Calendar overview 1443
Zurich loses the
battle of Freienbach .
|condottiere Gattamelata dies.|
Rudolf Stüssi from Zurich is
said to be alone in defending the Sihl Bridge near St. Jakob.
|1443 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||891/892 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2nd rabbit - Ome Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 1st house - Ce Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1986/87 (southern Buddhism); 1985/86 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||805/806 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||846/47 (turn of the year April 30th / May 1st)|
|Jewish calendar||5203/04 (August 25-26)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1753/54 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1754/55 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1499/1500 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 1st : The Wittelsbacher Christoph von Pfalz-Neuburg is crowned "Arch-King" of the Danish lands and rules the territory of the Kalmar Union , which includes Greenland , Denmark , Norway , Sweden and Finland .
Holy Roman Empire
- January: The previous opponents of King Friedrich III. from the House of Habsburg and the city of Zurich join forces in the Old Zurich War . Zurich receives a Habsburg captain, Thuringia von Hallwil, to whom the citizens have to take an oath. From now on, the Zurich troops wear the red Habsburg cross, no longer the white federal cross. Although Zurich has the right to conclude such an alliance with the Confederation according to the Federal Letter, the other federal locations demand that the Confederation must be dissolved. Zurich reacts negatively to the invitation to a federal arbitration court in Einsiedeln and invokes its free right of association.
- May 19 : Zurich renews castle law with Bremgarten and agrees neutrality with Baden .
- May 20 : 120 men from Winterthur and 400 from the county of Kyburg are relocated to the Habsburg city of Rapperswil .
- May 20th / 21st : Schwyz declares war on Zurich and Margrave Wilhelm von Hachberg on behalf of Austria. Glarus joins the declaration of war. The other Swiss towns that would have preferred to negotiate are waiting.
- May 21 : Early in the morning, Schwyzers set fire to part of the wooden bridge leading from Hurden to Rapperswil over Lake Zurich in order to break the connection between the city and the left bank of the lake. At this point in time, the Rapperswil residents were not yet aware of the declaration of war. In retaliation, Rapperswil immediately equipped two ships with soldiers from the city, who set fire to the village of Hurden and the bridge to the island of Ufenau , and the city of Rapperswil sent Schwyz an official declaration of war in the afternoon. The garrison is reinforced by another 300 men from Grüningen .
- May 21 : The Swiss towns of Uri and Unterwalden join Schwyz.
- At Freienbach, Zurich suffered their first defeat against the Swiss on May 22nd .
- May 24 : The Old Confederation defeats the people of Zurich, supported by Habsburg troops, in the Battle of the Hirzel .
- July 22nd : In the battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl at the gates of Zurich, the Confederates win again, but the Zurichers are able to save the city from conquest. The Old Zurich War continued until 1450 .
- December 11th : 800 defenders of the Luxembourg fortress surrender to an army of 2,500 Burgundians . The Duchy of Luxembourg was sold to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy by Elisabeth von Görlitz , circumventing the inheritance rights of her cousin Elisabeth von Luxemburg , even though she was not the owner but only a lien. Luxembourg becomes part of the Burgundian Netherlands .
- November 28 : After taking the fortress of Kruja the day before , the Albanian Prince Skanderbeg declares his apostasy from the Ottoman Empire .
- August 16 : Ashikaga Yoshikatsu , seventh shogun of the Ashikaga shogunate during the Muromachi period in Japan , dies after falling from a horse. His son Ashikaga Yoshimasa was only eight years old at the time.
science and technology
- around 1443: A group of Neapolitan scholars led by Antonio Beccadelli founded the Accademia Pontaniana , one of the oldest scientific academies, in Naples . This informal group meets in the Castel Nuovo of King Alfonso V of Aragon .
- Jetsün Sherab Sengge , a student of Tsongkhapa , founded the Lower Tantra College in the Tibetan capital Lhasa , the most important tantric teaching institution of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism .
