Calendar overview 1452
Friedrich III. is crowned as the last emperor of
the Holy Roman Empire
in Rome .
Johannes Capistranus has games burned
|empire of the black mutton conquered large parts of Iran .|
|1452 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||900/901 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||11. Tubes - Matlactli ozce Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 10th Rabbit - Matlactli Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1995/96 (southern Buddhism); 1994/95 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||814/815 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||855/56 (turn of the year 22/23 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5212/13 (September 13-14)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1762/63 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1763/64 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1508/09 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- January 2nd : Duke Wartislaw IX. von Pommern-Wolgast grants the cities of Stralsund , Greifswald , Demmin and Anklam certain rights in the Golden Privilege . These include the right to form alliances with one another, the free jurisdiction of the cities against crimes to the detriment of the cities on public land and waterways, safe conduct for city citizens within the country even in times of war, freedom from customs duties and taxes within the country, exclusion the Duke's jurisdiction over the townspeople, the confirmation of protection for property, life and limb of the residents, the right to arbitrary land acquisition by the towns, the Duke's intervention against his own servants in the event of abuse of power against the towns and the guarantee of privileges even in the event of violations , Omissions or other denials towards the sovereign.
- March 9 : Friedrich III. is crowned as the last emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Rome . The coronation is carried out by Pope Nicholas V.
- May 18th : Modena and Reggio are taken over by Emperor Friedrich III. constituted as a duchy in favor of Borso d'Este .
- The House of Habsburg has to sell the rest of the County of Kyburg , which it only acquired in the Toggenburg War of Inheritance in 1442 , to the city of Zurich . The city of Winterthur , which until then belonged to the county, is excluded from the trade . The city-state of Zurich integrates the county into its domain and lets it be governed by a bailiff who resides at Kyburg Castle.
- April 15 to August 31 : The Ottoman Empire builds the Rumeli Hisarı fortress off Constantinople .
- In preparation for his offensive against Constantinople , Mehmed II , the seventh Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, concludes peace treaties with Hungary and Venice .
Other events in Europe
- Loose negotiations between the Kulm knighthood and the towns of Kulm (Chełmno) and Thorn (Toruń) with the King of Poland , Casimir IV Jagiello , during the Thirteen Years' War
Portuguese voyages of discovery
- June 18 : In the Papal Bull Dum diversas , Pope Nicholas V allows the Portuguese King Alfonso V to conquer the unbelieving countries in West Africa . The Pope tolerates the enslavement of dark-skinned people.
- The Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers the islands of Flores and Corvo , which belong to the Azores .
- May 15 : Due to the untimely death of his father Munjong , the twelve-year-old Danjong becomes king of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea . He is confronted with his uncle Suyang's ambitions for the throne.
- Jahan Shah , head of the Turkmen tribal federation of the Empire of the Black Mutton , finally shakes off the suzerainty of the Timurids and conquers large parts of Iran .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Muskau in Upper Lusatia receives city rights.
- The Schapfenmühle in Jungingen near Ulm is first mentioned in a document.
- The construction of the Alster-Beste canal is (temporarily) suspended.
Culture, religion and society
- The Gutenberg Bible was created in Mainz between 1452 and 1454 .
- The Biblioteca Malatestiana is founded in Cesena .
- Inauguration of the great hall of the poor at the Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune .
- Games are burned en masse in Nuremberg . The penitential preacher Johannes Capistranus considers them harmful.
- The first midwifery ordinance is issued in Regensburg .
- The instrumental music begins with Conrad Paumann's Fundamentum organisandi .
- Construction of the Corvinestilor Castle (Castelul de Hunedoara) in Hunedoara .
Date of birth saved
- February 6 : Joan of Portugal , Portuguese princess from the house of Avis († 1490 )
- March 10 : Ferdinand II , King of Aragon and, as Ferdinand V, King of the unified Spanish monarchy († 1516 )
- April 15 : Leonardo da Vinci , Italian polymath; Painter, sculptor, architect, anatomist, mechanic, engineer and natural philosopher († 1519 )
- April 19 : Frederick I , King of Naples († 1504 )
- May 18 : Heinrich the Younger , Duke of Münsterberg, Count of Glatz and Bohemian diplomat and writer († 1492 )
- July 27 : Ludovico Sforza , Duke of Milan from the Sforza family († 1508 )
- September 21 : Girolamo Savonarola , Italian monk and politician († 1498 )
- October 2 : Richard III. , last English king of the Plantagenet dynasty († 1485 )
- December 10 : Johannes Stöffler , German mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, pastor and professor († 1531 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Attavante degli Attavanti , Italian painter († 1525 )
- Prospero Colonna , Italian condottiere in the service of the Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation during the Italian Wars († 1523 )
- Ludwig von Diesbach , Swiss statesman († 1527 )
- Force VI. von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Neuenstein , Canon in Mainz and Speyer († 1503 )
- Pandolfo Petrucci , ruler of Siena († 1512 )
Date of death secured
- February 10 : Švitrigaila , Grand Duke of Lithuania (* around 1370 )
- February 21 : William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas , Scottish nobleman and Guardian of Scotland (* around 1425 )
- March 3 : Friedrich IV. Truchsess von Emmerberg , Prince Archbishop of Salzburg
- March 3 : Pietro Geremia , Italian Dominican and diplomat (* 1399 )
- April 20 : Reinhard III. , Count of Hanau (* 1412 )
- May 6 : Bicci di Lorenzo , Florentine painter (* 1368 or 1373 )
- June 1 : Munjong , 5th King of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea (* 1414 )
- June 26 : Gemistus Pletho , Greek philosopher (* 1355 / 1360 )
- July 7th : Eleanor Cobham , English court lady, victim of the witch hunt (* around 1400 )
- July 25 : Robert Willoughby, 6th Baron Willoughby de Eresby , English military (* around 1385)
- September 27 : Isabel de Mowbray , English noblewoman (* after 1400)
- November 1st : Hilger de Burgis , auxiliary bishop in Cologne and Liège
- December 2 : John III. Grünwalder , Prince-Bishop of Freising (* 1392 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Jean Gérard de Poitiers , Archbishop of Vienne (* around 1368 )
- Li Changqi , Chinese writer of the Ming Dynasty (* 1376 )
- Jens Jakobsson , Bishop of Oslo and Norwegian Chancellor (* around 1380 )
- Gisbert Schairt , late Gothic builder from the Lower Rhine (* around 1380 )