Calendar overview 1538
|Wilhelm the Rich becomes Duke of Geldern .||
Diego de Almagro el Viejo
is defeated and executed by Francisco Pizarro
Holy League in the naval battle of Prevesa , the Ottoman Empire rises
to become the greatest sea power in the Mediterranean.
|1538 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||986/987 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2081/82 (southern Buddhism); 2080/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||900/901 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3871/72 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||944/945 (turn of the year 29/30 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5298/99 (August 25-26)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1848/49 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1849/50 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1594/95 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Ottoman Empire / Turkish Wars
- February 24th : The Peace of Oradein between the Hungarian King Ferdinand I and Johann Zápolya ends the Hungarian civil war . The parties to the dispute agree that the territories controlled by Zápolya should fall to the Habsburgs after his death .
- September 28 : The Ottoman fleet under the Turkish admiral Khair ad-Din Barbarossa wins the naval battle of Preveza over the fleets of the Holy League of Spain, the Pope and Venice under the command of Andrea Doria . The Ottomans rise to become the strongest sea power in the Mediterranean by 1571 .
Holy Roman Empire
- January 27 : Prince Duke Wilhelm V of Jülich-Kleve-Berg takes over the Duchy of Geldern and the County of Zutphen from Duke Karl von Geldern . Karl retires to Veluwe , where he dies on June 30th .
- May 15 : After the death of Philip III. becomes his son Philipp IV. Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg . For several years he had run the affairs of state for his sick father.
- June 10 : Catholic estates in the Holy Roman Empire found the Catholic League in Nuremberg without the knowledge or membership of Emperor Charles V as a counterpart to the Protestant Schmalkaldic League founded in 1531 . The Kaiser was not informed of the establishment until June 23rd .
- June 17th / 18th : The Third Italian War between Charles V and Francis I of France ends after three years with the Nice Armistice .
Kingdom of England
- November 4th : The alleged Exeter conspiracy of several English nobles against King Henry VIII is exposed in London . In reality, it is likely a plot by Thomas Cromwell to get rid of conservative pope-loyal nobles. The main defendant, Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter , and some of his “co-conspirators” will be executed on December 9th in the Tower of London .
- December 17th : Pope Paul III. banishes King Henry VIII because of his divorce from Catherine of Aragón and imposes the interdict on all of England .
- April 26th : In the battle of Las Salinas , two competing groups of conquistadors meet, both claiming to represent the Spanish crown . Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro defeat Diego de Almagro el Viejo and Rodrigo Orgóñez , who falls in battle. Almagro is captured and executed on July 8th .
- August 6 : At the site of Chibcha -Stadt Bacatá by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada the place Santa Fe officially re-established, from which the Colombian capital Bogota will develop. In the same year another Spanish expedition under Sebastián de Belalcázar reached from the south , and from the east a third train under the Wels captain Nikolaus Federmann from Augsburg reached the Chibcha empire and the Bogotá plateau . They receive a severance payment from Quesada and leave the newly founded city.
science and technology
- October 28 : Pope Paul III. approved the establishment of the University in Santo Domingo on Hispaniola .
- At the behest of Chairacha , ruler of the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya , a canal is dug in the area of what is now Bangkok in order to shorten the travel time of the ships on the Mae Nam Chao Phraya from the Gulf of Thailand to the capital Ayutthaya . The canal, which is only about three kilometers long, shortens a 15-kilometer loop of the river. Over the course of the next few centuries, the Chao Phraya changed its course, the former canal became the 200-meter-wide Khlong Bangkok Noi , and the former Khlong Bangkok Yai was silted up.
- Titian completed the of Guidobaldo II. Della Rovere , Duke of Urbino , commissioned Picture Venus of Urbino .
- The equestrian statue of Mark Aurel is brought to Capitol Square in Rome .
- For the second edition of the text Praise vnd preis der loblichen Kunst Musica by the composer and cantor Johann Walter , Martin Luther wrote the preface The best time of the year is mine .
