is I. Carlos
King of Spain .
|Ludwig II becomes King of Bohemia , Hungary , Croatia and Slavonia .|
Switzerland closes after the Battle of Marignano
the "Eternal Peace" with France .
|1516 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||964/965 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||10th tubes - Matlactli Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 9th rabbit - Chicuhnahui Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2059/60 (southern Buddhism); 2058/59 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||878/879 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3849/50 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||921/922 (turn of the year 4th / 5th February)|
|Jewish calendar||5276/77 (August 27-28)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1826/27 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1827/28 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1572/73 (turn of the year April)|
In 1516 the Habsburg-French antagonism , which would shape all of European politics for the next 240 years, begins : After the death of Ferdinand II , his grandson Carlos V becomes King of Spain , as well as King of Sardinia , as Charles II, King of Sicily and as Charles IV King of Naples . Since it has been in the possession of the Free County of Burgundy and large parts of the Burgundian Netherlands including the County of Flanders since the previous year , France under King Francis I sees itself surrounded by Habsburg territories at almost all national borders.
Politics and world events
- January 23 : After the death of Ferdinand II , his grandson Charles I , for Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , the Archbishop of Toledo , who leads the business of government, becomes King of Spain and also King of Sardinia , as Charles II of Sicily and as Charles IV King of Naples . This marked the beginning of the centuries-old opposition to France , which saw itself “surrounded” by the Habsburgs .
- August 13 : Charles I of Spain as Duke of Burgundy and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Noyon against the will of Emperor Maximilian I. It secures Karl's position in Burgundy both domestically and internationally and enables the assumption of rule in Spain. For Maximilian it means the compulsion to vacate his last positions in Italy .
Confederation / France / Italy
Florence and Urbino
- March 17th : Giuliano di Lorenzo de 'Medici , Duke of Nemours and city lord of Florence, dies after a long and serious illness . Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici , who represented him in all matters during his illness, succeeds him.
- Summer: Duke Francesco Maria I. della Rovere , who refused allegiance to Pope Leo X during the Milan Wars, is banned by him and has to flee Urbino . The beneficiary is his nephew Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici, who moves into the Duchy of Urbino on August 17th as the new duke , where the Medici had enjoyed political asylum just a few years earlier.
The end of the Milan wars
- March: The towns of Uri , Schwyz , Zurich , Basel and Schaffhausen , which reject the peace of Geneva concluded last year after the battle of Marignano , provide the Roman-German Emperor Maximilian I with 15,000 men for his campaign to Northern Italy. Another fratricidal war with the other federal locations that support France can only be avoided if Maximilian I cannot raise the agreed pay.
- November 29th : France's King Francis I concludes a peace treaty known as the "Eternal Direction" with the Thirteen Old Towns of the Confederation and their allied towns , in which all previous enmities are lifted and a court of arbitration is to be set up for future conflicts. Although the French king can largely dictate the conditions after his victory in the Battle of Marignano, the peace treaty is relatively generous towards the Confederates, as Franz has an interest in drawing them permanently to the French side. According to the contract, neither contract partner should support the enemies of the other. The Swiss give up their claim to the protectorate over Milan, but are allowed to keep their conquests in Italy with the exception of Ashenvale . The Ticino falls thus finally to Switzerland . As compensation for the war, Francis I paid a further 700,000 crowns to the thirteen towns in the Confederation .
- December 5 : Gaspard de Coligny I., seigneur de Châtillon is the French king Francis I to Marshal of France appointed.
Other events in Europe
- March 13 : Vladislav II dies. This means that his 10-year-old son Ludwig II, the last descendant of the Jagiellonian family , becomes King of Bohemia , Hungary , Croatia and Slavonia . The affairs of government are initially carried out by a Regency Council under the direction of the Reich Administrator Johann Zápolya . This is now striving for the dignity of the palatine .
- March 29 : The Republic of Venice names a residential area set up for Jews by decree ghetto .
