|Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church .||Paul III. elected pope, a classic representative of nepotism .|
his Luther Bible printed.
|1534 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||982/983 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2077/78 (southern Buddhism); 2076/77 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||896/897 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3867/68 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||940/941 (turn of the year 12/13 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5294/95 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1844/45 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1845/46 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1590/91 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
France / Jacques Cartier's voyage of discovery
- April 20 : At the behest of King Francis I, the French navigator Jacques Cartier sets off from Saint-Malo on a voyage of discovery with the task of looking for fishing grounds near Newfoundland . However, he finds areas that will later become New France . He passes the north coast of Newfoundland, sails through the Belle Isle Strait and arrives in the Baie des Chaleurs on July 6th . This is where the first contact with the Native Americans from the Algonquin people of the Mi'kmaq occurs . He then drives up the Gulf of St. Lawrence .
- July 24th : Jacques Cartier reaches the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River and takes possession of the area on the Gaspésie peninsula for the French crown .
- Beginning of the colonization of Canada: Jacques Cartier is the first European to reach what will later become Prince Edward Island , which the French call Île Saint-Jean .
Holy Roman Empire
The Anabaptist Empire of Munster
In January, Jan Matthys sends Jan van Leiden to Münster as Apostle of the Anabaptists . This begins there immediately with the adult baptisms . In the regular election on February 23, the Anabaptists win, whereupon Matthys and van Leiden together with the newly elected mayor Bernd Knipperdolling , the city councilors Bernd and Heinrich Krechting and the preacher Bernd Rothmann found the Anabaptist Empire of Münster . Anyone who is of the Catholic or non-Anabaptist Protestant faith and has not left the city beforehand will be forced to be baptized or expelled from the city. Since the baptism of adults violates the imperial law, Prince-Bishop Franz von Waldeck, with the support of imperial troops , begins the siege of the city on February 28 .
In the following weeks the structures in the city are radically rebuilt. In an iconoclasm in the churches, the Anabaptists destroy everything that reminds of the saints and the clergy and in the process destroy numerous art treasures. They confiscate property in the city, introduce, among other things, a community of property based on the community of property of the Jerusalem primitive community and burn the city archives and archives of the heirs .
When the appearance of Christ, announced by Jan Matthys for Easter, does not materialize, Matthys moves with some faithful to the city and is killed by the besiegers on Easter day, April 5th . From this point on, Jan van Leiden is the de facto head of the Münster Anabaptists. In the course of the year he named himself King of the " New Jerusalem " and Heinrich Krechting his Chancellor. Due to the large surplus of women, he also introduced polygyny in Münster . Opposition within the city is massively suppressed.
Although the siege caused a shortage within the city walls during the year, Franz von Waldeck did not succeed in taking the city in 1534. But the Anabaptists also fail to get outside support for their cause. In September “missionaries” are sent to neighboring cities. However, these are either intercepted by episcopal troops or picked up in their target cities. Those who can preach have little success. Only in Warendorf do the Anabaptists take control of the city for a week, but are quickly beaten by the episcopal soldiers. In October a request for help to the Dutch Anabaptist movement, which is also under massive pressure there , fails .
Other events in Germany
- May 13 : In the battle of Lauffen , the Protestant Landgrave Philip I of Hesse and his troops win over Habsburg forces. In doing so, he brought power and his duchy back to Duke Ulrich von Württemberg, who was expelled in 1519 . The Treaty of Kaaden confirmed Ulrich's possession on June 29th , which is further understood as the establishment of a political equilibrium within the German states. After his return, Ulrich initiates the Reformation in Württemberg.
- November 18 : The Peace of Stockelsdorf ends the feud that broke out in the spring only in Holstein and the Lübeck area, while it continues in Denmark.
- After the uprising of 104 men in 1532 , the old Bremen town charter was restored in Bremen with the new agreement, with the council having strengthened powers .
- The Swabian Confederation, founded in 1488 , breaks down due to denominational differences.
Elsewhere in Europe
- July 4th : The nobility elects Christian III. to the king of Denmark and Norway , after the country was attacked from Lübeck in the course of the feud of the counts in order to bring the former king Christian II to the throne.
- October 18 : The Affaire des Placards ends the more conciliatory religious policy of King Francis I in France towards Lutheran Protestants . In Paris and four other cities in the morning there were posters against the Catholic view of the Eucharist .
- August 17th : The Ottoman corsair Khair ad-Din Barbarossa takes the port city of Tunis . That is the trigger for the Tunis campaign of Emperor Charles V next year.
- December 4th : Suleyman I's troops conquer Baghdad .
- December 6th : The conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar founds the city of San Francisco de Quito in the remains of the old Inca city of Quito in today's Ecuador with 202 other Spaniards .
- January 20 : The Saxon coinage system ends the three-year Saxon coinage separation between Ernestines and Albertines .
- The Wittenberg bookseller and publisher Moritz Goltz and his publishing association receive the privilege of the Saxon king to print the works of Martin Luther .