- The main avenue is laid out between the Palais Augarten and the court's hunting grounds in the Vienna Prater .
- July 30 : The abbey of St. Augustine, founded in 597 in Canterbury in the south of England, is one of the first English monasteries to be dissolved by King Henry VIII during the Reformation . The last abbot does not oppose the dissolution , but instead tries to find the best possible agreement with Thomas Cromwell that provides the best possible care for his monks and himself.
- Martin Luther wrote the pamphlet Against the Sabbaths against the Sabbaths founded in Moravia in 1528 .
- The first printed Koran appears in Venice .
nature and environment
- Italy: An eight-day eruption of the Campi Flegrei in Campania creates the volcanic cone Monte Nuovo .
Date of birth saved
- January 20 : Ludwig von Nassau-Dillenburg , Dutch general, brother of Wilhelm I of Orange († 1574 )
- February 23 : Dorothea Katharina von Brandenburg-Ansbach , by marriage Countess of Meißen († 1604 )
- March 10 : Gregor Bersman , German philologist and Latin poet († 1611 )
- March 10 : Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , English nobleman († 1572 )
- April 24 : Guglielmo Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua and Montferrat († 1587 )
- August 30 : Cesare Baronio , Italian cardinal and church historian († 1607 )
- October 2 : Karl Borromeo , Italian nobleman and Catholic saint († 1584 )
- December 6 : Francesco II Gonzaga , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1566 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Antonio Abondio , Italian medalist and wax boss († 1591 )
- Matija Gubec , Croatian peasant leader († 1573 )
- Ashikaga Yoshihide , Japanese Shogun († 1568 )
First half of the year
- January 16 : Antonia del Balzo , Countess of Sabbioneta (* 1461 )
- February 3 : Johann von der Pfalz , Prince-Bishop of Regensburg (* 1488 )
- February 7th : Olav Engelbrektsson , last Catholic Archbishop in Norway (* after 1480 )
- February 12 : Albrecht Altdorfer , German painter, engraver and builder of the Renaissance era (* 1480 )
- February 26 : Ursula von Rosenfeld , Margravine of Baden (* around 1499 )
- February: Hans Buchner , German organist and composer (* 1483 )
- March 25 : Christoph Clavius , German mathematician and astronomer (* 1612 )
- April 3 : Elizabeth Boleyn , English nobleman and lady-in-waiting Katharina von Aragóns, mother of Anne and Mary Boleyn (* 1480 )
- April 4 : Helena Glinskaja , regent of Russia, mother of Ivan the Terrible (* around 1506 )
- April 10 : Melchior Feselen , German painter (* around 1495 )
- April 26 : Rodrigo Orgóñez , Spanish conquistador (* 1490 )
- May 15 : Philip III. , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (* 1482 )
- May 22 : John Forest , English martyr (* 1471 )
- June 22nd : Botho zu Stolberg , Lord of Wernigerode and regent of the County of Stolberg, the County of Wernigerode and the County of Hohnstein (* 1467 )
- June 30th : Karl von Egmond , Duke of Geldern (* 1467 )
Second half of the year
- July 8 : Diego de Almagro el Viejo , Spanish conquistador (* 1475 )
- July 26 : George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury , English nobleman (* 1468 )
- December 9th : Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter , English nobleman and victim of the Exeter conspiracy (* around 1498 )
- December 18 : Filippo Strozzi the Younger , Italian politician (* 1489 )
- December 24th : Anna Reinhart , citizen of Zurich, wife of the reformer Ulrich Zwingli (* around 1484 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Giovanni Filoteo Achillini , Italian scholar and poet (* 1466 )
- Askia Mohammad I , ruler of the Songhai Empire (* approx. 1443 )
- Jan van Batenburg , Dutch militant Anabaptist leader of the Batenburg (* 1495 )
- Hans Beheim the Elder , the Nuremberg architect of the late Gothic period (* 1455 / 1460 )
- Thomas Starkey , English humanist and political thinker (* around 1490 )