Christopher III. becomes
King of Denmark .
Friedrich II becomes
Elector of Brandenburg .
Battle of Anghiari , the army of Florence defeated
a superior force of the Duchy of Milan .
|1440 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||888/889 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||12. Tubes - Matlactli omome Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th Rabbit - Matlactli ozce Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1983/84 (southern Buddhism); 1982/83 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||802/803 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||843/844 (turn of the year 1st / 2nd June)|
|Jewish calendar||5200/01 (August 28-29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1750/51 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1751/52 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1496/97 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February 2 : In Frankfurt am Main , Friedrich V, Duke of Styria since 1424 , of Carinthia and Carniola and since 1439 Duke of Austria , becomes Friedrich III. elected Roman-German king.
- June 29th : In the Battle of Anghiari , the army of Florence under Francesco Sforza, with the support of the Papal States and the Republic of Venice, defeats a superior force of the Duchy of Milan .
- November 4 : In the Old Zurich War there is a battle near Pfäffikon between the Confederates and the Zurich . On 1 December in is Kilchberg a peace agreement.
- 20 September : Frederick II. , The Iron will, after the death of his father Frederick I Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg .
- The Berlin reluctance begins, a dispute between the citizens of Berlin and Cölln and the ruler of the Brandenburg region, Friedrich II, over the construction of a castle on the Spree island and the associated obligation to surrender land. The dispute was not settled until 1448 through a compromise.
- April 9th : In Viborg Christoph von Pfalz-Neumarkt becomes the Danish King Christoph III. elected.
- October 4th : The Swedish Reichstag elects the Danish ruler Christoph von Bayern (Christoph von Pfalz-Neumarkt) as King of Sweden .
- March 14th : 53 nobles and 19 cities, including Danzig , Elbing and Thorn , join forces against the arbitrariness of the Teutonic Order to form the Bund against violence .
Poland / Bohemia / Hungary
- The Magyar magnates press Elisabeth of Luxembourg , the heavily pregnant widow of Albrecht V , who died in October and, as the daughter of King Sigismund, the legitimate heiress of Hungary , to deal with the much younger King Władysław III. of Poland and thus to combine the defenses of both countries against an impending attack by the Turks. However, she refuses, convinced that she will give birth to a male heir to the throne. Shortly before her confinement, her lady-in-waiting Helene Kottannerin was able to steal the Hungarian St. Stephen's crown on February 21 under adventurous circumstances and bring it to Komárom . The next day, Elisabeth gives birth to her son Ladislaus Postumus . Theoretically, Ladislaus is a duke and double king from birth, but his kingship is controversial in Bohemia and Hungary. In order to create facts, Elisabeth has the two-month Ladislaus crowned King of Hungary with the St. Stephen's Crown on May 15 in Stuhlweissenburg . The meanwhile called to Hungary Wladyslaw III. is also crowned King of Hungary on July 17th . A civil war of almost two years ensues. On August 23, Elisabeth hands over her son to the Habsburg Frederick III, who has meanwhile risen to the position of Roman-German King . and names him as the official guardian of the young Ladislaus.
- The Statute of the Republic of Poljica is written on the occasion of the takeover of power by the Republic of Venice . The Statute of the Dalmatian Republic is one of the oldest written constitutions in Europe.
- The Praguerie uprising breaks out.
- Moctezuma I becomes ruler of the Aztec city-state Tenochtitlán after the death of his uncle Itzcóatl . He is the son of the previous ruler Huitzilíhuitl .
science and technology
In one of the most widely noticed trials of the 15th century, the French nobleman and war hero Gilles de Rais , one of the first known serial killers in history, is found guilty of heresy and executed by hanging on October 26th with two accomplices.
