|Powiat :||District-free city|
|Area :||83.32 km²|
|Geographic location :|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||82-300 to 82-314|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 55|
|License plate :||NE|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK7 ; DK22|
|Rail route :||Malbork – Olsztyn|
|Elbląg – Braniewo (without regular traffic)|
|Next international airport :||Gdansk Lech Walesa Airport|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||1437 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2861011|
|Administration (as of 2014)|
|City President :||Witold Wróblewski|
|Address:||ul. Łączności 1
Elbląg ( ˈɛlblɔŋk ), German Elbing , is an independent city in the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship near the Baltic Sea coast . It has around 119,750 inhabitants, a port and is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese .
The city is located on the southwestern edge of the Elbinger Höhe in the Elbinger lowlands near the confluence of the Elbląg (Elbing) and Nogat rivers in the Fresh Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany). It is located about 30 kilometers southwest of Frombork (Frauenburg) and 30 kilometers northeast of Malbork (Marienburg), and about 60 kilometers southeast of Gdańsk (Danzig).
Historically, Elbląg is located in the Pogesanien region , which belonged to Prussia royal share in the Kingdom of Poland, since 1772 to the Prussian province of West Prussia , since 1922 to East Prussia , since 1945 to Poland.
In 1237, the Teutonic Order built a fortress near the Drausensee under the landmaster Hermann von Balk . The city was founded in 1237 as Elbing in Pogesanien , at that time part of the Teutonic Order , under the protection of the Teutonic Order by craftsmen and merchants from Lübeck . First a settlement with a grid-shaped road network was created. The center formed the later "Old Market", which was located on the major trade route between Thorn and the Samland. The parish church of St. Nikolai was built before 1238. In 1238, Landmeister Hermann von Balk had the Church of Our Lady and a Dominican monastery built. Up until 1246 there was immigration from other citizens, most of whom also came from Lübeck. In 1246 Elbing received city rights according to Luebian law and was given the privilege to strike its own coins. In the south of the city, the order castle with a Heilig-Geist-Hospital was built during the 1240s. In the years 1251 to 1309 the Elbingen Order Castle was the deputy headquarters of the Order State (the headquarters were at that time Acre and later Venice ) and the seat of the Landmeister of Prussia and the Grand Spittler , at the same time the residence of the Warmian bishop Anselm , who died here in 1274.
The Church of St. Jacob (branch of the parish church) was built in 1256. The Corpus Christi Church with a hospital for lepers was built in 1292. Around 1300 the order built the fortifications of the city with 14 defense towers. During this time Elblag had grown into a major trading town that had acquired significant trading privileges from the kings of Poland , the dukes of Pomerania , the Scandinavian rulers and even from King Philip IV of France. In the 13th century the schola senatoria (council school) became. founded, and in 1314 the Elbingen city tower was built.
Elbing developed together with Danzig and Thorn into one of the leading Hanseatic cities in Eastern Central Europe. At the beginning of the 14th century the town had grown so much that in 1337 the Elbingen new town was laid out in front of the gates by the Elbinger Komtur Siegfried von Sitten. It had its own council and was governed according to Luebian law. Grand Master Heinrich Dusemer granted this new town the privilege on February 25, 1347.
From 1350 the Elbingen fleet took part in the battles of the Hanseatic League against Norwegian and Danish pirates in the Baltic Sea. 1360 raged in Elblag plague , of about 13,000 inhabitants (about 90%) were victims.
In 1367 Elbing joined the Cologne Confederation with Kulm and Thorn . The Church of Saint Brigitta of Sweden was built after 1379. In 1397 the Lizard Association was formed : the uprising of the nobility and the cities against the rule of the order began. After the Battle of Tannenberg , Elbing was occupied by Polish troops for eight weeks. Polish troops besieged the Elbingen Order Castle in 1414, but without success.
In 1440 the Prussian Hanseatic cities, including Elbing, together with the state estates founded the Prussian Confederation , which was directed against the rule of the order and sought an autonomous self-government under the sovereignty of the Polish king. In 1452 they got their rights and privileges from Emperor Friedrich III. to confirm. In the ensuing Thirteen Years' War of the Prussian Federation together with Poland against the Teutonic Order (1453–1466), the citizens of Elbing took part in the siege of the Order Castle by the Poles and destroyed the castle after its surrender. The ruins of the castle were demolished 100 years later. Part of it still stands today. In 1454 the city paid homage to the Jagiellonian King of Poland Casimir IV as patron. He and his successors confirmed all the old privileges to the city and bestowed many new ones. In 1478 the previously independent halves of the old and new town of Elbings merged.
