441 inhabitants / km²
The Luzon archipelago includes other islands in the vicinity of the main island and is home to a total of 48,520,774 inhabitants (as of 2010).
The name of the island comes from Chinese and means "lower", "southern" or "little" song. The island was named after the former empire Lüsongguo ( Chinese 呂宋 國 / 吕宋 国 , Pe̍h-ōe-jī : Lūsòngkok, Pinyin : Lǚsòngguó) which translates as Luzon Empire . In contrast to other parts of the Philippine archipelago, the regent Lüsongguos was a king ( 國王 / 国王 Pe̍h-ōe-jī: kok-ông, Pinyin: guówáng) and not a prince or sultan .
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to reach the island from Malacca at the beginning of the 16th century . They called the empire Luçonia or Luçon and its inhabitants Luçoes.
Under Spanish rule, the island's name was changed to Nueva Castilla (New Castile).
The island and archipelago of Luzon lie between the South China Sea in the west and the Philippine Sea in the east as well as the Luzon Strait in the north and the Sibuyan Sea in the south. Together with the two more southern archipelagos Visayas and Mindanao as well as a large number of smaller islands, Luzon forms the island state of the Philippines .
In the north lies the Cordillera Central , a large rainforest-covered mountain range, the highest point of which is Mount Pulag at 2922 m , the third highest mountain in the Philippines. The valley of the Cagayan , the longest river in the Philippines, extends to the east of the mountain range . To the northeast of the island is the smaller island of Palaui , also known as the Boracay of the North . Further to the east are the mountains of the Sierra Madre , which extend into the southern part of the island. The Caraballo Mountains border a large plain that is drained from the Cagayan to the north and Pampanga to the south, and form the central junction of the Philippine Cordilleras . The Arayat rises in the middle of the plain . In the southeast of the central plain are the spacious Candaba river marshes . In the west of the island, the Zambales Mountains rise with the Pinatubo volcano , which last erupted in 1991.
In the south of the compact main part of the island rises the San Cristobal and the Banahaw . In the southeast of the two mountains, the large land mass merges into a narrow land bridge, which is marked by the Bay of Tayabas and the Bay of Lamon and finally merges into the elongated Bicol peninsula .
The following islands and archipelagos belong to the archipelago:
The island group of Palawan is included in Luzon , although it was decided in 2005 to assign Palawan for administrative reasons to Region VI of the Philippines, which would make it politically part of the Visayas archipelago . However, this decision was initially not implemented and provisionally suspended three months later.
There are seven administrative districts on the island of Luzon :
- Ilocos region (District I) in the northwest
- Cagayan Valley (District II) to the northeast
- Central Luzon (District III) in the middle
- CALABARZON (District IV-A) in the south in the transition to the Bicol peninsula
- Bicol Region (District V) in the southeast, including offshore islands such as Catanduanes and Masbate
- Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) in the northern interior of the island
- National Capital Region (NCR) (Metro Manila) in the south center
- Mimaropa (District IV-B)
The archipelago is characterized by volcanic and earthquake- rich mountainous areas of the Philippine Cordillera and tropical rainforest . At 2,922 meters above sea level, Mount Pulag is the highest mountain in Luzon and after Mount Apo and Mount Dulang-dulang the third highest mountain in the Philippines. With the Mayon , the most active volcano in the country is also located in Luzon.
