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Administrative map of the Caucasus from 1957 to 1991

The Caucasus is a multi-indented mountainous country on the territory of Russia , Georgia , Azerbaijan , Armenia and Turkey . It lies between the Black Sea in the west, the Caspian Sea in the east, the Manytsch lowlands and in the south it extends to the Kars-Ardahan plateau (northeast Turkey).

The term is derived from the Caucasus Mountains , which characterize the entire area. Historically, the ancient countries of Colchis , Lazika , Iberia , Armenia and Albania were located there . In 1882, the Russian military administration in the Caucasus region was expanded to form the General Government of the Caucasus , whose borders were also transferred to the geographical term.

The countries of the South Caucasus are often seen as part of Europe for historical and cultural reasons , although geographically they are usually included in Asia .

The area is rich in mineral resources such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron, manganese, copper, lead and zinc ore, building materials and mineral springs. It has large hydro-energetic reserves, recreational and tourist centers. At the time of the Soviet Union , the Caucasus formed the North Caucasian and Transcaucasian Economic Districts .

The Caucasus is also called the mountain of languages ​​because of its linguistic diversity (Arabic: ”Jabal al-alsun”)

See also


  • Shapi Kaziev, Igor Karpeev: Everyday life of the Caucasian Highlanders. The 19th century. «Molodaya gvardia» publishers, Moscow 2003, ISBN 5-235-02585-7 .