Louis XII. becomes
king of France .
Vasco da Gama finds
the sea route to India .
|Girolamo Savonarola is executed as a heretic in Florence .|
|1498 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||946/947 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||5th house - Macuilli Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 4th Feuerstein - Nahui Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2041/42 (southern Buddhism); 2040/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||860/861 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3831/32 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||903/904 (turn of the year 18/19 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5258/59 (September 16-17)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1808/09 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1809/10 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1554/55 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The sea route to India
The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama , who has been searching for the sea route to India on behalf of King Manuel I since the middle of last year , has been sailing north on the east coast of Africa with his fleet of just three ships since the beginning of the year. On January 10th he anchored in Delagoa Bay , which he called Terra da Boa Gente ( land of the good people ) because of the friendly residents . On January 22nd , he reached the mouth of the Zambezi and built a padrão there . In March, the Portuguese discovered the Ilha de Moçambique , named by da Gama after the local Sheikh Moussa Ben Mbiki, and on April 7th the fleet reached Mombasa . Here Arab merchants who fear for their monopoly in the spice trade try to prevent Da Gamas from continuing their journey.
The Portuguese then sail on to Malindi , which is in competition with Mombasa, and where they can find support. From here an Arab pilot leads Vasco da Gama through the waters. On May 17 or 18, the Indian mountains of the Western Ghats came into view and the squadron finally anchored near Kalikut on May 20 . A trade agreement is signed with the Samorim of Kalikut, but when, after a few incidents with Arab traders, the mood slowly turns against the Portuguese, they leave the city at the end of August. You first sail north to the Angediven before Vasco da Gama finally leaves India on October 5th with the holds full of spices, namely the luxury item pepper .
More voyages of discovery
- The Venetian Giovanni Caboto receives a third letter of protection from King Henry VII of England for the search for a north-western sea route to Asia . He leaves Bristol in early May with five ships. Little is known about the further course of the journey.
Holy Roman Empire
- Beginning of February: The Roman-German King Maximilian I convenes a Reichstag in Freiburg im Breisgau . At the Diet will include the populations of Roma and Sinti ( " Gypsy ") as alleged traitors of Christianity and allies of the Muslim Turks, as a magician and a carrier of the plague in their entirety for outlaws explained.
- February 13th : The Imperial Court Council is established with Maximilian I's court order .
- March 30th : Due to waste, favoritism and arbitrary acts by Duke Eberhard II , the Württemberg estates put the Esslingen Treaty of 1492 into force by means of regimental regulations . Eberhard II flees to Ulm.
- May 28 : Maximilian I takes the state of Württemberg from Duke Eberhard II.
- June 10 : Eberhard II accepts the Horber arbitration award and its deposition and expulsion from the country against payment of 6,000 guilders annually. His successor is his eleven-year-old nephew Ulrich . His guardianship is assumed by representatives of the estates under the direction of the Hereditary Marshal and Burgvogt on Hohenneuffen , Konrad Thumb von Neuburg . At the same time, Ulrich is engaged to Maximilian's six-year-old niece Sabina von Bayern , which creates a strategic alliance between the Duchy of Bavaria and the poorer house of Württemberg.
- Maximilian I enfeoffed Duke Albrecht of Saxony in exchange for a loan of 300,000 guilders with Friesland including Dithmarschen , which he first had to submit militarily. With this the Frisian freedom ends and a period of political fragmentation and dependency begins for Friesland. Years later, the Saxon feud develops from it .
- After the death of Heinrich I , his three sons Albrecht I , Georg I and Karl I rule the duchies of Münsterberg and Oels and the county of Glatz together.
- February 17th : Girolamo Savonarola has a second book burning carried out on the Piazza della Signoria in Florence .
- May 23 : The Pope Alexander VI. Penitent preacher Girolamo Savonarola , excommunicated as a “heretic, schismatic and despiser of the Holy See”, is executed in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence . Since some women try to take bones with them as relics after the cremation , the piazza is closed and Savonarola's ashes are thrown into the Arno River the next day.
- After Charles VIII's death on April 7th, he was followed by his cousin Louis XII. on the French throne.
- August 2 : In the Treaty of Paris , Philip the Fair , at that time Count of Flanders, the French King Louis XII , renounces . opposite to the reconquest of Burgundy and its claims to the Duchy of Geldern .
- At the behest of his brother Cristoforo, Bartolomeo Columbus founds the city of La Nueva Isabela , today's Santo Domingo, in the south of the island of Hispaniola at the mouth of the Río Ozama .
- Duke Heinrich I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg grants the Hanseatic City of Braunschweig a privilege to hold two annual markets, from which the Braunschweig Fair will later develop.
- The Schreckenberger is minted for the first time in the Annaberg mint .