- Abasig-Matogdon Mananap Natural Biotic Area
- Alabat Watershed Forest Reserve
- Alibijaban Wilderness Area
- Angat Watershed Forest Reserve
- Aurora Memorial National Park
- Balbalasang Balbalan National Park
- Bangan Hill National Park
- Bataan National Park
- Bessang Pass Natural Monument
- Biak-na-Bato National Park
- Bicol Natural Park
- Binahaan River Watershed Forest Reserve
- Buenavista Protected Landscape
- Bulusan Volcano National Park
- Calauag Watershed Reservation
- Caramoan National Park
- Cassamata Hill National Park
- Catanduanes Watershed Forest Reserve
- Fuyot Spring National Park
- Hinulugang-Taktak National Park
- Hundred Islands National Park
- Kalbario Patapat National Park
- Libmanan Caves National Park
- Lopez Watershed Forest Reserve
- Marikina Watershed Forest Reserve
- Minalungao National Park
- Mount Isarog National Park
- Mount Makiling Forest Reserve
- Mount Pulag National Park
- Mounts Banahaw San Cristobal National Park
- Mounts-Palay-Palay-Mataas-Na-Gulod-National Park
- Northern Luzon Heroes Hill National Park
- Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park
- Pamitinan Protected Landscape
- Paoay Lake National Park
- Maulawin Spring Protected Landscape
- Mulanay Watershed Forest Reserve
- Quezon National Park
- Salinas Natural Monument
- Subic Watershed Forest Reserve
Luzon's writing systems
see also category: Filipino script
Several writing systems are currently used in parallel on Luzon. Most dominant is the modern Filipino alphabet introduced by the US government , which uses Latin letters. In addition, the traditional Chinese characters are taught at so-called Chinese schools . ( trad. Chin .: 漢字 / ver. Chin .: 汉字 Standard Chinese Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: hànjī; Pinyin : hànzì). At the universities, however, mostly only the simplified Chinese writing system is used. Since 1992, after the Americans left the Philippines, the medieval Baybayin writing system has been taught at the universities of Luzon . The Mangyan , an indigenous people on Luzon's neighboring island of Mindoro , which belongs to the Luzon catchment area, use the Hanunó'o and Buhid writing systems . The Korean minority of Luzons uses the Han'gŭl (한글) as much as possible.
One of the few remaining documents from the 10th century is the Laguna copper plate inscription .
In the 16th century, both the Tagalog and the Chinese version of the Doctrina Christiana were published on Luzon. The Tagalog version is believed to be the first literary work printed on Baybayin. In the 17th century was The Life of Lam-Ang (on Ilokano Biag ni Lam-Ang , trad Chin.. :藍鋒的生活/ ver. Chin. :蓝锋的生活, PEH OE jī: Lâm-Hong ê seng-o̍ah / Pinyin : Lán Fēng de shēnghuó) (around 1640) published under the title Historia a Pacasaritaan ti Panagbiag ni Lam-ang iti Ili a Nalbuan nga Asaoa ni Da Ines Cannoyan iti Ili a Calanutian and attributed to Pedro Bukaneg . It is an epic from Samtoy , today's Ilokos, from the pre-colonial times of the Philippines .
Works written in Spanish were typical of 19th century Luzon. These include B. the revolutionary newspaper La Solidaridad . The most famous authors of Luzon are the writer Francisco "Balagtas" Baltazar , whose most famous work Florante at Laura was José de la Cruz of Ang Ibong Adarna wrote Patricio G. Mariano the most famous poet in the language of Tagalog and Jose Rizal . Mainly because of his works Noli me tangere and its successor El Filibusterismo . These works are all considered compulsory reading in all Filipino schools.
In the 20th century, due to the conquest by the Americans from 1915, the written Spanish language was gradually replaced by English. However, works in Spanish continued to be written in Luzon during the early days of the American occupation. Claro M. Recto was one of the most influential authors of the early days. A prominent author from the second half of the 20th century is Charlson Ong, in whose works the life of Filipino Chinese is portrayed. His most famous work by far is "Embarrassment of Riches".
One of the most influential authors in Luzon is the contemporary author Bob Ong ( trad. Chin .: 王 鮑勃 / ver. Chin .: 鲍勃 ̍; Pe̍h-ōe-jī : Ông Pâupu̍t, Pinyin in Chinese : Wáng Bàobó). In his works, everyday life is described in a humorous and critical way.
