Calendar overview 1583
Friedrich IV becomes
elector of the Palatinate .
the first English colony in Newfoundland .
|Godesburg is destroyed during the Truchsessian War .|
|1583 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1031/32 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1575/76 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Buddhist calendar||2126/27 (southern Buddhism); 2125/26 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||945/946 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3916/17 (October 2-3)|
|Islamic calendar||990/991 (turn of the year January 24th / 25th)|
|Jewish calendar||5343/44 (September 16/17)|
|Coptic calendar||1299/1300 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1893/94 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1894/95 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1639/40 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 2 : In Bonn, the elector and Archbishop of Cologne Gebhard I. von Waldburg, who converted to Protestantism, marries Countess Agnes von Mansfeld-Eisleben . The marriage triggers the Truchsessian War and immediately excommunicates the archbishop.
- Bavarian-Spanish troops lay siege to Godesburg near Bonn in the Truchsessian War .
- December 17 : In the Sewer War mercenaries conquer the new Elector Ernst of Bavaria , the Godesburg , by a force of its predecessor Gebhard I von Waldenburg is defended.
Eastern and Northern Europe
- August 10th : The Peace of Pljussa is concluded. The three-year armistice ends the Livonian War between Russia and Sweden . Ivan IV renounces Jam , Koporje and Ivangorod and grants Sweden the possession of Estonia and Ingermanland .
Central and Western Europe
- 7 February to 23 April : Eindhoven is besieged, conquered and destroyed by Spanish troops in the Eighty Years' War .
- September 8th : In the Merlau Treaty between Landgrave Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel and the new Archbishop of Mainz Wolfgang von Dalberg , the two sides agree on long-simmering border conflicts between Kurmainz and the Landgraviate, with almost all of the remaining Mainz possessions in North Hesse final fall to the Landgraviate, but Hessen-Kassel gives up its claims in the Eichsfeld . All of the pledges made during the Mainz collegiate feud come to Hesse for a further payment of 40,000 guilders.
- Francis Walsingham exposes the Catholic Throckmorton conspiracy against Queen Elizabeth I in England , which aims to bring Mary Stuart to the throne. Francis Throckmorton is arrested. The conspiracy leads to the creation of the Bond of Association , a document drafted by Francis Walsingham and William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley , which obligated all signatories to do so, anyone trying to usurp the throne or attempting an assassination attempt on the Queen or succeeding commits to execute.
- End of the Desmond Rebellions in Ireland
- August 5th : The Kingdom of England receives its first colony . Sir Humphrey Gilbert's seizure of the entire region for the English crown made the area around St. John's in Newfoundland the oldest British colony for a long time.
- May: By winning the Battle of Shizugatake , Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeds in consolidating his supremacy in Japan and eliminating his adversary Shibata Katsuie .
- The Osaka Castle is completed.
science and technology
- January 26th : The learned society Accademia della Crusca , the oldest language society, is founded in Florence .
- Galileo invents the pendulum .
- The French legal scholar Dionysius Gothofredus used this term for the first time in his work Corpus Iuris Civilis and contrasts it with the Corpus Iuris Canonici .
- The Austrian chronicler Michael von Aitzing published the first Leo Belgicus in his historical work De Leone Belgico , engraved by Frans Hogenberg . The book deals with contemporary Dutch history since 1559 from a Spanish perspective. As Aitzing explains in the preface, the representation of the seventeen provinces as a lion is intended to graphically illustrate the power and strength of the country struggling for independence.
- The Scottish King James VI. founds the University of Edinburgh .
- September 27th : Elisabeth Plainacher is burned at the stake as the only victim of the witch hunt in Vienna .
- Ernst von Bayern becomes Archbishop of Cologne .
- The commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII. Martyrologium Romanum compiled by Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto with the assistance of Cesare Baronio in particular , a list of all the saints and blessed of the Roman Catholic Church , is completed.
- The Strasbourg chapter dispute between the Catholic and Protestant parties for dominance in the cathedral chapter of the Strasbourg cathedral begins. The dispute lasted until 1604 .
- The Auspund , the oldest hymn book of the Anabaptist movement , appears in a second edition, expanded by 80 songs.