- October 11 : Emperor Maximilian I pronounces the imperial ban on Duke Ulrich von Württemberg because he murdered the Rittmeister Hans von Hutten the previous year . This does not prevent Ulrich from arresting the bailiffs of Weinsberg and Cannstatt, Sebastian Breuning and Konrad Vaut , on November 20 on the charge of having turned to the emperor for help in high treason after the murder, and from arresting them after being sentenced on the basis of torture To have confessions executed on December 11th on the Stuttgart market square. The Tübingen Vogt Konrad Breuning , who was arrested on the same day, is detained and tortured for another year before he is also executed. The court hearings are led by Ulrich's new Chancellor Ambrosius Volland . His predecessor Gregor Lamparter had to flee the country in September after Duke Ulrich interpreted his advice to comply with the imperial demand for a six-year resignation from the government as treason.
The battle of Marj Dabiq between the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim I, the Strangen , and the Mamluks under the Burjiyya dynasty ends on August 24 with the victory of the Ottomans and the death of the Mamluks sultan al-Ghuri , the numerous emirs have refused allegiance. The previous viceroy in Egypt, Tuman Bay, will be proclaimed his successor in October . The Mamlukenemire, who refused to support al-Ghuri, are now in favor of a continuation of the war and reject all negotiations, although the Ottoman Sultan Selim I offers peace in exchange for recognition of Ottoman suzerainty. The Ottomans then advance via Syria and Palestine towards Egypt.
- The Ottoman corsairs Arudsch and Khair ad-Din Barbarossa conquer Algiers from the Spaniards and establish a barbarian state there .
- David II , Negus negest of Ethiopia , defeats the Sultanate of Adal in a campaign of conquest. There it comes to power struggles at the Sultan's court, as a result of which Prince Mahfuz von Zeila seizes power.
Voyages of discovery
The Spaniard Juan Díaz de Solís is believed to be the first European to reach the mouth of the Río de la Plata with his three caravels expedition and thus the area of today's states of Uruguay and Argentina . He sails up the river with two officers and seven sailors and lands near the confluence of the Río Uruguay and Río Paraná. When going ashore on February 2nd, most of the Spaniards were killed by Indians. The 14-year-old cabin boy Francisco del Puerto survived and lived with the Indians for ten years until he was found by another Spanish expedition.
Duke Wilhelm IV and Ludwig X of Bavaria enacted a new Bavarian state order on April 23 in Ingolstadt. Because it regulates the price and the ingredients of beer, among other things , a text passage from these state regulations is later referred to as the "Bavarian Purity Law ".
- November 12th : King Charles I of Spain signs a renewed postal contract with Franz von Taxis and his nephew Johann Baptista . In this treaty, King Karl designates both Franz and Johann Baptista as his chief postmasters ( capitaines et maistres des postes ) and the only postmasters and couriers. Franz and Johann Baptista undertake to station post riders from Brussels to the French royal court and the court of Emperor Maximilian, among other places. Two horses should be kept at every change station with the exception of remote routes. Without exception, only royal letters may be transported within the framework of certain time limits. The contract comes into force on November 15th .
- Large silver deposits are discovered near the town of Conradsgrün, where insignificant mining has been carried out up to now . The following year, the place is in line with the mountain town of Sankt Anna mountain in Jáchymov renamed.
science and technology
- December: Thomas More 's state-theoretical work Utopia is published for the first time in Latin at the instigation of Erasmus von Rotterdam in Leuven. The philosophical dialogue with the description of an ideal society gives the impetus for the genre of utopia and the utopian novel . In the work, among other things, the abolition of private property and a kind of unconditional basic income are discussed.
- Erasmus von Rotterdam wrote his main educational work Institutio Principis Christiani ( The Education of the Christian Prince ) in Leuven . This prince mirror is a guide to a peaceful policy based on Christian moral principles.
- Lucas Cranach the Elder paints the picture cycle The 10 Commandments .
- Titian starts work on the oil painting of the Assumption on behalf of Prior Fra Germano da Casale of the Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice .
- King François I brought Leonardo da Vinci , whom he met on his journey to Italy , to his court in France. Among other things, the artist takes the Mona Lisa to Paris. He moved to the Clos Lucé Castle in Amboise , which was left to him along with a generous pension. The king visits Amboise with his court frequently for the next two years.