The rice terraces of the Ifugao province and the city of Vigan are world heritage sites . The SM Mall of Asia in Pasay , is the largest mall in the Philippines and was the third largest in the world when it opened. The second largest shopping center in the Philippines is the SM Megamall in Mandaluyong . Clark Air Base was the largest American military base outside the United States at the time. It was built 60 km north of Manila. The Aeta , for whom this place was sacred, were driven from their land by the Americans to make way for the base. The contemporary architecture of Luzon shows strong traces of American influence. Nevertheless, traces of Spanish imperialism can still be found in many places, for example the remains of Fort Santiago , which was deliberately destroyed by American troops in 1945. Also striking are the octagonal church towers from the Spanish colonial era, which are based on Chinese pagodas (塔, Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: thah; Standard Chinese pinyin : tǎ).
The archaeological sites in Cagayan Valley , which lie to the north of the island, available since 2006 on the proposed list of the Philippines for inclusion on the World Heritage List of UNESCO . Another archaeological site is in Central Luzon, it is called Arubo . The excavations were machined on both sides hand axes recovered, they are in the age of the account of their processing Acheuléen dated. The earliest artistic display in the Philippines is found near the Laguna de Bay. They are known as the Angono petroglyphs .
Central Luzon is home to many companies that are particularly popular within the Chinese-speaking area. First and foremost is the company Oishi, also known as上好佳( hokkien PEH-OE-JI: Siang Hó Ka, Mandarin Pinyin : Shàng hǎo Jia) which mainly chips consisting of crab, is prepared. Also internationally known is the San Miguel Brewery , ( trad. Chin .: 生 力 啤 酒廠 / ver. Chin .: 生 力 啤 酒厂 Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Senglia̍k Pichiúgān, Standard Chinese: Shēnglì Píjiǔchǎng), which is predominantly focused on the market in the Philippines , Hong Kong, and southern China . Another internationally represented company is the Jollibee Foods Corporation that using Jollibee itself and its two subsidiaries Greenwich Pizza and Chowking (超群: Hokkien PEH OE jī: chhiau kun, Mandarin Pinyin : Chao Qun), especially the fast food market on the The Philippines dominates, but is also represented in Hong Kong and on the west coast of the USA as well as Saudi Arabia .
The energy sector on the island of Luzon is largely well developed. For energy are oil , natural gas -, wood and increasingly on renewable energy sources such as hydropower , is used. In the last few decades, large hydropower plants have been built on the Angat (246 MW), Magat (381 MW ), Pantabangan reservoirs (100 MW) and on Lake Caliraya .
In addition to the companies mentioned above, there are other food manufacturers from Luzon. For example, Eng Bee Tin (永 美珍Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: éngbítin, Standard Chinese Pinyin : yǒngměizhēn), which mainly focuses on traditional snacks such as Hopia ( trad. Chin .: 好 餅 / ver. Chin .: 好 饼; Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: hópiáⁿ, Standard Chinese Pinyin: hǎobǐng). The Mondo MY San Corporation , however, distributes Skyflakes and Fita since 1935 crackers.
One of the largest food manufacturers from Luzon is the Universal Robina Corporation, which is best known for their C2 tea . While URC's subsidiary , Jack 'n Jill , is responsible for the production of snacks such as chippy and chiz curls . URC also produces instant noodles in collaboration with Nissin Foods . As with almost all of Luzon's companies, the products are mainly sold in the Chinese-speaking countries in Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Taiwan and China.
There are also companies that have concentrated on making sauces, such as Mama Sita's from Malolos
The Manila-based SM Investments Corporation is by far the best-known of all Filipino companies in the Philippines itself. It was founded by Henry Sy and is headed by him to this day. The group consists largely of shopping centers .
Luzon's fashion labels are largely unknown abroad, but very popular on the island. The now best-known companies are the T-shirt manufacturers Team Manila , Spoofs and The T-Shirt Project . However, one of the big fashion labels is Free-Go . All of these companies target a clientele between 16 and 30.