- In Nuremberg opened Maximilian I , the first German pawnshop under the name Exchange Bank.
- Self-Portrait with Landscape by Albrecht Dürer
- The Italian sculptor Carlo dall'Aquila completed his only work known today, Mary with the Child .
- The printed work The secret revelation iohannis , the apocalypse of John with 15 woodcuts by Albrecht Dürer , is published. A little later the Latin edition follows under the title Apocalipsis cum figuris .
- Leonardo da Vinci completes his mural The Last Supper in the Dominican monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan .
- Hans van Ghetelen prints the animal poem Reynke de vos in Lübeck . With the incunabula he gave the fable figure Reinecke Fuchs , created in the 13th century, further fame in German-speaking countries.
Music and theater
- December 17th : After the accession of Louis XII. in France with the knowledge of Pope Alexander VI. the existing for 22 years marriage with Jeanne de Valois canceled church .
- Jakob Fugger marries the patrician daughter Sibylla Artzt , who is 20 years younger than him , which gives him the long-awaited access to the upper middle class of the city of Augsburg .
- The notary Friedrich Deumling from Wimpfen notarized the child miracle of Bönnigheim , according to which Barbara Stratzmann gave birth to 53 children in the course of her life. The veracity of these statements is controversial.
- Companions of the papal court officials are in Liber Notarum of Johann Burchard first time as courtesans called.
- The later Werther mill is built as part of the fortifications of the Werth village .
- The Gewandhaus in Leipzig is built as an armory .
- After the death of Simon III. zur Lippe on March 7, the Archbishop of Cologne Hermann von Hessen also becomes Prince-Bishop of Paderborn .
- The Salzburg Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach had the synagogue in Salzburg destroyed and all Jews driven out of his sphere of influence.
- The Turin Cathedral will be completed after seven years of construction.
Date of birth saved
- January 31 : Tiberio Crispo , Cardinal Bishop of Sabina († 1566 )
- March 9 : Hieronymus Baumgartner , designer of the Reformation in Nuremberg and mayor († 1565 )
- April 6 : Giovanni de Medici , Italian condottiere († 1526 )
- April 9 : Jean de Lorraine , Archbishop of Reims, Lyon and Narbonne († 1550 )
- November 15 : Eleanor of Castile , Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Spain and Queen of Portugal and France († 1558 )
- December 19 : Andreas Osiander , German theologian and reformer († 1552 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Hieronymus Bock , botanist from the Saarland († 1554 )
- Fridolin Brunner , Swiss Protestant pastor and reformer in the canton of Glarus († 1570 )
- Marcantonio Flaminio , Italian philosopher, poet and writer († 1550 )
- Konrad Grebel , Swiss co-founder of the Anabaptist movement († 1526 )
- Johannes Honterus , Transylvanian reformer († 1549 )
- Felix Manz , leading figure in the Swiss Anabaptist movement († 1527 )
- Johannes Salat , Swiss court clerk, historian and chronicler († 1561 )
- Andrés de Urdaneta , Basque Augustinian monk, captain and explorer († 1568 )
Born around 1498
- Elizabeth Blount , English noble lady, mistress of King Henry VIII († around 1540 )
- Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter , English nobleman and courtier († 1538 )
- Jorge de Meneses , Portuguese navigator
Date of death secured
- February 4th : Antonio Pollaiuolo , Italian sculptor, painter and engraver
- March 7th : Simon III. zur Lippe , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn
- April 7th : Charles VIII , King of France (* 1470 )
- May 23 : Girolamo Savonarola , Italian monk (* 1452 )
- June 7th : Anđeo Zvizdović , Franciscan in medieval Bosnia (* 1420 )
- June 9 : Julius Pomponius Laetus , Italian humanist (* 1428 )
- August 23 : Elisabeth of Spain , Princess of Spain and Queen of Portugal (* 1470 )
- September 14th : Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de 'Medici , member of the younger line of the Medici (* 1467 )
- September 16 : Tomás de Torquemada , Spanish General Inquisitor (* 1420 )
- September 18 : Giovanni Battista Savelli , Cardinal of the Catholic Church
- September 24th : Cristoforo Landino , Florentine humanist, poet, literary theorist, philosopher and translator (* 1425 )
- December 27th : Alexander Hegius , German humanist and Catholic priest
Exact date of death unknown
- Vespasiano da Bisticci , Florentine bookseller and publisher (* 1421 )
- Giovanni Caboto , Italian explorer (* around 1450 )
- Heinrich I , Duke of Münsterberg and Oels and Count of Glatz (* 1448 )
- Richard Ludlow , English knight (* around 1430 )
- Michael Pacher , South Tyrolean painter and carver (* approx. 1435 )