Elbing as a free city republic in Royal Prussia
The Thirteen Years War ended in 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorens , in which the order of Pomerania , the Culmer Land and Warmia, as well as Danzig, Elbing and Marienburg had to be lost. These areas voluntarily submitted to the Polish crown as a Prussian Royal Share . This resulted in a division of Prussia into a western Polish part and an eastern part of the Teutonic Order, which, however, had to recognize Polish sovereignty. In 1525 the monastic land was converted into the secular Duchy of Prussia . The army of the last Grand Master Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach besieged the city of Elbing in 1521 under the leadership of Komtur Kaspar von Schwalbach. The siege could be repelled. Victory Day was celebrated for several centuries on the first Friday after Laetare Sunday as "Happy Day" in the city.
In 1536 the first Protestant grammar school was set up by Willem van de Voldersgraft or Wilhelm Fullonius , a religious refugee from The Hague. Christoph Hartknoch described his life or Vita Guilielmi Gnaphei in his Acta Borussica III . The Prussian cities including Elbing are also shown in Hartknoch's work. The rector of the Elbingen grammar school had to leave Elbing due to the decree of the Catholic prince-bishop of Warmia and then became the councilor of Duke Albrecht of Prussia and rector and professor of the University of Königsberg. In 1576 King Stephan Báthory confirmed the privilege of the Protestant school, which had an academic claim until the directorate of Johann Wilhelm Süverns in 1803. In 1558 King Sigismund II. August assured the Protestant city of Elblag temporary religious freedom.
On the occasion of the establishment of the Union of Lublin in the Lublin Sejm announced King Sigismund II. August on 16 March 1569 the autonomy of West Prussia, however bitter under penalty sanctions unilaterally, which is why the supremacy of the Polish king in this part of the former territory of the German Order of 1569 until 1772 was perceived as foreign rule.
In 1567 the city was able to enforce full religious autonomy and expelled the Jesuits from the city. The Lutherans took over the Nikolaikirche in 1577. Since that time, church records with entries of Elbingen baptisms, marriages and burials have also been available.
From 1579 the city maintained close trade relations with England , which was free to trade in Elbing. Many English and Scottish merchants came and became citizens of the city of Elblag. They organized themselves into the Fellowship of Eastland Merchants . The Church of Scotland founded the Brotherhood of the Scottish Nation in Elblag . Family graves with the name Ramsay, Slocombe were to be found in the St. Marien cemetery in the old town of Elbing until 1945. Other families from this circle included the Lamberts, Paynes, Lardings, Wilmsons.
The rebellion of the Danzigers against King Stephan Báthory of Poland was cleverly exploited in 1580 by the Elblagians, who remained loyal to the king. For Poland, Elblag now played a key role in overseas trade. Polish grain was exported to Western Europe via the Nogat, which was deeper than the mouth of the Vistula near Danzig, and, conversely, Western luxury goods were imported as far as Poland. The city had 30,000 inhabitants in 1594, and the turnover of goods that were sold by Elbingen merchants in that year reached the high sum of 1,247,850 thalers for that time . The parish church was handed over to the Catholic clergy in 1617.
Thirty Years War and Northern Wars
Around 1620 the city withdrew from the Hanseatic League due to its strong trade ties with England . In 1625 an outbreak of the plague followed , as a result of which 3,608 people died. The troops of the Swedish King Gustav II Adolf took the city in 1626 and held it until 1635 as headquarters in the fight in support of the Evangelicals against the Catholics in the Thirty Years War . The Swedish king installed his confidante and Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna in Elbing as governor general for the new Swedish possessions. From 1626 to 1631 he carried out not only regional business but also part of his national tasks from Elbing. In the approximately 1,500 letters Oxenstierna from Elbing have received, military, regulatory, economic and foreign policy issues of the time are reflected. The Swedes took treasures, furniture and books as spoils of war and sent them home.