Date of birth saved
- February 2 : Elisabeth of Bavaria , German noblewoman, Princess of Bavaria-Munich, Electress of Saxony († 1484 )
- February 12 : Giovanni II Bentivoglio , Italian nobleman and despot († 1508 )
- February 23 : Matthias Corvinus , Bohemian nobleman, King of Hungary († 1490 )
- May 17 : Edmund , English nobleman, Earl of Rutland († 1460 )
- May 29 : Viktorin , Bohemian nobleman, Count von Glatz, Duke of Münsterberg and Troppau, Reichsgraf († 1500 )
- May 31 : Margaret Beaufort , English noblewoman, daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset († 1509 )
- June 24th : Hans von Werthern , German nobleman, imperial knight († 1533 )
- July 31 : Albrecht III. , German nobleman, Duke of Saxony and founder of the Albertine, later royal Saxon line († 1500 )
- August 17 : Thilo von Trotha , German bishop of Merseburg, rector of the University of Leipzig († 1514 )
- November 10th : Adolf III. , Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein († 1511 )
- December 5 : Giuliano della Rovere, as Julius II Pope († 1513 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Gilbert de Bourbon-Montpensier , French nobleman, Count of Montpensier, Duke of Sessa and Viceroy of Naples († 1496 )
- Diego Deza , Spanish theologian and Grand Inquisitor († 1523)
- Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk , English general and courtier († 1524 )
- Piero del Pollaiuolo , Italian painter († 1496 )
- Riccardo Quartararo , Italian painter († 1506 )
- Girolamo Riario , Italian nobleman, Lord of Imola and Forlì († 1488 )
- Shōhaku , Japanese poet († 1527 )
- Wilhelm Westphal , Bishop of Lübeck († 1509 )
Born around 1443
- Askia Mohammad I , ruler of the Songhai Empire († 1538 )
- Richard Edgcumbe , English nobleman and courtier († 1489 )
Date of death secured
- January 11 : Étienne de Vignolles , French knight (* around 1390 )
- January 16 : Erasmo da Narni , called Gattamelata, Italian condottiere (* 1370 )
- February 3 : Branda Castiglione , Italian humanist, papal legate, cardinal (* 1350 )
- February 21 : Guidantonio da Montefeltro , Count of Urbino (* 1378 )
- March 14th : Johann von Pfalz-Neumarkt , German nobleman, general, count palatine and duke in Bavaria (* 1383 )
- March 24th : James Douglas , Scottish nobleman, Earl of Avondale, 7th Earl of Douglas (* 1371 )
- May 9 : Niccolò Albergati , Italian diplomat, cardinal (* 1375 )
- May 30th : Hans Laxmand , Archbishop of Lund
- May: Johann II , German nobleman, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (* around 1365 )
- June 5 : Ferdinand von Avis , Portuguese Grand Master of the Avizordens (* 1402 )
- August 14th : Nicodemus della Scala , Bishop of Freising
- August 16 : Ashikaga Yoshikatsu , Japanese nobleman, 7th Shogun of the Ashikaga Shogunate (* 1434 )
- September 18 : Louis of Luxembourg , French nobleman, Bishop of Thérouanne and Ely, Archbishop of Rouen, Chancellor of France (* 1391 )
- December 11th : John Cornewall, 1st Baron Fanhope , English nobleman and military man (* before 1375 )
- December 17th : Georg von Stubai , Prince-Bishop of Brixen
Exact date of death unknown
- Nikolaus Burgmann , German cathedral dean, chronicler (* around 1360 )
- Albrecht von Březí , Bishop of Litomysl
- Bartošek z Drahonic , Bohemian chronicler (* around 1380 )
- Friedrich XII. , German nobleman, Count of Hohenzollern (* before 1401 )
- Konrad Kron , German Bishop of Lebus
- Dietrich Tanke , priest of the Teutonic Order
- Verena von Waldburg (* around 1400 )