- The half-timbered house Alte Waage in Braunschweig is built.
- In the novel La vie très horrifique du grand Gargantua , the second part of the series of novels Gargantua and Pantagruel , François Rabelais mentions almost 300 French games of his time that his hero had to play.
- Martin Luther has the first complete version of his Luther Bible , the classic German, most widely used translation of the Bible, printed by the Hans Lufft printing company . It has a lasting influence on German literature and language and plays a decisive role in the development of a uniform written German language.
- The Duchy of Württemberg introduces the Reformation .
- August 15 : A circle of friends around Ignatius von Loyola founds the Catholic religious order of the Society of Jesus (Societas Jesu, SJ), the Jesuits .
- Pope Clement VII dies on September 25th in Rome from mushroom poisoning and is buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva . On October 13, the conclave elected Alessandro Farnese as Paul III. to his successor. This is a classic representative of nepotism , already on December 18th he appoints two of his nephews as cardinals.
- The first edition of the Dietenberger Bible by Johannes Dietenberger as a Catholic counter -translation to the Luther Bible appears in Mainz. It is the first translated full Catholic Bible with the New and Old Testaments.
- The Venetian layperson Hieronymus Aemiliani founds the Somasker religious order near Milan .
- Henry VIII founds the Anglican Church .
- November 3 : With the Supreme Act , Parliament accepts King Henry VIII as the future head of the Church of England .
Date of birth saved
- January 6 : Balthasar Sartorius , German Lutheran theologian († 1609 )
- January 25 : Christoph Walther II , German sculptor († 1584 )
- March 19 : José de Anchieta , Spanish missionary, Jesuit and linguist († 1597 )
- June 23 : Oda Nobunaga , Japanese prince (daimyo) and one of the "three unified empires" († 1582 )
- July 1 : Frederick II , King of Denmark and Norway († 1588 )
- July 18 : Zacharias Ursinus , German Reformed theologian († 1583 )
- September 24 : Ram Das , Sikh guru, co-founder of the city of Amritsar († 1581 )
- September 28 : Samuel Eisenmenger , German medic, theologian and astrologer († 1585 )
- October 4 : Wilhelm I , Count of Schwarzburg-Frankenhausen († 1598 )
- October 18 : Jean Passerat , French writer and poet († 1602 )
- November 6th : Joachim Camerarius the Younger , German doctor, botanist and natural scientist († 1598 )
- December 16 : Hans Bol , Dutch draftsman and painter († 1593 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Lodovico Agostini , Italian composer, singer, priest and teacher († 1590 )
- Tobias Egli , Swiss pastor († 1574 )
- Dietrich Flade , German lawyer, electoral councilor, judge and city schoolteacher († 1589 )
- Isaak Luria , rabbi and Kabbalist in Syria and Egypt (died 1572 )
- Alessandro Sforza , Bishop of Parma and Archpriest of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore († 1581 )
- Pavao Skalić , Croatian encyclopaedist, humanist and adventurer († 1575 )
Born around 1534
- James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , Scottish nobleman and 3rd husband of Mary Queen of Scots († 1578 )
Date of death secured
- January 9 : Johannes Aventinus , German chronicler (* 1477 )
- January 24th : Guillaume Briçonnet , French bishop (* 1470 )
- January 25 : Magdalene of Saxony , Elector Princess of Brandenburg (* 1507 )
- February 15 : Barbara of Poland , Duchess of Saxony (* 1478 )
- March 1 : Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln , English nobleman (* 1523 )
- March 5 : Antonio da Correggio , Italian Renaissance painter (* 1489 )
- March 17th : Stephan Báthory von Somlyó , Voivode of Transylvania (* 1477 )
- March 19 : Ayşe Hafsa Sultan , mother of Sultan Suleyman I and influential woman in the Ottoman Empire (* 1479 )
- March 19 : Michael Weisse , Bohemian pastor and poet (* around 1488 )
- April 5 : Jan Matthys , Dutch baker and Baptist (* 1490 )
- April 21 : Elizabeth Barton , English preacher and prophetess (* around 1506 )
- June 4th : Veit Warbeck , translator of the novel The beautiful Magelone (* around 1490 )
- June 29th : New Year's Eve from Schaumberg , Imperial Knight and bailiff from Münnerstadt, Veldenstein and Parkstein
- July 4th : Anastasia von Brandenburg , Countess von Henneberg (* 1478 )
- September 7th : Lazarus Spengler , sacred song writer (* 1479 )
- September 25 : Giulio de 'Medici, under the name of Clement VII Pope (* 1478 )
- October 31 : Alfonso I. d'Este , Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio (* 1476 )
- November 23 : Otto Brunfels , German theologian and botanist (* 1488 )
- December 11th : Margareta von Beichlingen , abbess of the Essen monastery (* before 1508 )
- December 24th : Antoine Augereau , French type cutter, typographer, bookseller and publisher (* 1485 )
- December 27 : Antonio da Sangallo the Elder , Italian architect and fortress builder (* around 1455 )