The National Book Store bookstores are a bookselling group founded in Escolta , Manila in the 1930s and the largest Philippine bookstore chain with 92 branches in the Philippines and branches in Hong Kong. Another famous house is Pandayan Bookshop, which can be found mainly in central Luzon.
The SyCip Salazar Hernandez & Gatmaitan Law Firm is the oldest and largest law firm in the Philippines, with its headquarters in Makati . The most famous clients represented by the firm include Chevron Texaco , General Electric , Citicorp , Goldman Sachs , Lehman Brothers , American Express , Bank of America , Asian Development Bank .
While Manila is the headquarters of Philippine Airlines , Air Philippines is based in the neighboring town of Pasay City . However, both airlines concentrate largely on domestic flights and travel to and from China.
When it was decided to end the train service for northern Luzon in the 1980s, many companies invested in the construction of coach companies that targeted all of the island's larger cities. The two most famous companies are German Espiritu Liner and the Philippine Rabbit .
Since February 1, 2009, Luzon's railway lines have been rebuilt with help from Taiwan and mainland China . The client is PNR , Philippine National Railways . The first trains are already in operation. Although the rail system is nationalized, the trains are run by private companies.
The operation of the highways was transferred to private companies from 2000, so the Manila North Tollways Corporation has been operating the North Luzon Expressway , a multi-lane, toll motorway from Metro Manila to the northwest, since 2005 . The system of these roads reaches all of Luzon and is being expanded further.
The timber trade and the cultivation of bananas and fiber bananas (for the production of Manila hemp ), rice , coconut palms , cocoa , tobacco and pineapples are economically important . Acacias grow in plantations on Luzon.
Due to the rich mineral resources, many different minerals and varieties could subsequently form, which makes Luzon an interesting place of discovery for collectors as well. So far (as of 2012) over 100 different minerals and varieties have been identified here, including arsenopyrite , bornite , chromite , covelline , enargite , quartz , rhodochrosite , uraninite and violarite, as well as various gemstone minerals such as chrysocolla , epidote , malachite and various garnets and tourmalines .
Luzon is also named for the nearby found in the "pit Lepanto" Mankayan Mineral Luzonit .
History of Luzon
The Kingdom of Luzon ( trad. Chin .: 呂宋 國 / ver. Chin .: 吕宋 国), sometimes also called the Luzon Dynasty ( trad. Chin .: 呂 宋朝 / ver. Chin .: 吕 宋朝), was probably founded after a large part of the Chinese population fled to the island when the Chinese emperor suffered a defeat against the [Mongols] in the naval battle of Yamen on March 19, 1279 in what is now Guangdong Province .
In addition to her, the city of Vigan (美 岸, Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī transcription): bîgán, Mandarin Chinese ( Pinyin transcription): měiàn) was one of the most important locations for foreign trade. Because the Spaniards destroyed all architectural and literary works of the pre-colonial period, relatively little is currently known about the pre-colonial period of Luzon. For example, on June 6th, 1570, the former city-state of Maynilad , now known as Manila, and also Tondo were burned to the ground by the Conquista and later rebuilt based on the Spanish model.
Commerce in Medieval Luzon
Vases from the 12th century in Japan indicate import and export trade of the empire. The so-called Rusun-Tsukuri (Japanese: 呂宋 製 or 呂宋 つ く り) (literally: "Made in Luzon" or "Made in Luzon") were decorated by the respective manufacturers with Baybayin , which refers to both the original contents of the vases as well refer to the manufacturer. Most often there was green tea or rice wine in them. The only manufactory from that time still preserved today are the Burnay vases from Ilocos .
In addition to vases and tea, the trade in porcelain, ivory, silk and beeswax was also important. In the 17th century, however, the elephants were exterminated.
