See also


Individual evidence

  1. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) , Art. 3, Online
  2. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) , Art. 17.2, Online
  3. Liu NG1, Ariyawansa HA, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Zhao RL, Phillips AJL, Jayawardena RS, Thambugala KM, Dissanayake AJ, Wijayawardene NN, Liu JK, Liu ZY, Jeewon R, Jones EBG, Jumpathong J (2016) into the value of genera, families and orders in classification. Mycosphere 7 (11): 1649-1668. doi: 10.5943 / mycosphere / 7/11/3
  4. Heinrich Dörfelt , Gottfried Jetschke (Ed.): Dictionary of Mycology. 2nd Edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-8274-0920-9 , p. 223.