Calendar overview 1540
|Anna von Kleve becomes the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England for six months .||
leads the Zimtland expedition
into the interior of South America .
|Angela Merici , founder of the Ursulines , dies.|
|1540 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||988/989 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2083/84 (southern Buddhism); 2082/83 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||902/903 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3873/74 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||946/947 (turn of the year 7/8 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5300/01 (September 1st / 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1850/51 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1851/52 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1596/97 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 6th : England's King Henry VIII marries the German Anna von Kleve .
- July 9 : England's King Henry VIII annulled his marriage to Anna of Cleves.
- Thomas Cromwell is charged with treason and heresy after an intrigue led by Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk , and Stephen Gardiner , sentenced to death and executed on July 28th .
Holy Roman Empire
- After the suppression of an uprising in Ghent , Emperor Charles V subjects the city to a new statute, the Concessio Carolina .
- July 22nd : After the death of Johann Zápolya - in open breach of the peace treaty of Great Oradine with King Ferdinand I - his son, Johann Sigismund Zápolya , who was only a few days old, is elected King of Hungary by a hastily convened meeting of nobility in Buda . The guardianship was taken over by the Bishop of Oradea, Georg Martinuzzi , and later his mother Isabella Jagiellonica .
New Spain and the Francisco Coronados Expedition
- April: On behalf of Antonio de Mendoza , Viceroy of New Spain , the conquistador Francisco Vásquez de Coronado sets out with several units from Mexico to the north in search of the mythical seven golden cities of Cibola .
- May 9 : A fleet under the command of Hernando de Alarcón is sent to support the Coronado expedition and to explore the Gulf of California and the supposed island of Baja California .
- Spring: In the absence of large parts of the occupation army, the Mixtón uprising against Spanish colonial rule breaks out in New Spain , which cannot be successfully suppressed until the end of the year.
- August 26 : Hernando de Alarcón discovers the mouth of the Colorado .
- September / October: The expedition member García López de Cárdenas discovers the Grand Canyon with his men .
The Hernando de Sotos expedition
- October 18 : The Choctaw under the chiefs Tuscaloosa and Black Warrior and Hernando de Soto's expedition fight a battle in the Chocktaw town of Mabilla (in today's Alabama ). 40 Spaniards and several thousand Indians are killed in the Battle of Mauvilla , which can be considered the first battle of the Indian Wars on the North American continent.
Viceroyalty of Peru and the Gonzalo Pizarros expedition
- From the Viceroyalty of Peru , the Cinnamon Expedition, led by Gonzalo Pizarro, sets out for the interior of South America .
science and technology
- Georg Joachim Rheticus publishes Narratio Prima , printed by Franz Rhode in Danzig , in which he describes the heliocentric theory of Nicolaus Copernicus for the first time. The positive reception of the Narratio , which is designed as an open letter to Johannes Schöner , moves the almost 70-year-old Copernicus to finally agree to the publication of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium in 1543 . Also published is the Encomium Borussiae , a “praise to Prussia”.
- A Latin school is founded in Speyer , from which the grammar school at the Kaiserdom develops.
- Parmigianino completes his last picture: Madonna with the child, Saint Stephen, Saint John the Baptist and the founder .
- The first carpet of the Ardabil carpet pair is completed in Tabriz and is still considered the oldest dated Persian carpet in the world.
- After an extremely dry and sunny year , the Kaiserwein is harvested in Würzburg as an attempt to save the apparently lost, largely dried up wine harvest. This turns out to be a stroke of luck; The 1540 Würzburger Stein is considered the oldest known single-site wine, one of the best wines of the past millennium and the invention of the late harvest . The last known bottle of this wine is kept in the Bürgerspital zum Heiligen Geist in Würzburg.
- June 29th : Prista Frühbottin is burned in Wittenberg because of alleged weather magic and pasture poisoning .
- May 21 : After the death of Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg , Ernst Herzog von Bayern is appointed administrator of the Archdiocese of Salzburg .
- June 28. bis 28. July : When Hagenauer colloquy are discussed mainly conditions and procedural issues for a future religious dialogue between Catholics and Protestants. The fronts between the two camps have hardened.
- September 27th : With the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae , the Jesuits of Ignatius of Loyola from Pope Paul III. recognized as an order.
- Philipp Melanchthon publishes the Tractatus de potestate et primatu Papae anonymously in Strasbourg as an addendum to the Confessio Augustana .
- The dissolution of the English monasteries begun in 1538 by the English King Henry VIII continues.
