Calendar overview 1438
Eleanor of Aragon takes over the reign
of her underage son
Alfons V of Portugal .
Albrecht II becomes
King of Hungary and the
Roman-German King .
|Sukhothai Kingdom becomes part of the Ayutthaya Kingdom after the death of its last king .|
|1438 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||886/887 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||10th house - Matlactli Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 9th Feuerstein - Chicuhnahui Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1981/82 (southern Buddhism); 1980/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||800/801 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||841/842 (turn of the year 23/24 June)|
|Jewish calendar||5198/99 (September 19-20)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1748/49 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1749/50 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1494/95 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Hungary / Holy Roman Empire
- January 1st : Albrecht II of Habsburg is crowned King of Hungary in Stuhlweissenburg . On January 17th, he was also elected Roman-German king in Frankfurt am Main . The long series of German emperors and kings from the House of Habsburg up to 1740 began with him. The Hussites and their Polish allies tried to prevent his additional uprising in Bohemia by all possible means. Albrecht penetrates then with armed entourage in Prague and can be on June 29 in St. Vitus Cathedral to the King of Bohemia crown. However, he cannot take possession of the land permanently and has to withdraw again.
- July 2nd : After Ernst's death , his son Albrecht III. Duke of Bavaria-Munich .
- September 23 : The Saxon army under Elector Friedrich II wins the battle near Sellnitz against the remains of the Hussite army . The Hussite Wars are finally coming to an end.
- April 7th : Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy permits the county of Holland to pirate the six Wendish cities of Hamburg , Lübeck , Lüneburg , Greifswald , Stettin and Anklam as well as the Duchy of Holstein .
- April 23rd : The Hanseatic League informs its cities about an impending war with Holland and calls for the suspension of shipping to Flanders , Holland and Zealand .
- Holland is not yet strong enough at sea to fight openly with Hanseatic League and has to limit itself to privateers. On the other hand, the Wendish cities remained on their own, because despite repeated requests from Lübeck, the other Hanseatic cities did not take part in the fighting.
- 22 June : A Kaperflotte under Hendrik van Borsselen runs from Rotterdam from. Although he promised safe conduct to the Hanseatic cities that had remained neutral on the outward journey, he surprisingly ambushed a Prussian Baiens salt fleet near Brest and arrested 23 Prussian and Livonian ships. The eleven ships of the Wendish cities located there withdrew into port in good time when the pirate fleet appeared. The neutral Hanseatic cities are making claims for damages, but despite their outrage, they are not joining the war either. Rather, out of displeasure about the locking measures of the Wendish cities in the Sound, they arrest their goods in Prussia .
Other events in Europe
- September 9th : King Edward of Portugal dies of the plague . His son Alfonso V becomes King of Portugal because of his minority, initially under the reign of his mother Eleanor of Aragon and his uncle Peter of Coimbra , between whom violent disputes quickly arise on government and educational issues that almost lead to civil war .
- After Barsbay's death , his son al-Aziz Yusuf becomes Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt under the rule of Jaqmaq , before the latter takes over rule himself.
- In the fight for supremacy in the militarily and politically weakened Golden Horde , Vasily II takes military action against Khan Ulug Mehmed , who then has to withdraw from the heartland of Kazan . In December, however, Mehmed defeated the new Khan, sacked Moscow and then founded the independent Kazan Khanate .
Other events in Asia
- After the death of its last king Maha Thammaracha IV., The Thai kingdom of Sukhothai becomes part of the kingdom of Ayutthaya under King Borommaracha II. The city of Phitsanulok thereby gains in importance as the center of the provinces of northern Thailand .
- Pachacútec Yupanqui defeats the attacking Chanka , who besieged the capital Qusqu under their leader Anku Walluq , and becomes ruler of the Inca empire after the overthrow of his father Huiracocha Inca and his son Urco, who is to be the heir to the throne. This event represents a turning point ( pachakuti ) in the Inca tradition .
- The treasury register of the Großvogtei Celle is created. This official book records the tax income from the Southern and Western parts of the Principality Lueneburg , approximately in the area of the circles Celle , Soltau , Fallingbostel , and a part of Burgdorf .
science and technology
- King Henry VI. and Henry Chichele , fellow of New College and Archbishop of Canterbury , set up at the University of Oxford , the All Souls College in memory of the fallen of the Hundred Years War.
- July 7th : In the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges , France's King Charles VII restricts the Pope's powers to the French Church. In particular, it recognizes conciliarism , the primacy of councils over the Pope .
Date of birth saved
- February 5 : Marguerite de Bourbon , French noblewoman († 1483 )
- February 5 : Philip II , French nobleman, Duke of Savoy († 1497 )
- February 12 : Adolf von Egmond , Dutch nobleman, Duke of Geldern († 1477 )
- March 23 : Ludwig II , Margrave of Saluzzo († 1504 )
- June 8 : Melozzo da Forlì , Italian painter († 1494 )
- September 7th : Ludwig II. , German nobleman, Landgrave of Hessen-Kassel († 1471 )
- December 1 : Pierre II. De Bourbon , French nobleman, Duke of Bourbon († 1503 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Albrecht VI. , German nobleman, Duke of Mecklenburg († 1483 )
- William Beaumont, 2nd Viscount Beaumont , English nobleman († 1507 )
- Wilhelm II of Pernstein , Bohemian nobleman, politician, marshal and court master († 1521 )
- Ctibor Tobischau von Cimburg , Bohemian nobleman, legal scholar, Governor of Moravia, Colonel Chancellor of the Kingdom of Bohemia († 1494 )
- Stjepan Tomašević , Bosnian nobleman, despot of Serbia, King of Bosnia († 1463 )
Date of death secured
- January 6th : Edward Hastings , English knight (* 1382 )
- January 29 : John Merbury , English politician and civil servant
- February 26th : Hermann von Gnas , Bishop of Lavant and Counter-Bishop of Gurk
- June 2 : Richard d'Étampes , Breton nobleman (* 1395 )
- June 7th : Barsbay , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt (* 1369 )
- July 2nd : Ernst , German nobleman, Duke of Bavaria-Munich (* 1373 )
- August 13 : Johannes Nider , German Dominican (* before 1385 )
- September 9 : Eduard (Dom Duarte), King of Portugal (* 1391 )
- September 24th : Jacques II. De Bourbon , French nobleman, Count of La Marche and Castres (* 1370 )
- October 16 : Anne of Gloucester , English noblewoman (* 1383 )
- October 20 : Jacopo della Quercia , Italian sculptor
- October 28 : Pietro Loredan , Venetian admiral (* 1372 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann III. , German nobleman, Duke of Mecklenburg (* 1389 )
- Johann Ebser , Austrian Bishop of Chiemsee
- Keo Phim Fa , Queen of Lan Xang (* 1343 )
- Qara Iskander , Turkmen ruler
- Konrad Justinger , Swiss town clerk and chronicler (* before 1370 )
- Kham Koert , King of Lan Xang
- Hermann Korner , German mercenary leader, historian and master reader (* 1365 )
- Khedrub Geleg Pelsang , Tibetan monk, 3rd Ganden Thripa, 1st Penchen Lama (* 1385 )