- The first version of the 40-chant verse epic Orlando furioso by Ludovico Ariosto appears. Ariost's poetry has, among other things, great influence on Italian literature .
- On June 8th, the elephant Hanno , Pope Leo X's favorite animal , dies on June 8th , given to him by King Manuel I of Portugal two years earlier. A little later, a satirical will of the elephant is circulating, denouncing the conditions in the Roman curia.
- The condottiere Giovanni de 'Medici , who was in papal service, married the Florentine patrician Maria Salviati .
- After the usual five-year hiking period , the shoemaker Hans Sachs settled in the imperial city of Nuremberg .
- In Augsburg , on behalf of the businessman and banker Jakob Fugger , construction began on the Fuggerei under master builder Thomas Krebs , the oldest social housing estate in the world that still exists today . Construction lasts until 1521 .
- Götz von Berlichingen allegedly calls out the “ Swabian greeting ” to the Kurmainz bailiff in Krautheim an der Jagst .
- December 19 : The French King Francis I and Pope Leo X sign the Bologna Concordat . Francis recognizes the superiority of the Pope (over the councils ) and the annates (fees for the transfer of a spiritual office). In return, he was given the right to occupy important positions in the French Church without the interference of the Pope.
- The non-hereditary Principality of Montenegro is founded. The residence of Vladikas is Cetinje .
- The Novum Instrumentum omne , the first published print of the New Testament in Greek , is printed.
- A second expanded edition of the dark man's letters appears in Hagenau , Alsace , printed by Heinrich Gran . The original 41 letters are being appended with seven more.
nature and environment
- In the province of Guanxi in the Chinese Empire, the meteorite of the same name falls near the city of Nantan . Although it is observed by the population, the meteorite remains unnoticed at the point of impact for the next 400 years.
January to April
- January 1 : Margareta Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud , Queen of Sweden († 1551 )
- January 13 : Adriaen Pauw , Dutch merchant and politician († 1578 )
- January 14 : Herluf Trolle , Danish admiral and sea hero († 1565 )
- January 21 : Georg Sigmund Seld , German lawyer and Imperial Vice Chancellor († 1565 )
- March 15 : Alqas Mirza , Safavid prince († 1550 )
- 16 / March 26 : Conrad Gessner , Swiss physician, naturalist and philologist († 1565 )
- April 13 : Willem de Witt , Dordrecht patrician and regent († 1596 )
- April 20 : Sophia von Alvensleben , abbess of the Althaldensleben monastery († 1590 )
- April 23 : Georg Fabricius , Protestant German poet, historian and archaeologist († 1571 )
- April: Benedikt Stokar , French councilor of federal origin († 1579 )
May to August
- May 16 : Guglielmo Gratorolo , Italian alchemist and doctor († 1568 )
- June 29 : Rembert Dodoens , Flemish botanist and doctor († 1585 )
- June 29 : Nikolaus von Dornspach , Mayor of Zittau († 1580 )
- July 27 : Aemilia of Saxony , Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach († 1591 )
- July 28 : Wilhelm , Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg († 1592 )
- August 10 : Johann Habermann , German Lutheran theologian, author of edification and Hebraist († 1590 )
- August 13 : Hieronymus Wolf , German humanist and philologist, founder of German Byzantine Studies († 1580 )
- August 18 : Brigitta von Pfalz-Simmern , abbess at Neuburg Abbey († 1562 )
- August: Vincenzo Giustiniani , Genoese clergyman, Magister General of the Dominican Order and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1582 )
September to December
- September 2 : François I. de Clèves , Count of Nevers and Eu and Count of Beaufort († 1562 )
- September 8 : Adam Siber , German humanist and educator († 1584 )