Piracy was a problem at the time. Since Luzon, among other things, sold products directly from the mainland and in Japan a ship was only allowed to be sent from China to Japan every ten years, traffic between the mainland and the island was attacked. Other Japanese traders, such as Shimai Soushitsu (島 井 宗室) and Kamiya Soutan (神 屋 宗 湛), set up branches on Luzon in order to legally sell the imported and exported goods to Japan. One of these traders, Luzon Sukezaemon (Japanese: 呂宋 助 左衛 門), even went so far as to change his last name from Naya (納 屋) to Luzon (呂宋).
Relationship with China
One of the most important trading partners was the Chinese Empire . However, relations with the Empire during the Yuan Dynasty (元朝Pinyin : yuán cháo) were very poor. Many nobles opposed what they believed to be the "wrong" emperor . One of the best-known personalities of that time is Princess Urduja , who came from northern Luzon and made it her business to fight the “illegitimate” emperor. Relationships improved a lot during the Ming Dynasty (明朝 Pinyin: míng cháo). Even when the Hai jin law (海禁 Pinyin: hǎijìn) was passed, shipping between the mainland and Luzon was constant. The most important ports of call for Luzon on the mainland were Fuzhou (福州市 Pinyin: Fúzhōu shì), Guangzhou ( trad. Chin . : 廣州 市 / ver. Chin . : 广州 市, Pinyin: Guǎngzhōu Shì) and Quanzhou (泉州市, Pinyin: Quánzhōu shì). Since the emperor issued a special regulation, the goods from Luzon could be distributed to the rest of Asia , despite the ban ( hai jin ) . At that time, the people of Luzon were still considered Chinese .
Disintegration of the empire
Under Sultan Bolkiah , the Sultanate of Brunei attacked the capital of the Luzon Empire in 1500 to benefit from the island's economically favorable location. The sultanate won the war and founded the city of Maynilad , at that time also called Seludung, which translated means capital , in addition to the capital Tondo ( trad. Chin .: 東 都 / ver. Chin .: 东 都) . The Sultan made his own nephew, Lontok, also known as Gat Lontok, ruler of the newly established city-state. This was directly on the opposite bank of Tondo and was a seat of government fortified with city walls and Lantaka, Asian cannons. The king of Luzons was allowed to continue to exercise his office, but his position was greatly weakened. This weakness enabled another noble house, House Namayan , also known as Sapa ( Bay .: ᜐᜉ), to seize power. The house had already reached a high point in 1157 and saw the king's weakness as an opportunity to regain power. Accordingly, the royal houses of Tondo, Maynilad or Seludung and Namayan ruled on Luzon.
|Rajah Sulayman I.||1515||1558|
|Rajah Sulayman II also known as Rajah Matanda or Rajah Ache||1558||1571|
|Rajah Lakan Dula||1558?||1571?|
|Rajah Sulayman III.||1571||1575|
Conquered by the Spaniards in the 16th century
On May 8, 1570, Spanish conquistadors under Martín de Goiti and Miguel López de Legazpi reached Luzon. The ruler of Seludung , Sulayman I, ordered his fleet to attack the Spaniards, but lacked the military support of the other noble houses. Dula, from the Tondo family, saw the dispute as an opportunity to gain a hegemonic position in the empire and negotiated with the Spaniards. The turmoil of the noble houses and the lack of a dominant ruler led to the fall of the old Luzon.
Shortly after the Spaniards gained dominance on Luzon, in 1573 Chinese pirates tried to drive them away again. The from the Chinese mainland stemming pirate Lin Feng ( trad Chin.. :林風, ver. Chin. :林风, Hokkien PEH OE jī: Lim Hong Mandarin Pinyin : Lin Feng) collected 3,000 followers and 64 ships. In 1574 he fought against Spanish troops near Vigan (美 岸, Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: bîgán, standard Chinese Pinyin: měiàn), in what is now Ilocos Sur . Then he and his men besieged the Fuerza de Santiago , which served as the residence and headquarters of the conquistadors. After ten months, Lin Feng burned down the wooden bastion. Yet his campaign against the Spaniards was unsuccessful. The invaders captured him in 1575 and burned him.
