Ludovico Sforza becomes
Duke of Milan .
|Italian wars begin with a campaign by Charles VIII of France .|
Treaty of Tordesillas
, the world is divided between Spain and Portugal .
|1494 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||942/943 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||1st house - Ce Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 13th Feuerstein - Matlactli omey Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2037/38 (southern Buddhism); 2036/37 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||856/857 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3827/28 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||899/900 (turn of the year October 1st / 2nd)|
|Jewish calendar||5254/55 (August 31 / September 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1804/05 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1805/06 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1550/51 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spanish and Portuguese colonial policy
- April: Christopher Columbus sets off from the La Isabela settlement on Hispaniola, founded in December of the previous year, on his second trip to the Caribbean , during which he discovers the island of Jamaica , which he calls Santiago , on May 3rd . When he returned to La Isabela on September 25th, he found chaotic conditions. He waged a campaign against the Taíno , who had meanwhile become enemies because of bad treatment , of whom he enslaved around 1,600 and sent to Spain. About half of them do not survive this trip.
- June 7th : In the Treaty of Tordesillas , at the instigation of Pope Alexander VI. Spain and Portugal open up the world again among themselves. In tough negotiations under their chief negotiator Duarte Pacheco Pereira , the Portuguese succeed in shifting the demarcation line established last year with the papal bull inter caetera to 370 Spanish Leguas west of the Cape Verde Islands . This new border line will later allow them to colonize the areas of Brazil east of this line .
When trying to conquer Tenerife as the last island in the Canary Islands , the Spaniards suffer a heavy defeat against the Guanches under Alonso Fernández de Lugo . The site of the battle was then named La Matanza de Acentejo ( The Acentejo Slaughter ).
- January 25th : With the death of his father Ferdinand I , Alfonso II , previously Duke of Calabria , becomes King of Naples . He receives the empire as a fief from the hands of the Pope.
- However, the French King Charles VIII of the House of Valois also claims the Neapolitan throne and sets off with an army for Italy in August. With it he begins the Italian wars of modern times.
- September 5th : Charles VIII's troops conquer Rapallo and massacre the entire population, men, women and children, because the city has got in the way of Charles's campaign to Naples.
- October 22 : Gian Galeazzo Sforza dies surprisingly at the age of 25 in Pavia . His death is attributed by many to his uncle Ludovico Sforza , who continues to rule as the 7th Duke of Milan after holding power during Gian Galeazzo's entire reign.
- November 8 : The ruler of Florence , Piero de 'Medici , with his brothers Giovanni and Giuliano and his cousin Giulio, are driven out of the city and the Medici Palace is plundered. The penitential preacher Girolamo Savonarola takes power in Florence. The Medici go to Bologna .
- November 17th : The city of Florence is captured by a French army headed by King Charles VIII.
- December 31st : The troops of the French King Charles VIII invade Rome . The ruler wants to enforce inheritance claims to the Kingdom of Naples .
- February 7th : After the successful conclusion of the first Lithuanian-Russian war (1492–1494) for Moscow , Grand Duke Alexander recognizes the conquests of Ivan III. ( Vyasma and the rest of the Oka region ). He renounces Lithuania's previous rights in Novgorod and Tver .
- July 7 : After the death of Johann Friday from Loringhoven on May 26 will Wolter von Plettenberg to Landmeister in Livonia the Teutonic Order selected.
- November 6th : The Peterhof in Novgorod , an office of the Hanseatic League , is opened by order of Tsar Ivan III. closed, the merchants arrested. The prisoners are only released after the end of the Russo-Swedish War in 1497 .
Other events in Europe
- March 15th : After the death of his father Lambert , Jean II becomes lord of Monaco .
- November 16 : After the death of his mother Theda , Edzard I and his brother Uko take over the rule in East Frisia alone .
- December 1st : In order to bind the Lordship of Ireland more closely to the English monarchy, Poynings' Law is passed in Ireland . This makes the Parliament of Ireland subordinate to the English Parliament .
- During a campaign against a rebellious tribe, Eskandar , negus negest of Ethiopia from the Solomon dynasty , is murdered at the behest of his general Zesillus because his increasingly self-confident demeanor is perceived as a threat by the previously ruling triumvirate. He will be buried on May 8th . The death of the emperor immediately leads to a war for succession between the different power groups of the empire. While the bitwodded Amda Mikael wants to put his candidate, Eskandar's four-year-old son Endreyas, on the throne, some of the worldly rulers favor Eskandar's brother Na'od. The third candidate for the throne is Enqo Israel, another brother of Eskandar. Zisellus is killed during the fighting by supporters of the murdered emperor. Amda Mikael can finally enforce his candidate, who is put on the throne as Amda Seyon II . As regent for the child on the throne, Amde Mikael exercises practically unlimited rule over Ethiopia. However, Endreyas only stayed on the imperial throne for seven months. The young emperor died suddenly and unexpectedly on October 26th . Presumably with the support of the provincial rulers, Na'od I , who had previously been defeated in the battle for the imperial crown, was proclaimed the new emperor.