- September 21 : Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox , Scottish nobleman († 1571 )
- September 30th : Hartmann Beyer , German mathematician, theologian and reformer († 1577 )
- October 23 : Charlotte of France , Princess of France († 1524 )
- November 5 : Martin Helwig , German cartographer and educator († 1574 )
- December 9 : Modestinus Pistoris , German legal scholar, city judge and mayor of Leipzig († 1565 )
- December 23 : Johann Jakob Fugger , German businessman and art patron († 1575 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johannes IV Beck , abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Ebrach († 1562 )
- Matthaeus Collinus , Bohemian humanist († 1566 )
- Cristóvão da Gama , Portuguese military leader († 1542 )
- Hans Dietrich von Gemmingen , landlord in Heimsheim and Mühlhausen as well as in Weinfelden († 1566 )
- Cosmas Gienger von Wolfseck , patrician from Ulm and vice cathedral in Austria above the Enns († 1592 )
- Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey , English nobleman and poet († 1547 )
- Klemens Janicki , Polish Latin poet († 1543 )
- Johann I von Viermund , hereditary bailiff of Neersen († 1572 )
- Karl I , Count of Hohenzollern († 1576 )
- Wolf von Kötteritz , German lawyer and politician († 1575 )
- Franz Kram , German lawyer and Electoral Saxon Chancellor († 1568 )
- Hans Mielich , German painter and draftsman († 1573 )
- Andreas Poach , German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1585 )
- Pedro Ponce de León , Spanish Benedictine and founder of a school for the deaf († 1584 )
- Francesco Robortello , German humanist, scientific theorist and editor († 1567 )
- Sujumbike , regent of the Kazan Khanate († after 1554)
- Tabinshwehti , founder and king of the Second Burmese Empire († 1550 )
- André Thevet , French researcher and writer († 1590 )
- Christoph Tiedemann , Canon of the Eutin Collegiate Monastery and Canon of the Ratzeburg Cathedral († 1561 )
- Jan van Utenhove , Flemish humanist and Reformed theologian († 1566 )
- Bernhard Walther , German legal scholar, professor and Austrian government chancellor († 1584 )
Born around 1516
- between February 24, 1515 and February 24, 1516: Johann Weyer , German doctor and opponent of the witch hunt († 1588 )
- 1515 /1516: Cipriano de Rore , Flemish composer († 1565 )
- 1515 /1516: Nicholas Throckmorton , English agent, diplomat and politician († 1571 )
- Christian Brück , Saxon Chancellor († 1567 )
- Realdo Colombo , Italian anatomist and surgeon († 1559 )
- Lope García de Castro , Spanish lawyer († 1576 )
- John Hales , English politician († 1572 )
- Paulus Juusten , Finnish reformer, bishop of Wiborg and Turku († 1575 )
- Cyriacus Lindemann , German educator († 1568 )
- Kilian Vogler , German philosopher, lawyer and court judge as well as professor and rector at the University of Tübingen († 1585 )
- Volkwin Weigel , Hessian mathematician and doctor († 1579 )
- June 29: 1516/ 1517 : Rembert Dodoens , Flemish botanist and physician († 1585 )
- 1516/ 1517 : Germain Vaillant de Guelis , French jurist, Catholic priest, Bishop of Orléans and classical scholar († 1587 )
- 1516/ 1518 : Bartolommeo Genga , Italian painter and architect († 1558 )
First half of the year
- January 23 : Ferdinand II , King of Sicily and Aragon, as Ferdinand III. King of Naples and as Ferdinand V, King of Castile and León (* 1452 )
- February 2 : Juan Díaz de Solís , Spanish navigator and explorer (* 1470 )
- before February 14: Niccolò Machiavelli , Florentine citizen, cousin and contemporary namesake of the famous Florentine philosopher (* 1449 )
- February 29 : Bernat Fenollar , Valencian clergyman, patron of culture and poet (* between 1435 and 1440)
- March 17th : Giuliano di Lorenzo de 'Medici , Lord of Florence and Duke of Nemours (* 1479 )