In 1646 the Elbingen town clerk Daniel Barholz documented that the Elbingen town council had employed amber turner ( paternoster maker ). Later members of the Barholz family were prominent as city councilors and mayors. The baroque poet Daniel Bärholz also belonged to this family. The processing of amber (Prussian gold), not only for jewelry and church articles, but as a remedy and polishing varnish, was an important economic factor at that time. The guild members of the paternoster makers were subject to special laws. In the years 1655 to 1660 Elbing was occupied a second time by Swedish troops under Charles X Gustav in the course of the Second Northern War . Karl X. Gustav proceeded in a similar way as his uncle Gustav Adolf.
The Polish King John II Casimir pledged Elbing and its territory in 1657 in the Treaty of Wehlau to the Great Elector for the sum of 400,000 thalers and also assured him of sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia. When the Polish crown had not reimbursed the above sum, the successor of the Great Elector, Frederick I (Prussia) in Prussia, made use of his right and in 1703 took possession of the Elbingen territory, which consequently became Prussian.
The considerable income that had flowed from the territory to the city up to that point was severely curtailed by this step, which led to a paralysis of the economy and an associated decline in the importance of the city. In addition, the city of Elbing kept its autonomy, but in the following decades had to endure multiple occupations and the associated contributions. During the Great Northern War , Elbing was successively occupied by Swedish (1703-1710), Russian (1710-1712) and Saxon troops (1712). During the Seven Years' War , the city was captured by Russian troops in 1758 and occupied until 1762.
The imperial mathematician and geographer Johann Friedrich Endersch completed a map of Warmia in 1755 with the title Tabula Geographica Episcopatum Warmiensem in Prussia Exhibens . This map shows the town and country of Elblag west of Warmia and every village in the area. The map from 1755 also bears the name Prussia Orientalis (in German: East Prussia). Endersch also made a copper engraving of the sailing ship (Galiot), named D.Stadt Elbing (D = the builder), later also known as Die Stadt Elbing , which was built in Elbing in 1738.
In 1772 Elbing came to the Prussian state as part of the first partition of Poland . Although Elblag lost its urban autonomy and some associated privileges, the complete independence of the German city from the Polish crown was now restored.
In the Prussian state
Friedrich II supported Elbing with many tax breaks and trade began to flourish again. In 1807, Napoleon's troops occupied Elbing and forced a contribution of 200,000 thalers within four days . On May 8, 1807, Napoleon I held a large parade of troops in Elbing. From December 1812 to January 1813, after its failed Russian campaign , the city had to feed 60,000 retreating French soldiers, 8,000 officers and 22,000 horses.
According to Stein-Hardenberg administrative reforms Elbing was in 1815 part of the circle Elbing in the administrative district of Gdansk the province of West Prussia . Elbing remained the administrative seat of this district until 1945, but became an urban district (independent city) in 1874 and since then has no longer been under the jurisdiction of the district office.
Industrialization and traffic route construction determined the fate of the city in the 19th century. In 1828 the Elbinger started the first steamship in East Prussia. In 1837 the Schichau works were founded. From 1840 to 1858 the Oberland Canal between Deutsch Eylau , Osterode and Elbing was laid according to plans and under the direction of the Royal Prussian Building Councilor Georg Steenke . On October 23, 1844, the Elbing Baptist Church was founded .
In the 1840s, a secondary school was launched in addition to the existing grammar school . Around the middle of the 19th century, the shipowners represented in the port of Elbing had 14 merchant ships. In 1853 the railway line to Königsberg was completed. From 1858 to 1918 there was a great economic boom in the city. The city had many factories: the Schichau-Werke , which now also produced locomotives, among other things, the Loeser & Wolff cigar factory , a large brewery and schnapps distillery, a chocolate factory and many other businesses. At the beginning of the 20th century, Elbing had seven Protestant churches, one Catholic church, four prayer houses from various free churches and religious communities and a synagogue .
In the industrial city of Elbing, the SPD always received the majority of the votes, in the 1912 Reichstag elections even 51%. According to the Prussian census of 1905, 94,065 people in the districts of Elbing Stadt and Elbing Land were German-speaking and 280 people were Polish or Kashubian-speaking.