First documentary mentions
- Dubí is mentioned for the first time in a document
- In his Summa di arithmetica, Luca Pacioli explains the principle of “double- entry bookkeeping ”. These will later become the dealers' “books”. The " booking " leads to the term " book money ".
- Aldus Manutius founds the Aldina printing company in Venice .
science and technology
- Jörg Amann , city doctor in Ravensburg , wrote a little plague book . In the little book, Amann describes the symptoms of the plague , preventive measures and therapy options.
- Michelangelo leaves Florence for the first time and goes to Bologna. He fled for security reasons when it became apparent that his supporters, the Medici, were falling victim to popular anger.
- Master Amund decorates the church in Södra Råda with wall paintings.
Sebastian Brant's moral satire Das Narrenschyff ad Narragoniam is printed for the first time by Johann Bergmann von Olpe . This work, which drafts a typology of over 100 fools on a ship heading for Narragonia and thus holds up a critical mirror to the upside-down world through an entertaining description of its vices, will be the most successful German-language book before the Reformation. The Narrenschyff is immediately praised in the highest tones by contemporaries, especially by the early humanists of the Upper Rhine.
- Sigmund II von Hollenegg succeeds Friedrich V von Schaunberg , who died on October 4th, as Archbishop of Salzburg .
- November 19 : The printing of the Lübeck Bible is completed. It is considered to be the most important vernacular Bible among the pre-Lutheran German Bibles .
- Six years after the death of his predecessor Sigismund von Lamberg , Christophorus Rauber becomes the second bishop of Laibach .
- Foundation of the Georgianum in Ingolstadt
Date of birth saved
- February 2 : Bona Sforza , Italian princess, Duchess of Bari and Princess of Rossano as well as Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania († 1557 )
- February 11 : Takeda Nobutora , daimyo of the Japanese Sengoku period († 1574 )
- March 24 : Georgius Agricola , German doctor, pharmacist and founder of mining science († 1555 )
- May 11 : Adam I , Supreme Chancellor of Bohemia († 1531 )
- May 24 : Jacopo Pontormo , Italian mannerist painter († 1557 )
- August 1 : Benedikt Burgauer , Swiss theologian and reformer († 1576 )
- August 18 : Johann Scheubel , German mathematician († 1570 )
- September 12 : Francis I , King of France († 1547 )
- October 31 : Wolfgang , Count Palatine of Neumarkt and governor of the Upper Palatinate († 1558 )
- November 5 : Hans Sachs , Nuremberg shoemaker, poet, master singer and playwright († 1576 )
- December 25th : Antoinette de Bourbon , first Duchess of Guise († 1583 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- David Beaton , Scottish Cardinal, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Confessor Francis I († 1546 )
- Dominico de Soto , Spanish theologian and philosopher († 1560 )
- Johann Draconites , German theologian, humanistic philosopher and reformer († 1566 )
- Konrad von Boyneburg , German Landsknecht leader († 1567 )
- Jean Parisot de la Valette , French Grand Master of the Order of St. John († 1568 )
Born around 1494
- January 11 : Domenico Ghirlandaio , Italian painter (* 1448 )
- January 25 : Ferdinand I , King of Naples (* 1424 )
- March 15 : Lambert Grimaldi , Lord of Monaco (* 1420 )
- before May 8: Eskandar , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1471 )
- May 26 : Johann Freitag von Loringhoven , knight of the Teutonic Order and landmaster in Livonia (* around 1420 )
- August 1st : Giovanni Santi , Italian painter, Raphael's father (* around 1435 )
- August 11 : Hans Memling , German painter (* 1433 )
- September 29 : Angelo Poliziano , Italian humanist and poet (* 1454 )
- October 21 : Gian Galeazzo Sforza , Duke of Milan (* 1469 )
- October 26 : Amda Seyon II , Emperor of Ethiopia (* around 1490 )
- November 8th : Melozzo da Forlì , Italian painter (* around 1438 )
- November 16 : Theda Ukena , regent of the imperial county of East Friesland (* 1432 )
- November 17th : Giovanni Pico della Mirandola , Italian humanist (* 1463 )
- December 19 : Matteo Maria Boiardo , Italian poet (* 1441 )