- In Central Europe , the year with the drought in Central Europe in 1540 was one of the warmest and driest years of the millennium; it will go down in history as the year of what may be the most catastrophic drought of the millennium. Between March and September it hardly rains, wells and springs fall dry, cattle are slaughtered, and countless people die while working in the fields. The Rhine can be crossed on foot near Basel and Cologne.
In Germany alone there are 33 city fires (e.g. city fire of Einbeck ( Principality of Grubenhagen ), Freudenberg (Siegerland) , Wangen im Allgäu ); many of them are considered anti-Protestant arson.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 25 : Edmund Campion , monk in the Jesuit order and martyr of the Catholic Church († 1581 )
- January 28 : Ludolph van Ceulen , Dutch mathematician († 1610 )
- May 14 : Bartholomäus Scultetus , Görlitzer mayor and mathematician († 1614 )
- May 16 : Paschalis Baylon , lay brother in the Franciscan order and saint of the Roman Catholic Church († 1592 )
- June 3 : Charles II , Archduke of Inner Austria from the House of Habsburg († 1590 )
- June 29 : Ana de Mendoza y de la Cerda , Spanish-Portuguese lady-in-waiting and politician († 1592 )
- June 30th : Elisabeth von der Pfalz , Duchess of Saxony († 1594 )
- July 11 : Adolf von Nassau , brother of William I of Orange († 1568 )
- August 5 : Joseph Justus Scaliger , French scientist († 1609 )
- August 29 : Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Küstrin , Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach († 1578 )
- September 5 : Stephan I. Illésházy , Palatine of Hungary († 1609 )
- September 9 : Johann VII. , Count of Oldenburg († 1603 )
- September 28 : Karl I , Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow († 1610 )
- September 30th : Salomon Alberti , German medic († 1600 )
- October 1 : Johann Jakob Grynaeus , Swiss theologian († 1617 )
- October 7th : Pantaleon Candidus , German Reformed theologian, historian and author († 1608 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Giulio Cesare Barbetta , Italian lutenist and composer († 1603 )
- Marek Bydžovský z Florentýna , Czech historian, astronomer, mathematician and scholar and humanist († 1612 )
- Francis Drake , English privateer and explorer († 1596 )
- Louis Elsevier , Dutch publisher, bookbinder and bookseller († 1617 )
- Simon Sten , German educator, ethnologist, philologist, historian and literary scholar († 1619 )
Born around 1540
- William Douglas, 6th Earl of Morton , Scottish peer († 1606 )
- William Painter , English writer († 1594 )
- Barnabe Rich , English writer († 1617 )
- January 9 : Hoyer VI. von Mansfeld , Count von Mansfeld and Knight of the Golden Fleece (* 1484 )
- January 27th : Angela Merici , Italian Catholic saint, founder of the Ursuline Order (* 1474 )
- March 22nd : Hans Kohlhase , citizen and merchant in Cölln on the Spree, commander of Saxony, role model for Kleist's Michael Kohlhaas (* around 1500 )
- April 17th : Stanislaus Thurzo , Bishop of Olomouc (* 1470 )
- May 6 : Juan Luis Vives , Spanish humanist, philosopher and historian (* 1492 )
- May 22 : Francesco Guicciardini , Florentine politician and historian (* 1483 )
- June 11 : Georg Hohermuth von Speyer , German conquistador (* around 1500 )
- June 28 : Federico II. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua (* 1500 )
- June 29th : Prista Frühbottin , victim of the witch hunt in Wittenberg (* around 1490 )
- June 30th : Thomas Abel , English clergyman (* around 1497 )
- July 22nd : Johann Zápolya , Prince of Transylvania with the right to the Hungarian title of king (* 1487 )
- July 28 : Thomas Cromwell , English statesman (* around 1485 )
- July 30th : Erich I , the elder, Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Calenberg-Göttingen (* 1470 )
- July 30th : Robert Barnes , English theologian and martyr (* around 1495 )
- August 8 : Christoph Hegendorf , humanistic poet and Lutheran theologian (* around 1500 )
- August 24 : Parmigianino (Gerolano Francesco Maria Mazzola), Italian painter (* 1503 )
- August 28 : Barbara Pächlerin , victim of a sorcery trial in Sarntal (* between 1490 and 1500 )
- October 4 : Helius Eobanus Hessus , German Protestant humanist (* 1488 )
- October 16 : Balthasar von Esens , East Frisian chief
- November 14th : Rosso Fiorentino , Italian painter (* 1495 )
- Jorge Afonso , Portuguese painter (* 1470 )
- 1539/40 : Colijn de Coter , Flemish painter (* 1450 )
- around 1540: Elizabeth Blount , English noble lady, mistress of King Henry VIII (* around 1498 )