Weimar Republic and Third Reich
After the First World War, Germany had to because of the provisions of the Versailles Treaty in 1920 the largest part of West Prussia for the purpose of setting up the Polish Corridor to Poland cede. At the same time, the ethnically German, but politically dependent on Poland Free City of Danzig was formed and also separated from the Reich territory. The parts of the district of Elbing to the west of the Nogat fell to the new Free State of Danzig. The city of Elbing was one of the areas that remained with Germany and was annexed to neighboring East Prussia after the province of West Prussia was dissolved . The newly added West Prussian areas formed the West Prussian administrative district there, the administrative seat of which was in Marienwerder , but where Elbing was the largest city. In 1926, the Elbing Pedagogical Academy was set up to train primary school teachers .
The world economic crisis after 1929 had a very negative impact on Elbing's situation. The important bus and truck factory Franz Komnick und Söhne AG went bankrupt in 1930 and was taken over by Büssing AG .
In the years of the Weimar Republic, Elbing was a stronghold of the KPD . The NSDAP's policy of rearmament in Germany brought about a great economic upswing for Elbing from 1933, mainly through the expansion of the Schichau works, the construction of an aircraft factory and the opening of many new schools. In 1937 the city had 76,000 inhabitants. After the attack on Poland in 1939, through which the territories removed in 1920 came back to the Reich territory, Elbing was annexed to the administrative district of Danzig in the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia .
During the Second World War, five labor camps were built primarily for Polish forced laborers in Elblag that the Stutthof concentration camp as a satellite camp were subordinated. There were also 15 other forced labor camps in the Elbing district that worked for arms production. The siege of Elbing by the Red Army began around January 23, 1945 . The city with its strategically important location was defended until February 10th. In the end, 60 percent of the city's building stock was in ruins (a total of 5255 buildings). All the monuments were badly damaged, only six houses remained in the old town, including the Kramer guild house and the post office. Around 5000 German soldiers fell, many civilians drowned in the Frischen Haff while fleeing the besieged city.
In 1918 Elblag housed book treasures of European standing. The city archive , which was founded in the 17th century, contained many valuable parchments from the 13th century and valuable historical collections from the 15th century. The library at the grammar school (15,000 volumes) had, among other things, a Polish code of law from the 13th century, the library at the Nikolaikirche (founded before 1403) 23 old manuscripts and 1,478 old theological works. The library at the Marienkirche had an outstanding collection of music manuscripts - 520 works from the 16th to the 19th century. The city library (founded in 1601) had the most valuable collection: 30,000 volumes, including 214 manuscripts, 123 incunabula and 770 maps. The city museum housed the former Dominican library, including 50 manuscripts and 15 incunabula . All of these book treasures have been lost since 1945.
People's Republic of Poland
By the end of the Second World War, the city had around 100,000 residents, most of them Protestant, of German nationality. After Elblag was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet occupying power in the spring of 1945 , the Poles introduced the place name Elbląg . The residents were subsequently expelled and replaced by Poles .
The first representatives of the communist authorities appeared in Elblag in March 1945. All the machines in the factories that had not been destroyed - for example in the Schichau works - were dismantled between 1945 and 1946 and transported to the Soviet Union as reparations . Kitchen stoves, tiled stoves, bathtubs, Junkers stoves, door locks and door handles from undestroyed private houses were also brought there.
From 1946 to 1947 the remaining German population was expelled, mainly into the British zone of Germany's occupation . At the same time migration from Poland began, partly from the areas east of the Curzon Line, but also from central Poland. The Soviet military authorities gave the seaport to the Polish city administration in 1946. Since the exit to the Baltic Sea at Baltijsk (Pillau) was now under Soviet control, the use of the port was only possible to a very limited extent.
In 1948 the city had 40,000 inhabitants. From 1950 the reconstruction of the Elbingen industry began. The city has once again become an important center of the machine and transport industry, and the city also has wood, food and textile industries. The city had a population of 81,400 in 1962. In 1970, many residents of Elbląg, along with citizens of Gdansk and Szczecin, took part in the uprising against the communist government in Poland.
In the course of the Polish administrative reform in 1970, the city became the capital of the voivodeship of the same name . The strikes in August 1980 led to the establishment of the free trade union Solidarność with the participation of many Elbląg residents.