Establishment and re-establishment of cities
In 1571, shortly after taking Manila and Tondo, the Spaniards established Fuerza de Santiago to protect themselves from the locals. After this was destroyed after a short time, Legazpi began to rebuild the fort on June 19, 1591.
Many places were given new, mostly Spanish, names. Other cities, on the other hand, were given new place names that were derived from native terms because the Spanish misunderstood the locals. This is how the city of Lihan in Malolos became.
Christianization of Luzon
In order to simplify the conversion to Christianity, the Spaniards linked elements of the traditional religions of Luzon with those of western mythology. To this end, many terms, architectural styles, objects and many names of Asian gods were reassigned to Christian-Western entities. The merging of two religions ( syncretism ) did not take place, however, as the population was more or less forced to convert. Hence, it is more appropriate to refer to the merger as "false syncretism" .
Adoption of traditional deities
The Christian God is called Bathala in the first translations of the Bible into Tagalog , a term which, however, was replaced in later versions with the Spanish word Dios and nowadays with the derived from it Diyos . But not only Christian beings were syncretized . In addition, mythical creatures from Europe were added. The Diwata (from Sans .: देवता), originally deities who lived in sacred places, mostly forests, turned the Spaniards into fairies . In addition, all Diwata were baptized into Mary to commemorate the mother of Jesus . The most famous Diwata on Luzon is Maria Makiling . The word Diwa (from Sans .: देव) originally meant God , but received the connotation thought or spirit during the Spanish colonial times . The Spanish paid little attention to many other deities, such as the moon goddess , also known on Luzon as Mayari , or Buwan , who was one of the most important deities of the pre-colonial period.
Non-Christian jewelry still has a place in the lives of the island's people to this day. So-called Anting-Anting (from Old Malay Anting: to, to append). auspicious and supportive skills are promised. These are mostly amulets or bracelets. Due to the Christianization of Luzon today some of these Anting-Anting are provided with Christian symbols, others are not. One type of this Anting-Anting are Buddhist prayer chains, also known on the island as Buddha Beads or 佛珠 ( Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: hu̍t-chu, standard Chinese pinyin : fózhū). Vests that act as anting-anting are less common these days. These were worn by warriors and soldiers as spiritual support in the pre-colonial and also up to the Filipino-American War .
In order to promote Christianization, the Spanish had religious buildings built with Asian elements. These were familiar to the locals and they were better able to interpret and interpret the architecture. One of the most common elements was the octagonal church spiers that you can see in old churches on Luzon. For example at the Barasoain Church, the Binondo Church or the twin towers of the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene Church in Quiapo . The octagonal shape of the Luconian church towers is derived from the shape of Chinese pagodas (塔, Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: thah; standard Chinese pinyin : tǎ). The octagon, also known as the eight trigrams in Germany, is also called Pakwa (八卦 Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: pat-kòa; Standard Chinese Pinyin: bāguà) and plays a major role in Taoism. Another element were Chinese protection lions ( trad. Chin .: 石獅; ver. Chin .: 石狮 Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: chio̍h-sai; Standard Chinese Pinyin: shíshī). These can still be seen at the San Agustin Church in Vigan, for example.
Introduction of Spanish surnames in Luzon
On November 21, 1849 the Spanish general governuer Narciso Claveria y Zaldua obliged all residents of Luzon and the other islands of Spanish East India to use only given names. All legitimate surnames can be found in the alphabetical catalog of surnames ( Castilian : Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos). Names of Spanish origin formed by far the largest group of surnames to be assigned, followed by three dialects from Luzon, namely Tagalog , Iloko and Hiligaynon, as well as a language from the Visayas , namely Visaya itself.