- March 20 : Battista Mantovano , Italian poet and humanist (* 1447 )
- March 28 : Kunz von Lüchau , Brandenburg-Kulmbacher bailiff in Selb and Rehau and Saxon bailiff in Schleiz
- April 8th : Hieronymus von Stauff , baron of the Reich of Ehrenfels and ducal Bavarian court master, executed
- April 11 : Ulrich Krafft , German preacher and legal scholar (* around 1455 )
- April 25 : John Yonge , English diplomat and lawyer (* 1466 / 67 )
- May 27th : Peter Wolkow , Bishop of Schwerin
- June 12 : Ernst , Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (* 1454 )
- June 17th : Johann III. , King of Navarre (* 1469 )
- before July: Jacopo de 'Barbari , Italian painter and engraver (* around 1460 - 70 )
Second half of the year
- July 18 : Marco Vigerio della Rovere , Bishop of Senigallia and Ventimiglia, Cardinal Priest of S. Maria in Trastevere, Archbishop of Trani and Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina (* 1446 )
- July 30th : Johann V , Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (* 1455 )
- August 7th : Federico Sanseverino , Cardinal of the Roman Church (* around 1462 )
- August 9 (buried): Hieronymus Bosch , Dutch painter (* around 1450 )
- August 15 : Jacques de Croÿ , Benedictine priest, patron of the arts and Prince-Bishop of Cambrai, as well as illegitimate ruler of the Principality of Liège (* around 1436 )
- August 21 : Johann III. , Count of Egmond, governor of Holland, Zeeland and West Friesland, Lord of Baer, Lathum, Hoogwoude and Aarstwoude, and Lord of Purmerend, Purmerland and Ilpendam (* 1438 )
- August 23 : Nicolaus Celer , German theologian and rector of the University of Leipzig
- August 24 : Al-Ashraf Qansuh (II.) Al-Ghuri , Sultan of the Egyptian Mamluk Empire (* 1441 )
- September: Jacopo da Volterra , Italian humanist (* 1434 )
- November 29 : Giovanni Bellini , Italian painter (* around 1430 )
- December 4th : Ludwig Ebmer , Bishop of Chiemsee
- December 11th : Sebastian Breuning , Vogt von Weinsberg and political opponent of Duke Ulrichs von Württemberg
- December 11th : Konrad Vaut , Vogt von Cannstatt and political opponent of Duke Ulrichs von Württemberg (* around 1446 )
- December 13 : Johannes Trithemius , abbot at Sponheim Monastery, versatile scholar and mystic (* 1462 )
- December 27th : Jacques d'Amboise , French cleric, Abbot of Jumièges, Abbot of Cluny, Bishop of Clermont and Minister of Louis XII.
- December 29th : Johannes Butzbach , Rhenish Benedictine monk and writer, prior of the Laach Abbey (* 1477 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio , Milanese painter (* 1467 )
- Vincenzo Foppa , Italian painter (* around 1427 )
- Bernardino Fungai , Italian painter of the School of Siena (* 1460 )
- Johann I , Count of Rietberg (* around 1450 )
- Johann Kerkring , Councilor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck
- Luca Landucci , Florentine specialty merchant and chronicler (* 1436 )
- Hermann Lilie , Mayor of Werl (* before 1453)
- Antonio Lombardo , Venetian sculptor (* around 1458 )
- Konrad Pfettisheim , citizen of Strasbourg and author of a rhyming chronicle about the Burgundian Wars (* before 1477)
- Kilian Reuter , German humanist and playwright (* before 1480)
- Biagio Rossetti , Italian architect and urban planner (* 1447 )
- Giuliano da Sangallo , Florentine architect and sculptor (* 1445 )
- Johannes Scheyring , Rector of the University of Leipzig and Canon in Magdeburg and Halberstadt (* 1454 )
- Ivo Strigel , South German sculptor (* 1430 )
- Hermann Vischer the Younger , German painter and sculptor (* 1486 )
Died around 1516
- 1515 or 1516: Alonso de Ojeda , Spanish navigator (* around 1470 )
- Jürgen Richolff the Elder , German printer
- 1516 or later: Gaspar da Gama , Polish-Jewish merchant and spy for the ruler of Goa, later translator in Portuguese services (* around 1460 )