Third Polish Republic
From 1990 the old town was rebuilt using historicist structures such as pointed gables facing the street and half-timbered imitations. After 2000, many buildings are close again, but not directly on the Elbląger "Waterkant". The city was raised to the seat of the Catholic diocese of Elbląg in 1992 , which is part of the newly created Archdiocese of Warmia . In 1994 the port regained its rights as a seaport with limited possibilities of use, since the exit to the open Baltic Sea continues unchanged over Russian territory through the Pillauer Tief in the Fresh Spit .
Elbląg lost its rank as the capital of a voivodeship during the administrative reform in 1998, since then it has belonged to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship administered from Olsztyn (Allenstein) and is once again the city district and seat of the district administration for the Elbląski powiat . In 1999 the city received the EU award for environmental care. In 2000 the city received the international “European Flag” award.
Population development until 1945
|1781||15,768||Inhabited by Germans, almost all of them Evangelicals, some Mennonite families, some Catholics in the suburbs|
|1831||17,761||in 2,110 residential buildings|
|1864||27,537||including 456 military personnel|
|1867||28,055||on December 3 (including 382 military personnel), of whom 22,010 were Protestants, 4,973 Catholics, 411 Mennonites and 490 Jews|
|1890||41,576||thereof 32,104 Evangelicals, 8,115 Catholics and 484 Jews|
|1900||52,518||including 10,235 Catholics and 415 Jews|
|1925||67,878||thereof 54,835 Evangelicals, 11,755 Catholics, 143 other Christians and 434 Jews|
|1933||72,409||including 57,724 Evangelicals, 12,308 Catholics, 20 other Christians and 357 Jews|
|1939||83,190||63,530 Protestants, 14,418 Catholics, 624 other Christians and 48 Jews|
|1945||22,179||thereof 16,838 Germans, 5,341 Poles (as of November 1, 1945)|
At the head of the city administration is a city president who is directly elected by the population. Since 2014 this is Witold Wróblewski.
- Witold Wróblewski (Election Committee Witold Wróblewski) 48.8% of the vote
- Jerzy Wilk ( Prawo i Sprawiedliwość ) 28.7% of the vote
- Michał Missan ( Koalicja Obywatelska ) 19.3% of the vote
- Stefan Rembelski ( Kukiz'15 ) 3.2% of the vote
In the run-off election that was necessary, Wróblewski prevailed with 72.0% of the vote against the PiS candidate Wilk, who was his predecessor as mayor until 2014, and was re-elected.
The city council consists of 25 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:
- Koalicja Obywatelska (KO) 32.1% of the vote, 9 seats
- Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (PiS) 30.0% of the vote, 9 seats
- Election Committee Witold Wróblewski 23.4% of the vote, 6 seats
- Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) / Lewica Razem (Razem) 10.0% of the votes, 1 seat
- Kukiz'15 4.5% of the vote, no seat
coat of arms
Blazon : "divided by silver and red goldgegittertem, up and down depending on a cross in confused tinctures."
The still preserved bronze stamp of the SIGILLVM BVRGENSIVM IN ELVIGGE, which was used in 1242, shows a cog, steered to the left by a boatman, over which a small cross hovers. The silver stamp of the second large seal is also still there; Here the cross is in the flag, while the third ship's seal (15th century) has the two crosses in it, which the decree of the 14th century already shows in the triangular shields and which contain all later seals.
Elbląg has partnerships with 14 cities and towns:
- Leer , Germany
- Kaliningrad , Russia
- Baltiysk , Russia
- Bremerhaven , Germany
- Ronneby , Sweden
- Druskininkai , Lithuania
- Liepāja , Latvia
- Nawahrudak , Belarus
- Ternopil , Ukraine
- Compiègne , France
- Trowbridge , UK
- Coquimbo , Chile
- Baoji , People's Republic of China
- Tainan , Republic of China (Taiwan)
- St. Nikolai Cathedral (Gothic, 13th to 15th centuries, rebuilt in the 18th century)
- former Marienkirche (Gothic, 13th to 16th centuries), rebuilt 1960 to 1982, since the 21st century art gallery Galeria EL , belonged to the Dominican monastery
- Church of the Holy Body (Gothic, around 1400), center of Christian culture
- Church of the Holy Spirit, with hospital (Gothic, 14th century), used as a city library
- Former Mennonite Church (1590), art gallery
- Dorotheenkirche, half-timbered building, around 1705, baroque
- Church of the Good Shepherd
- Some preserved or rebuilt town houses with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque ornaments (14th to 17th centuries)
- Market gate (Gothic, 1314)
- Gothic store
- Fragments of the Gothic buildings in the palace courtyard (13th century) and the city wall (13th century)
- former grammar school (1599, rebuilt 1808/09), today an archaeological museum, previously a Brigittenkloster
- Memorial to the victims of the anti-communist uprising of 1970
Not far from the city:
- Castle Hotel Cadinen, in Polish Kadyny near Tolkemit , until 1945, owned by the Prussian royal family since 1899. The imperial grandson and later head of the House of Hohenzollern , Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, spent the war years here with his family. The majolica factory founded by the last Kaiser Wilhelm II is back in operation.