Aspirations for a republic of their own
|Traditional Chinese characters||呂宋 人民 國|
|Abbreviation (ver. Chin.)||吕宋 人民 国|
|Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization)||lūsòngjîn bînkok|
|Standard Chinese ( Pinyin Romanization)||lǚsòngrén mínguó|
|German:||Tagalog Republic or
The Repúbliká ng̃ Katagālūgàn was the government founded by the Katipunan in Kangkong ( trad. Chin . : Chin鞏 / ver. Chin . : Chin巩; Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī: khangkióng / Standard Chinese Pinyin : kānggǒng) in Kangkong in 1896 Colonial era and continued during the Philippine-American War . The Katipunan provided both state power and the army within this state. Although the term Katagalugan actually only territory or language area of the Tagalen , it was synonymous with Luzon for the Katipunan. For the party, Filipinos were the Spaniards who were born in the Southeast Asian archipelago.
The party acted as a kind of Gray Eminence on the island and formed "its own laws, bureaucratic structures and elected its own leaders". For each province of Luzon in which the Katipunan were active, the High Council coordinated the local bodies responsible for the administration of the new state and the handling of military affairs. Local bodies controlled at the city level .
In the period 1896–1897 the Katipunan called their own state Haring Bayang Katagālūgàn ( trad. Chinese : 獨立 呂宋 國 / ver. Chin .: 独立 吕宋 国, Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī transcription): ta̍klia̍plūsòngkok, Standard Chinese ( Pinyin Inscription): dúlìlǚsòngúo). In German, the independent state of Tagalog. In 1897 the state was renamed Repúbliká ng̃ Biak-na-Bató , Republic of Biak-na-Bato, and from 1902 to 1906 it was called Repúbliká ng̃ Katagālūgàn ( trad. Chin .: 呂宋 人民 國 / ver. Chin .: 吕宋人民 国, Hokkien (Pe̍h-ōe-jī transcription): lūsòngjîn bînkok, Standard Chinese (Pinyin transcription): lǚsòngrén mínguó), i.e. Tagalog Republic. On November 1, 1897, the members of the Katipunan, including General Emilio Aguinaldo and Pedro Paterno , signed the " provisional constitution of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato " in the caves of Biak-na-Bato .
Since the desire for independence for the Filipino nations was illegal during the American colonial period, crackdowns were taken against the Katipunan. Today the party no longer exists. During the American rule, the three regions of the Philippines, Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao were united into one state.
Developments from 1900
After the defeat of the Spaniards in 1898, the Americans crushed the forces striving for independence by 1902 and established colonial rule. During the Second World War, the Japanese occupied Luzon with the Philippines in 1942 and were defeated in 1945 . On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially granted independence.
- Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities , 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office
- 東西 洋 考
- A Suma Oriental de Tomé Pires e O Livro de Francisco Rodríguez (in English: The suma oriental of tome pires and the book of Francisco Rodrigues Rutter of a voyage in the Red Sea, nautical rules, almanack and maps, written and drawn in the East before 1515: an account of the East, from the Red Sea to Japan, written in Malcca and India in 1512-1515) . The Hakluyt Society, London 1944 (English).
- Census ( Memento of the original from April 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Sum of all inhabitants of the provinces that are mainly located on the island of Luzon: All provinces of the National Capital Region , Cordillera Administrative Region , Ilocos Region , Cagayan Valley , Central Luzon , Calabarzon and the provinces of Albay , Camarines Norte , Camarines Sur and Sorsogon der Bicol region
- See Executive Order No. 429 ( Memento of the original dated November 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated May 23, 2005.
- See Administrative order No. 9 ( Memento of the original dated February 19, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dated August 19, 2005
- Lorna P. Makil: South Koreans in Dumaguete: A Preliminary Study. In: Virginia A. Miralao, Lorna P. Makil: Exploring Transnational Communities in the Philippines. Philippine Social Science Council, 2007, pp. 40–57, ISBN 971-8514-26-0 , unesdoc.unesco.org (PDF), accessed December 14, 2008.
