- 1521 : The Spaniards defeat the Aztecs and destroy Tenochtitlan .
- 1521: Diet of Worms ; Martin Luther begins translating the New Testament in December at the Wartburg in Thuringia .
- 1524 to 1526 : German Peasants' War .
- 1526 : Foundation of the Mughal Empire in India: In the First Battle of Panipat , Babur defeated the last Sultan of Delhi Ibrahim Lodi and founded the Mughal Empire in northern India on his soil.
- 1529 : Spain and Portugal finally split the world into two hemispheres in the Treaty of Saragossa .