- Truso am Draussensee, settlement from the 8th / 9th centuries Century (replica)
Economy and Infrastructure
Elbląg is located on Droga krajowa 7 (former German Reichsstrasse 130 ) ( Danzig - Warsaw ) and 22 (former Reichsstrasse 1 ) to Gorzów Wielkopolski (Landsberg an der Warthe) and Kaliningrad (Königsberg (Prussia)) .
Elbląg has a station on the line Malbork – Braniewo (Marienburg – Braunsberg) , the former Prussian Eastern Railway . The largely disused Elbląg – Braniewo railway , the former Haffuferbahn , and the Elbing – Miswalde railway , which has been closed since 1945, begin in Elbląg .
A new seaport on the Elbląg River was opened for shipping in June 2006 , and can handle up to 750,000 tons of goods annually. The port is also intended for passenger and car ferry traffic on the Baltic Sea. The marina was also modernized. However, Elbląg does not have free access to the Baltic Sea, the shipping route leads over the Fresh Lagoon ( Zalew Wislany in Polish , Kaliningradski Zaliw in Russian) through Russian territorial waters ( Kaliningrad Oblast ). In May 2006 this route was closed to international traffic by the Russian side. To avoid this problem, the canal is built through the fresh spit .
After five years without shipping, Russian cargo ships started calling again at the beginning of 2011.
The former Schichau works were renamed ELZAM in 1945 and have belonged to the Asea Brown Boveri group since 1990 (then Alstom , now General Electric ). The company produces turbines and electric motors. The Elbrewery brewery ( EB brand ) is the city's second largest employer. In addition, the city has important transportation factories, a shipyard, and dairy, meat, leather, textile and furniture industries have settled.
Art in public space
Residents and visitors of the city meet sculptures by Polish and international artists in streets and squares. Since the first Biennale of Spatial Forms took place in 1965 , numerous permanent works have been created that have helped shape the cityscape of Elbląg.
The most prominent participant in the first biennial was Magdalena Abakanowicz with the steel sculpture Standing Shape . In 1973 the exhibitions came to an end for the time being. They have been around since 1986.
The Galeria-EL , (Pani Marii), which is located in the building of the former St. Marien Church, the oldest church in Elbing, plays an important role in the implementation of the Biennale . This was built in the 13th century as a church building for the Dominican order. A Protestant church until 1945, it was no longer used as a church after 1945. The city administration has set up an art gallery here, in which pictures and sculptures by contemporary artists are shown, which are exhibited alongside preserved tombstones and epitaphs from St. Mary's Church and commemorate the merits of former noble and merchant families, city patriziers and clergymen.
The following educational institutions operate in Elbląg (as of the 2010s):
- State University of Applied Sciences in Elbląg (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Elblągu) with the departments of economics, application-oriented computer science, educational sciences and modern languages as well as technical sciences. In the ranking of the national daily Rzeczpospolita it is one of the best universities of applied sciences in the country (2005: first place, 2006: third place).
- Higher seminary
- University of Humanities and Economics (EUHE)
- Bogdan Janski University of Economics
The Olimpia Elbląg football club plays in the Polish second division.
The city is the administrative seat of the rural municipality of the same name Elbląg, but does not belong to it as an independent municipality. The rural municipality of Elbląg is part of the Powiat Elbląski (Elbing District) and forms a belt around the independent city of Elbląg. The community has 7,239 inhabitants (June 30, 2014) on an area of 191 km² and is divided into 37 localities, 24 of which have a Schulzenamt .