- Overseas Korean Educational Institutions: Asia, Seoul: National Institute for International Education Development, 2007, archived from the original on May 17, 2008, http://www.interedu.go.kr/edu_net/overseas/sch_informal.htm?key = 2 ( Memento of May 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) , accessed on December 13, 2008
- bibingka.com ( Memento of the original from April 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- PEDRO BUKANEG Father of the Iloko Literature ( Memento from July 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Patricio G. Mariano, Nationalist Playwright
- cockatoo.com ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- forbes.com World's 10 Largest Shopping Malls
- smmallofasia.com ( Memento of the original from November 11, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- msita.com ( Memento of the original from April 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- sminvestments.com ( Memento of the original from March 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- pse.com.ph ( Memento of the original from May 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- pinoyfranchises.com ( Memento of the original from August 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- viva.com.ph ( Memento of the original from May 3, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- newsinfo.inquirer.net ( Memento of the original from March 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- With open cards - Philippines; by Jean-Christophe Victor, documentation, 20:98 min., Arte, June 22, 2005, France, Germany, German
- Mindat - mineral and locality list for Luzon
- The Battle of Yamen
- Legazpi, Don Miguel López de. (1564-1572). Cartas al Rey Don Felipe II: sobre la expedicion, conquistas y progresos de las islas Felipinas. Seville, España
- seapots.com ( Memento of the original from October 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ibn Battuta: The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, AD 1325-1354 , vol. 4, trans. HAR Gibb and CF Beckingham (London: Hakluyt Society, 1994), pp. 884-5.
- Patricia Buckley: Cambridge Illustrated History of China . Ed .: Cambridge University Press. 1999, ISBN 0-521-66991-X , pp. 211 .
- Gaspar de San Agustin: Conquistas de las Islas Philipinas 1565-1615 . Ed .: 1st bilingual ed [Spanish and English]. Pedro Galende, OSA, Intramuros, Manila 1998.
- Template error: The title parameter is required.
- Scott: Barangay
- Santiago, Luciano PR, The Houses of Lakandula, Matanda, and Soliman [1571-1898]: Genealogy and Group Identity, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society 18 
- About Pasay - History: Kingdom of Namayan. City Government of Pasay, accessed February 5, 2008 .
- Filipiniana: Act of Taking Possession of Luzon by Martin de Goiti ( Memento of the original dated August 2, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Accessed September 06, 2008
- Emma H. Blair: The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898; Volume VI . 2004.
- For the accounts of the attempted revolt, see Blair and Robertson, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 98-99
- Damiana Eugenio: Philippine Folk Literature: The Legends . University of the Philippines Press, Quezon City 2002, ISBN 971-542-357-4 , pp. 490 .
- Tagalog-English Dictionary by Leo James English, Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, Manila, distributed by National Book Store, 1583 pages , ISBN 971-91055-0-X
- David Joel Steinberg: The Philippines: a singular and a plural place  . Ed .: Basic Books. 2000, ISBN 978-0-8133-3755-5 , pp. 89 .
- Stemmann, Peter: Enneagram. The nine faces of personality. Urania, CH 8212 Neuhausen am Rheinfall, 1st edition 1999, ISBN 3-908653-01-0 , chap. Das Bagua, p. 52 ff.
- Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa: Catálogo alfabético de apellidos (reprint) . Philippine National Archives, Manila 1849.
- bibingka.com ( Memento of the original from March 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Guererro, Milagros; Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andrés Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (National Commission for Culture and the Arts) 1 (2): 3–12.
- Guererro, Milagros; Schumacher, SJ, John (1998): Reform and Revolution. Kasaysayan: The History of the Filipino People . 5. Asia Publishing Company Limited. ISBN 962-258-228-1 .
- Agoncillo 1990, p. 183
- the history of the Biak Na Bato Pact in Philippine History (English)
- Flores, Paul (August 12, 1995). "Macario Sakay: Tulisán or Patriot?" Philippine History Group of Los Angeles ( Memento of the original from June 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed April 8, 2007