Calendar overview 1565
|Pedro Menéndez de Avilés - Spanish governor of Florida - founds the city of St. Augustine .||
defeat the Vijayanagar Empire
in the Battle of Talikota
siege of Malta
, which lasted several months, ends with the withdrawal of the Ottoman army.
|1565 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1013/14 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2108/09 (southern Buddhism); 2107/08 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||927/928 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3898/99 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||972/973 (turn of the year 28/29 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5325/5326 (August 26-27)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1875/76 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1876/77 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1621/22 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Siege of Malta
- May 18 : The Ottoman fleet under Lala Kara Mustafa Pascha and Piale Pascha reaches Malta , camps in the bay of Marsaxlokk and begins the siege of the island . The Grand Master of the Order of Malta and commander of the defenders, Jean de la Valette , has the water there polluted.
- May 24th : The siege of Fort St. Elmo begins.
- June 2nd : Turgut Reis appears in front of Malta and supports the besiegers.
- June 23rd : Fort St. Elmo is captured.
- July 15 : The Ottomans attack St. Michael's fortress on Senglea .
- August 21 : The besiegers launch a futile assault on Birgu and Senglea.
- September 8th : The Turkish siege ends. The withdrawal of the entire Ottoman fleet lasts until September 12th .
Other events in Europe
- February: The Battle of Affane is one of the last private battles in Ireland . It takes place in the province of Munster , County Waterford, between the troops of the Fitzgeralds ( Earl of Desmond ) and the Butlers ( Earl of Ormonde ). The battle ends with the defeat of Desmond's troops. In particular, the fact that both sides display their private banners during the battle is an affront to the English crown. Thereupon Elizabeth I ordered the leaders of both lordships to London. While Thomas Butler (3rd Earl of Ormonde) is pardoned as a relative of the Queen, Gerald Fitzgerald and his brothers John and James are arrested and locked up in the Tower of London . The power vacuum that followed in Munster finally led to the first Desmond rebellion in 1569 .
- July 29th : Mary Stuart marries her cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, at Edinburgh's Holyrood Palace . The hasty marriage covenant soon caused political problems.
- March 1 : The Portuguese Estácio de Sá founded in Brazil , the city of Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro and fights from here the French colony of France Antarctique .
- June: The French navigator Jean Ribault is released from English captivity and sent back to Florida immediately after his return by Gaspard II. De Coligny . Ribault arrives at Fort Caroline with a large fleet and hundreds of soldiers and settlers in late August and takes command.
- Admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés is appointed governor of Florida by the Spanish crown and is ordered to destroy the French Huguenot colony of Fort Caroline founded by Jean Ribault the previous year . He lands on an expedition on the peninsula and founds the city of San Agustín on August 28th . Then he conquered Fort Caroline in September and slaughtered most of the population. The rest are captured and the fort wiped out. The Spaniards build their own fort in its place. Jean Ribeault is executed on October 12th .
- February 13 : The Spanish expedition fleet under commander Miguel López de Legazpi and chief navigator Andrés de Urdaneta , which is in search of the Spice Islands , reaches the island of Cebu after a three-month journey . After a brief battle with the indigenous population , they leave Cebu and sail to the neighboring islands of Leyte and Camiguin . On March 16, the ships drift to the coast of Bohol . There, Legazpi and his team will receive spices and gold after convincing the locals that they are not Portuguese. He concludes a blood contract with the chief Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship between the two peoples. Legazpi and his men sail back to Cebu on April 27th and destroy a village, on the ruins of which they found their first settlements named Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús and Villa de San Miguel . Shortly afterwards, the first monastery of the Augustinian order was founded there, and its activities will play an important role in the Christianization of the islands in the future.
- The expedition member Alonso de Arellano deserted after several battles against the locals with a ship and made his way home to New Spain . Legazpi then sends Andrés de Urdaneta home on a ship to request support for the colony. On October 8th he reached Acapulco . Arellano, who caught more favorable winds, arrived in Barra de Navidad three months earlier .
- January 26th : The Dekkan sultanates defeat the South Indian Vijayanagar empire in the battle of Talikota , the last great Hindu empire is extinguished.
science and technology
- The Dutch Renaissance painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder painted a cycle of six seasons around 1565 on behalf of the merchant, banker and art collector Nicolaes Jonghelinck : The gloomy day , the haymaking , the grain harvest , the herd returning home and the hunters in the snow . The spring picture is lost.
- around 1565: Pieter Bruegel the Elder produces the pen drawing Painter and Buyer .
- January to August: Aztec Codices : Codex Osuna
- Arthur Golding publishes his translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses .
- Giambattista Giraldi publishes the collection of novellas Degli Hecatommithi , which William Shakespeare in particular likes to use as a material basis around 100 years later.
- February 1st : On the basis of the resolutions of the Council of Trent , the Pontifical Roman Seminary is founded in Rome for the better training of pastors.
- December 9th : Shortly after a conspiracy against him is uncovered, Pope Pius IV dies in Rome.
- The first edition of Shulchan Aruch , the authoritative summary of religious prescriptions ( Halachot ) of Judaism written by Josef Karo , appears in Venice.
Date of birth saved
- April 2 : Cornelis de Houtman , Dutch navigator († 1599 )
- April 3 : Anna III. zu Stolberg , 30th abbess of the Imperial Monastery of Quedlinburg († 1601 )
- April 16 : Elizabeth Throckmorton , English court lady of Elizabeth I and wife of Sir Walter Raleigh († 1647 )
- May 13th (baptized): Michel Hospein , German humanist, poet and cartographer († 1618 )
- May 15 : Friedrich Taubmann , German humanist scholar and poet († 1613 )
- August 9 : Ludwig II , Count of Nassau-Weilburg († 1627 )
- August 16 : Christine of Lorraine , Grand Duchess of Tuscany († 1636 )
- September 17th : Eduard Fortunat , Margrave of Baden († 1600 )
- October 6 : Marie de Gournay , French philosopher († 1645 )
- October 17 : Vincentius Schmuck , German Lutheran theologian and hymn poet († 1628 )
- October 22 : Benedikt Carpzov the Elder , German professor of law († 1624 )
- November 10 : Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , English nobleman and favorite of Elizabeth I († 1601 )
- November 23 : Konoe Nobutada , Japanese calligrapher and regent († 1614 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes Acronius , East Frisian theologian († 1627 )
- Daniel Chamier , French Reformed theologian († 1621 )
Born around 1565
- Paul Miki , Japanese Catholic missionary and martyr († 1597 )
- Johann Thölde , German alchemist, salinist, author and editor († around 1614 )
First half of the year
- January 19 : Diego Laínez , Spanish Jesuit (* 1512 )
- February 21 : Federico Gonzaga , Bishop of Mantua (* 1540 )
- March 17th : Alexander Alesius , German theologian and reformer (* 1500 )
- April 13 : Bernardo Navagero , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church (* 1507 )
- May 5 : Munjeong , Queen and Regent of the Korean Joseon Empire (* 1501 )
- May 14 : Florian Abel , German painter and draftsman of the Renaissance (* 16th century )
- May 14 : Nikolaus von Amsdorf , German reformer and theologian at the time of Luther (* 1483 )
- May 28 : Mikołaj Radziwiłł Czarny , Lithuanian nobleman, civil servant and statesman (* 1515 )
- June 17th : Ashikaga Yoshiteru , Shogun of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan (* 1536 )
- June 23 : Turgut Reis , Ottoman Corsair, Admiral and Bey of Tripoli
- June 25 : Herluf Trolle , Danish admiral and sea hero (* 1516 )
Second half of the year
- 11 / September 20 : Cipriano de Rore , Flemish composer of the Renaissance (* 1515 / 1516 )
- September 13 : Guillaume Farel , reformer of Romanesque Switzerland and foreman and collaborator of Calvin (* 1489 )
- September 15 : Modestinus Pistoris , German legal scholar, city judge and mayor of Leipzig (* 1516 )
- September 30th : Matthäus Delius , German educator (* 1500 )
- October 4th : Pier Paolo Vergerio , Italian Lutheran theologian (* around 1498 )
- October 5 : Lodovico Ferrari , Italian mathematician (* 1522 )
- October 6 : Johann Bocerus , German poet and historian (* 1523 )
- October 12 : Jean Ribault , French navigator and Caribbean pirate (* 1520 )
- December 8 : Hieronymus Baumgartner , designer of the Reformation in Nuremberg and mayor (* 1498 )
- December 9 : Giovanni Angelo Medici, under the name of Pius IV Pope (* 1499 )
- December 12th : Johann Rantzau , "Three (Danish) Kings Supreme General and Councilor" (* 1492 )
- December 13 : Conrad Gessner , Swiss physician, naturalist and classical philologist (* 1516 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Siegfried Apiarius , Swiss printer, xylograph and town piper (* around 1530 )
- Jacquet de Berchem , Franco-Flemish composer and conductor (* around 1505 )
- Juan Bermudo , Spanish music theorist and composer (* around 1510 )
- Katherine Champernowne , governess and first lady-in-waiting at the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England (* before 1503)