of Cosmographia by
Sebastian Münster appears.
Friedrich II becomes
elector of the Palatinate .
|Albertus University of Königsberg ("Albertina") is founded|
|1544 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||992/993 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2087/88 (southern Buddhism); 2086/87 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||906/907 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3877/78 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||950/951 (turn of the year March 24th / 25th)|
|Jewish calendar||5304/05 (September 17/18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1854/55 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1855/56 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1600/01 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- April 11th : In the battle of Ceresole outside the village of Ceresole Alba , a French army under François de Bourbon, comte d'Enghien wins over an Imperial Spanish army under Alfonso d'Avalos , Marchese del Vasto. The impact of this battle, one of the first in which firearms played a dominant role, is small, although the French can take Carignano as Emperor Charles V immediately prepares for an invasion of France . The French then withdraw from Italy.
- Charles V conquered the French city of Vitry-en-Perthois in his Marne campaign and razed it to the ground, while the city of Saint-Dizier withstood a six-month siege. Franz I later had the town of Vitry rebuilt a little further away under the name Vitry-le-François .
- September 18 : In the Peace of Crépy , the French King Francis I finally accepts the Peace of Cambrai and the Treaty of Madrid . He assures his contract partner Charles V that he will support him in the fight against the Turks and - in a secret additional agreement - also against the Protestants in the Reich. Both sides give up certain territorial claims. The Habsburg-French antagonism and the Italian wars are settled for a short time.
Other events in Europe
- March 16 : As Elector Ludwig V of the Palatinate dies childless, his younger brother Friedrich II succeeds him to the throne.
- June 14th : After the death of Anton II , his son Franz I becomes Duke of Lorraine . He ruled for only 363 days.
- The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein are between the Danish - Norwegian King Christian III. and his half-brothers Johann the Elder and Adolf I. split. Christian becomes Duke of the royal share, Adolf receives Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf and Johann Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben . For his stays in the Krempe Fortress , Christian III acquired there the so-called royal court .
- The Upper Lusatian nobility received the privilege of precedence .
- The last important Inca ruler Manco Cápac II is murdered by supporters of the conquistador Diego de Almagro el Viejo, who was executed in 1538 and whom he has given refuge. The killers are then hunted down and killed by the Indians.
science and technology
Teaching and Research
On July 20, Duke Albrecht of Prussia and Brandenburg-Ansbach issued the foundation diploma Scimus primam omnium in gubernatione curam Principum esse debere, ut vera Dei notitia late propagetur , with which the particular, which has existed in Königsberg since 1540 , is transformed into a full university. The University of Königsberg is inaugurated on August 17th . Georg Sabinus becomes the founding rector and is also professor of poetry and eloquence. After the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt , the Albertus University is the second oldest university in what would later become Brandenburg-Prussia and for three centuries it was the spiritual center of Protestant Prussia . Located outside the Holy Roman Empire , the new college is the first without an imperial or papal privilege because both Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III. refuse to give their consent to this “real Lutheran” university, whose professors have to take the oath on the Confessio Augustana .
Sebastian Munster's Cosmographia
The first edition of Cosmographia by the cosmographer , humanist and Hebraist Sebastian Münster appears. It is the first scientific and at the same time generally understandable description of the knowledge of the world in German, in which the basics of history and geography, astronomy and natural sciences, regional and folklore are summarized according to the state of knowledge at that time. The title Cosmographia is the Latin form of the Greek kosmographía (description of the world), derived from kósmos (earth, universe) and gráphein (to describe). The full title of the work is: Cosmographia. Description of all countries by Sebastianum Munsterum, in which all peoples, rulers, Stetten and well-known spots come from: manners, customs, order, belief, sects and handling, through the whole world, and especially the German nation. Whatever is found special in any one country and is found in it. Everything is explained with figures and beautiful tables, and made for eyes.
Culture and society
- The Tucher Palace , the city palace of the Tucher patrician family from Nuremberg , is completed.
- In Johann Horn's hymn book of the Bohemian Brothers , among other things, the Advent song God's son is coming by Michael Weisse is first published.
- Pietro Andrea Mattioli is the first European to describe the tomato imported from America .
- January 13 : On the second Diet of Västerås is announced that Sweden's King Gustav I. Wasa and the stands the Protestant faith to attach.
- The Saxon Elector Johann Friedrich I can to Hartenfels Palace , the Torgau Castle Chapel building. It is the first new Protestant church in the world.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 19 : Francis II , King of France († 1560 )
- January 24 : Gillis van Coninxloo , Flemish painter († 1606 / 07 )
- February 3 : César de Bus , priest and blessed († 1607 )
- March 11 : Torquato Tasso , Italian poet († 1595 )
- April 20 : Renata of Lorraine , Hereditary Princess of Bavaria and benefactress († 1602 )
- May 1 : Giovanni Maria Nosseni , Swiss sculptor († 1620 )
- May 5 : Johann Conrad Meyer , Swiss politician and mayor of Schaffhausen († 1604 )
- May 24 : William Gilbert , English physician (at the court of Elizabeth I since 1601) and naturalist († 1603 )
- October 7 : Georg Besserer , German Protestant theologian († 1604 )
- October 14 : Margarethe von Dietz , Hessian noblewoman († 1608 )
- November 15 : Dorothea Susanne von der Pfalz , Duchess of Saxe-Weimar († 1592 )
- December 23 : Anna of Saxony , Princess of Orange-Nassau († 1577 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Matthäus Ackermann , civil servant in Saxony († 1606 )
- Sebastian Artomedes , Protestant theologian and hymn poet († 1602 )
- Richard Bancroft , Archbishop of Canterbury († 1610 )
- Chen Yujiao , Chinese theater poet and critic († 1611 )
- Jakob Lindner , German educator († 1606 )
- Thomas Parry , English politician († 1616 )
- Guillaume de Saluste du Bartas , French writer († 1590 )
Date of death secured
- March 16 : Ludwig V , Elector Palatinate (* 1478 )
- June 14th : Anton II , Duke of Lorraine (* 1489 )
- June 23 : Eleonore von Fürstenberg , Countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg (* 1523 )
- July 18 : Renatus , first Prince of Orange from the House of Nassau (* 1519 )
- July 28 : Ruprecht von Pfalz-Veldenz , Count of Veldenz (* 1506 )
- September 25 : Valerius Cordus , German botanist, doctor, pharmacologist and natural scientist (* 1515 )
- October 3 : Philipp von Solms-Lich , imperial and electoral councilor, Count von Solms zu Lich (* 1468 )
- December 9th : Teofilo Folengo , Benedictine, one of the main exponents of comic-burlesque poetry of the Italian Renaissance (* 1491 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Diego de Agüero , Spanish conquistador (* 1511 )
- Chen Chun , Chinese painter of the Ming period (* 1483 )
- Jetsün Chökyi Gyeltshen , Tibetan Buddhist scholar and logician (* 1469 )
- Jungjong , ruler of Joseon in Korea (* 1488 )
- Manco Cápac II , Inca ruler (* around 1500 )
- Margaret Roper , English translator and humanist, daughter of Sir Thomas More (* 1505 )
- Nilakantha Somayaji , Indian mathematician, astronomer and astrologer (* 1444 )