Date of birth saved
- January 22nd : Ivan III. , Grand Duke of Moscow († 1505 )
- February 13 : Hartmann Schedel , German doctor, humanist and historian († 1514 )
- February 22 : Ladislaus Postumus , Duke of Austria, King of Bohemia and as Ladislaus V, King of Hungary († 1457 )
- November 13 : Heinrich XXVII. von Schwarzburg , German nobleman, Bishop of Münster, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen († 1496 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alain d'Albret , French nobleman, 16th lord of Albret, Vice Count of Tartas, 2nd Count of Graves, Count of Castres († 1522 )
- Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , knight, lord of the Lehmkuhlen and lord of Hasselburg († 1500 )
- Reginald Bray , English nobleman and politician († 1503 )
- Heinrich Brömse , German councilor, mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck († 1502 )
- Henry Deane , English Bishop of Bangor and Salisbury, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England, Archbishop of Canterbury († 1503 )
- Mordechai Finzi , Jewish author, translator († 1475 )
- Ladislaus von Gielniów , Polish St. Bernard monk , patron of Poland, Lithuania and Warsaw († 1505 )
- Kabir , Indian mystic († 1518 )
- Niccolò Pandolfini , Italian cardinal († 1518 )
- Georg I. Göler von Ravensburg , German nobleman, imperial knight († 1502 )
- Matthias Scheit , German Bishop of Seckau († 1512 )
- Ludwig Schongauer , German painter and engraver († 1494 )
Born around 1440
- Johann Amerbach , German printer and publisher († 1513 )
- Barthout van Assendelft , Dutch nobleman, 1st state advocate of the County of Holland († after 1502)
- Sten Sture the Elder , Swedish nobleman, imperial administrator of Sweden († 1503 )
- Mauro Codussi , Italian stonemason and architect († 1504 )
- Pedro Arias Dávila , Spanish conquistador, governor of Darién, founder of Panama City († 1531 )
- Hans Jakob von Ettlingen , German court architect († 1507 )
- Fernando Gallego , Spanish painter († 1507 )
- Anton Koberger , German printer, publisher, bookseller, entrepreneur († 1513 )
- Fiorenzo di Lorenzo , Italian painter († 1522 )
- Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo , Spanish writer († 1504 )
- Piero Pacini , Italian printer († 1513 )
- Leo von Spaur , Austrian Bishop of Vienna († 1479 or 1480)
- John Stewart , Scottish nobleman, 1st Earl of Atholl, 1st Lord of Balveny († 1512 )
- Anthony Woodville , English nobleman, 2nd Earl Rivers († 1483 )
- Gerhard van Wou , Dutch bell founder († 1527 )
First half of the year
- January 9th : Johann II of Brunn , Bishop of Würzburg
- January 10 : Eustache Marcadé , French clergyman and author
- January 24th : Johannes Naso , Bohemian nobleman, Bishop of Chur (* before 1391 )
- February 14 : Dietrich von Oldenburg German nobleman, Count von Oldenburg (* 1390 )
- February 26th : Friedrich III. von Aufseß , German nobleman, Prince-Bishop of the Bamberg Monastery
- March 7th : Otto IV. Von Maissau , Austrian Ministeriale
- March 7th : Konrad von Sarstedt , German pastor, council clerk, provost and founder (* around 1385 )
- March 9th : Francis of Rome , founder of the Italian order, mystic (* 1384 )
- March 20 : Sigismund Kęstutaitis , Prince of Mosyr, Nowogrodek, Starodub and Grand Prince of Lithuania (* around 1365 )
- April 1st / 2nd : Giovanni Vitelleschi , Italian condottiere and cardinal of the Catholic Church, Latin Patriarch of Alexandria and Archbishop of Florence (* 1390 )
- May 7th : Friedrich the Peaceful , German nobleman, Margrave of Meissen, Landgrave of Thuringia (* 1384 )
Second half of the year
- August 7 : Johannes Geuss , German philosopher and theologian, cathedral canon to St. Stephan in Vienna (* around 1370 )
- September 20 : Friedrich I , German nobleman, Elector of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg (* 1371 )
- September 23 : Lorenzo di Giovanni de 'Medici , Florentine banker (* 1395 )
- September 30th : Reginald Gray, 3rd Baron Gray de Ruthin , English nobleman (* around 1362 )
- October 26 : Gilles de Rais , French military leader, Marshal of France, alchemist and serial killer (* 1404 )
- November 13th : Adelheid von Hanau , German nobleman and nun
- November 13th : Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland , English noblewoman (* 1379 )
- November 24th : William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas , Scottish nobleman and titular Duke of Touraine (* around 1424 )
- December 5th : Johannes von Mewe , priest of the Teutonic Order, Bishop of Pomesania
Exact date of death unknown
- Itzcóatl , Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán (* 1380 )
- Johann I. von Merlau , prince abbot of Fulda
- Louis XI. , Count of Oettingen and court master under Emperor Sigismund
- Heinrich Notthannt von Wernberg , German nobleman, mayor of Regensburg, Vicedom in Straubinger Ländchen and vault in Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland (* around 1370 )
- Hinrich Rapesulver , merchant and mayor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck
- Degenhard von Schüngel , Westphalian nobleman (* around 1372 )
- Gerhard von Wylre , German lay judge and mayor of the imperial city of Aachen