Datu or Datto is a title for the princes of Southeast Asia and is used in the Philippines , Malaysia , Brunei and Indonesia , among others . In Indonesia among the Toba-Batak on the island of Sumatra , the term has the meaning "magician priest". Datu were, and still are in part, rulers over more or less large areas of these nations and mostly subordinate to a sultan or raja . The caste would also be comparable to the European dukes , counts or marquis , depending on how much power they wield.
The word Datu is derived from the old Malay term dato or datok , a title of rule of the Malays . Together with the Maharlika , the Timawa and the Alipin , the Datu formed the caste system of medieval Southeast Asia . Even today there are such princes in all of the above nations.
Furthermore, the title Datuk Seri is used for male members of the Malaysian Parliament ( Dewan Rakyat ).
Date in the Philippines
Muslim Filipino Society
The Moros ethnic group , a term borrowed from Spanish, is the largest ethnic group of Muslims in the Philippines. In the traditional structure of the Muslim Filipinos, sultans have the highest authority, followed by the dates, whose decisions are based on the Koran .
Datus' influence is measured by the number of their subordinates. As compensation for taxes and labor services, the Datus assure them help in emergencies and assistance in disputes with other communities. A datu is the basis for a smooth process in the Muslim Filipino society. He is a powerful figure of authority who used to have at least four wives, but is no more than one today. In earlier days they also ordered raids on other villages. They were also entitled to retaliation ( maratabat ) for the death of a subject or for an injury to their honor.
Datus are still heads of a community in the Muslim societies on the island of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago , and they administer the Sharia (the law of Islam) there. Supporting the Datu is an important part of the governance of a Muslim community.
Christianized Filipino Society
After the Christianization of the Philippines, the incumbent Datus retained their status and rights, but with the condition that they convert to Christianity and serve the Spanish crown. King Philip II signed a law on June 11, 1594 assuring them this.
This order granted the local nobles the same respect and privileges as they enjoyed prior to their conversion to Christianity. Later they became part of an exclusive and elite leadership class, called the Principalía , in the communities of the Spanish Philippines.
Legend of the ten dates
The legend of the ten dates is known in the Philippines as the Maragtas legend . This says that around 1240 ten brave noble rulers landed on the coasts of Iloilo to exchange land for gold. They came from the Bornay Kingdom (now Borneo ) and were on the run from the wrath of the evil ruler Rajah Makatunao. They set out to sea in large ships called balanghays to find a place where they could live in peace and harmony. On a moonless night on April 15, 1240, they drove into the unknown, together with their families, soldiers, slaves and advisers.
The myth of the arrival of the ten dates is still celebrated today with the Binirayan Festival on Panay Island , which a long time ago was called "Aninipay Island".
List of known nobles of the Philippine archipelago
- Date of the pre-Hispanic period on Panay
- Datu Dinagandan - First ruler of Aklan , circa 1200
- Kalantiao - regent of Aklan around 1399.
- Datu Paiburong - Regent of Iloilo
- Datu Padojinog - ruler of the Visayas region together with his wife Ribongsapaw. Datu Padojinog was one of the 10 Datus from Borneo.
- Date in the Maragtas epoch
- Kalantiaw III. / Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw - Formulated the Kalantiaw code of law in 1433 (legend; see related article).
- Datu Puti - one of the 10 Borneo Datus that reached the coast of Iloilo in pre-Hispanic times (a legend, but based on facts, see related section).
- Date during the Spanish colonial period
- Raja Colambu - chief of Limasawa around 1521, brother of Rajah Siagu of Butuan City . He met Ferdinand Magellan and took him to Cebu on April 7, 1521 .
- Rajah Humabon - ruler of Cebu , an ally and relative of Ferdinand Magellan's enemy Lapu-Lapu . In 1521 he and his wife were baptized and named themselves Carlos and Juana after the Spanish kings Carlos I and Joan of Castile .
- Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat - Sultan of Maguindanao .
- Raja Lakandula - Regent of Tondo , one of the last rulers of Maynilad .
- Lapu-Lapu - ruler of Mactan . He defeated Ferdinand Magellan on April 27 , 1521 . He is the Philippines' first national hero .
- Datu Sikatuna - ruler of Bohol around 1565 . He entered into a blood brotherhood with the Conquistador Miguel López de Legaspi .
- Rajah Sulayman (also called Rajah Suliman) - the last ruler of Maynilad . He was defeated by Martín de Goiti , leader of the expedition sent from Legaspi to Maynilad.
- Raja Tupas - Last Date of Cebu, Subjugated by Legazpi .
- Further dates
- Date of Sulu
- Datu Macabulos - ruled with the council of elders of the village of Lubao, Pampanga around 1571.
- Datu Pax S. Mangudadato - Datu today and Governor of the Sultan Kudarat Province (2001-2004)
- Rajah Siagu - chief of the Manobo ethnic group around 1521.
- Rajah Mutya Urduja - Princess of Pangasinan .
- Sultan Hajji Datu Amir bin Muhammad Baraguir, 25th Sultan of Maguindanao
- Raja Silonga , Sultan of Buayan , resisted the Spanish attempts to conquer Mindanao and started the first Moro Raids in the Visayas
- Datu Ubal brother of Raja Silonga
- ↑ “It would not be lawful if the Indian chiefs of the Filipino territories, after their conversion to Christianity, had to assume a worse position than they had before. Rather, they should be left with their usual privileges so that one can win their favor and their loyalty remains to them and this is now combined with the spiritual blessing that God has bestowed on them, through the fact that he has called them to himself and tells them of his true faith convinced, worldly blessings will expand their faith and make them happier and more comfortable. That is why we send orders to the governors of the islands to treat them well and to trust them to act on our behalf, together with the Indian government and those who previously held the rank of prince. Under all circumstances, the governors should ensure that the chiefs are properly favored and the Indians should give them the recognition they gave them during their paganism, this should be done without prejudice to the taxes to which we are entitled. ”Felipe II, Ley de Junio 11, 1594 in Recapilación de leyes , lib. vi, tit. VII, ley xvi. Also in Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, The Philippine Islands (1493-1898) , Cleveland: The AH Clark Company, 1903, Vol. XVI, pp. 155-156.