Date of birth saved
- February 9 : Martin Röber , German Lutheran theologian († 1633 )
- February 19 : Heinrich Vollers , German organist († 1656 )
- February 23 : Jean-Baptiste Morin , French mathematician, astronomer and astrologer († 1656 )
- April 10 : Hugo Grotius , Dutch natural law philosopher († 1645 )
- April 23 : Ernst von Brandenburg , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1613 )
- April 23 : Joachim von Brandenburg , Margrave of Brandenburg († 1600 )
- June 16 : Axel Oxenstierna , Swedish Chancellor († 1654 )
- June 20 : Jakob De la Gardie , Swedish military leader († 1652 )
- June 27 : Christoph von Dohna , politician and scholar at the time of the Thirty Years' War († 1637 )
- September 9 : Girolamo Frescobaldi , composer and organist († 1643 )
- September 19 : Heinrich Abermann , German historian († 1621 )
- 23 September : Christian II , prince of the Wettin family (Albertine line) († 1611 )
- September 23 : Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg, counter-reformer and witch hunter († 1631 )
- September 24 : Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Waldstein , known as Albrecht von Wallenstein , German general and politician ( murdered † 1634 )
- September 29 : Johann VIII , Count of Nassau-Siegen († 1638 )
- October 1 : Sebastian Beck , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1654 )
- October 22 : Laurens Reael , Dutch admiral and governor general of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in Southeast Asia († 1637 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Paolo Agostini , Italian musician († 1629 )
- Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg , general and politician in the Thirty Years War († 1641 )
- Jakub Kryštof Rybnický , Bohemian composer († 1639 )
- Hans Ulrich Fisch , also Hans Ulrich I Fisch, Swiss glass painter and book illustrator († 1647 )
First half of the year
- January 15 : Matthias Stoius , German mathematician and physician (* 1526 )
- January 22nd : Antoinette de Bourbon , first Duchess of Guise (* 1494 )
- January 25 : Johannes Pistorius the Elder (Niddanus), Hessian reformer and superintendent (* 1504 )
- February 14 : Giovanni Pietro Albuzio , Italian doctor and university lecturer (* 1507 )
- February 14th : Hans von Bartensleben , German aristocrat, religious arbitrator, founder of a poor foundation (* 1512 )
- March 6 : Nikolaus Cisnerus , German lawyer and humanist (* 1529 )
- March 6 : Zacharias Ursinus , Reformed theologian (* 1534 )
- March 9 : Martín Enríquez de Almansa , Spanish officer and viceroy of New Spain and Peru (* around 1510 )
- March 18 : Abelke Bleken , victim of the witch trials in Hamburg
- March 25 : Nikolaus Jagenteufel , German Lutheran theologian and pedagogue (* 1526 )
- May 23 : Günther XLI. von Schwarzburg-Arnstadt , German nobleman (* 1529 )
- May 28 : Lazarus von Schwendi , German diplomat, statesman and general (* 1522 )
- June 8 : Matthijs Bril , Dutch painter (* 1547 /50 )
- June 19 : Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza , Spanish colonial administrator and viceroy of New Spain (* 1518 )
Second half of the year
- July 6 : Edmund Grindal , Archbishop of Canterbury and York (* 1519 )
- July 17th : Mette Fliß , victim of the witch hunt in Wernigerode
- July 18 : Johannes Thal , German doctor and botanist (* 1542 )
- July 19 : Paul Dumerich , German educator and professor (* 1527 )
- July 25 : Rodolfo Acquaviva , Italian Jesuit and missionary (* 1550 )
- July 25 : Johannes Schildberger , Mayor of the Bavarian city of Dinkelsbühl
- September 16 : Katharina Jagiellonica , Polish-Lithuanian princess, queen of Sweden (* 1526 )
- September 27 : Elisabeth Plainacher , victim of the Vienna witch hunt (* around 1513 )
- October 22nd : Ludwig VI. , Count Palatine of Simmern and Elector Palatinate (* 1539 )
- October 30 : Pirro Ligorio , Italian painter, antiquarian, architect and garden architect (* 1514 )
- December 29 : Zaccaria Dolfin , Cardinal and Apostolic Nuncio at the Imperial Court in Vienna (* 1527 )
- December 31 : Thomas Erastus , Swiss Reformed theologian (* 1524 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Noe Meurer , German legal scholar (* between 1525 and 1528 )
- Fernão Mendes Pinto , Portuguese explorer and writer (* 1509 , 1510 or 1514 )