- Próchnik , a village in the Elbląg urban area.
In order of appearance
- Alexander Nicolaus Tolckemit : Elbingscher teachers memory, that is: the life and writings of all Protestant teachers who have taught in all the churches since the Reformation, as well as at the grammar school in Elbing, along with an appendix from the Elbingers and those who are outside teaching a message from the Elbingschen Medicis and Physicis,… Schreiber, Danzig 1753 ( digitized version of the SUB Göttingen ).
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 14-16.
- Michael Gottlieb Fuchs : Description of the city of Elbing and its area in topographical, historical and statistical terms . Volume 1, Elbing 1818 , Volume 2, Elbing 1821 , Volume 3, First Department, Elbing 1826 , Volume 3, Second Department, Elbing 1827 , Volume 3, Third Department, Elbing 1832.
- August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore or description of Prussia. A manual for primary school teachers in the province of Prussia, as well as for all friends of the fatherland . Bornträger Brothers, Königsberg 1835, pp. 447–454, no. 62.
- The city of Elblag. Wish for the celebration . In: Preußische Provinzial-Blätter , Volume 17, Königsberg 1837, pp. 164–170.
- Friedrich August Voßberg : Coins and seals of the Prussian cities Danzig, Elbing, Thorn, as well as the dukes of Pomerellen in the Middle Ages. With many coin and seal images . Berlin 1841 ( e-copy ).
- Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler : Codex iuris municipalis Germaniae medii aevi. Regesta and documents on the constitutional and legal history of German cities in the Middle Ages . Enke, Erlangen 1863, p. 709 ( e-copy ).
- Max Toeppen : Elbinger antiques. A contribution to the history of urban life in the Middle Ages ( links to digital copies );
- Elbing (encyclopedia entry). In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . 5th edition, Volume 5, Leipzig / Vienna 1906, p. 596.
- Theodor Lockemann (arr.): Elbing . Deutscher Architektur- und Industrie-Verlag (DARI), Berlin-Halensee 1926 ( Germany's urban development ; e-copy ).
- Edward Carstenn : History of the Hanseatic City of Elbing . 2nd Edition. Publishing house of Leon Saunier's bookstore, Elbing 1937.
- 750 years of Elbing. Order and Hanseatic city - industrial and university city. Series of publications of the West Prussian State Museum 18 (1987) [catalog for the exhibition 04/11/1987 - 09/20/1987].
- Hans-Jürgen Schuch: Elbing. From 750 years of history of the religious, Hanseatic and industrial city . Westkreuz-Verlag, Berlin / Bonn / Bad Münstereifel a. a. 1989, ISBN 3-922131-65-4 ( Ostdeutsche Städtebilder 5).
- Werner Neugebauer , Jürgen Udolph : Elbing. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 7, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1989, ISBN 3-11-011445-3 , pp. 115–127.
- Bernhard Jähnig , Hans-Jürgen Schuch (Ed.): Elbing 1237–1987 . Contributions to the Elbing Colloquium in November 1987 in Berlin. Nicolaus-Copernicus Verlag, Münster 1991, ISBN 3-924238-14-6 ( sources and representations on the history of West Prussia 25).
Historia Elbląga . 6 volumes. Gdańsk 1993-2006
- Stanisław Gierszewski, Andrzej Groth (eds.): Historia Elbląga . Vol. 1: do 1466r. Wydawnictwo Marpress, Gdańsk 1993, ISBN 83-85349-25-1 .
- Andrzej Groth (Ed.): Historia Elbląga . Vol. 2.1: 1466-1626 . Wydawnictwo Marpress, Gdańsk 1996, ISBN 83-85349-67-7 .
- Krystina Greczychom (arr.): Historia Elbląga . Vol. 6: Bibliografia Elbląga . Wydawnictwo Marpress, Gdańsk 2006, ISBN 83-89091-75-5 .
- Hans-Joachim Pfau: Elbing: Siegel, coat of arms, flags, 1999, ISBN 3-00-004958-4 ; Coins and Medals, 2000, ISBN 3-00-005173-2 ; Harry Schultz, Volume 1 + 2, 2003/2005 , ISBN 3-00-012538-8 , ISBN 3-00-016136-8 .
