- 1492 : With the surrender of Muhammad XII. , the last Sultan of Granada , the 700-year reign of the Moors on the Iberian Peninsula ends (conclusion of the Reconquista ).
- 1492: Christopher Columbus reaches America (the Bahamas ) and discovers this continent for Europe.
- 1492: Martin Behaim makes the first globe , his " Erdapfel ".
- 1494 : In the Treaty of Tordesillas , Pope Alexander VI. the world between Spain and Portugal .
- 1498 : The Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama discovers the sea route to the East Indies (around the Cape of Good Hope ), lands in Calicut and Sri Lanka .