- Matthias Blazek: “How beautiful you are!” West Prussia - the land on the lower Vistula. ibidem, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-8382-0357-7 .
- Fridrun Freise: Elbing . In: Wolfgang Adam, Siegrid Westphal (ed.): Handbook of cultural centers in the early modern period , Vol. 1. Berlin 2012, pp. 467–497.
- City website
- hans-pfau-elbing.de Extensive German-language website about Elbing and the surrounding area
- Current pictures and short story of Elbing as the city of the Teutonic Order
- Historical recordings
- Church register films of the inhabitants of Elbing since 1577
- Report on the expulsion and flight after the Second World War
- Municipal directory 1939
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 14-16 in the Google book search.
- Johannes Voigt : History of Prussia, from the oldest times to the fall of the rule of the Teutonic Order , Volume 2: The time from the arrival of the Order to Peace 1249 , Königsberg 1827, p. 290 in the Google book search.
- Max Toeppen : Historisch-Komparative Geographie von Preußen , Gotha 1858, pp. 187–195 in the Google book search.
- L. Wiese: The higher school system in Prussia. Historical-statistical representation. Berlin 1864, pp. 71-75
- Hans Prutz : History of the Neustadt district in West Prussia . Danzig 1872, p. 104 .
- A. Reusch: West Prussia under Polish scepter. Ceremonial speech given at the Elbinger Gymnasium on 13th Spt. 1872 . In: Altpreußische Monatsschrift , NF, Volume 10, Königsberg 1873, pp. 140–154, especially p. 146 .
- Hans Prutz , p. 104 ff .
- Historical view from 1729: Delineatio Geometrica Civitatis Elbingensis in Borussia Regali à Sereniss. Suecorum Rege Gustavo Adolpho Magno Munitae Ano. 1629 et sera. Suco-Gothorum Regi Carolo Gustavo deditae December 10th. 1655 . ( urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-123273 )
- Gustav Adolf Harald Stenzel : History of the Prussian State: From 1688 to 1739 , Gotha 1841, p. 83 .
- Hartmut Boockmann : German history in Eastern Europe. East Prussia and West Prussia , Berlin 1992, p. 291.
- Fridrun Freise : Elbing . In: Wolfgang Adam, Siegrid Westphal (ed.): Handbook of cultural centers in the early modern period , Vol. 1, Berlin 2012, p. 471.
- Endersch map of Warmia
- Albert Reusch : West Prussia under Polish scepter. Ceremonial speech held in the Elbinger Gymnasium on 13th Spt. 1872 . In: Old Prussian monthly . Volume 10, Königsberg 1873, pp. 140-154 .
- E. Wendt & Co. (Ed.): Overview of the Prussian Merchant Navy . Stettin January 1848, p. 9 ( online [accessed June 4, 2015]).
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 5th edition, Volume 5. Leipzig / Vienna 1906, p. 596.
- Hans-Werner Hoppe: The Elbing Pedagogical Academy 1926-1945. In: Udo Arnold (Ed.): Prussia as a university landscape in the 19th and 20th centuries. Century. Nordostdeutsches Kulturwerk, Lüneburg 1992, pp. 105–122 and 143–150.
- Alexander August Mützell, Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 1: A-F. Halle 1821, p. 334, item 671.
- August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore . Königsberg 1835, p. 447 ff.
- H. Oelrichs: The administrative district of Danzig since 1816 . In: New Prussian Provincial Papers . Fourth episode. Volume 5, Königsberg 1868, p. 299.
- CE Rhode: The Elbinger Kreis in topographical, historical and statistical terms. In addition to 7 cards on 2 sheets. A. W. Kafemann, Danzig 1871, p. 155.
- Gustav Neumann: Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 42–43, item 4.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. elbing.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Sylwia Bykowska: The Rehabilitation and Ethnic Vetting of the Polish Population in the Voivodship of Gdańsk after World War II . Peter Lang Publishing Group , 2020, ISBN 978-3-631-67940-1 , p. 116 (English).
- Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 7, 2020.
- Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on August 5, 2020.
- Erich Keyser : German city book - manual urban history, Volume I Northeast Germany. W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1939, pp. 42-47.
- Otto Hupp : German coat of arms . Kaffee-Handels-Aktiengesellschaft , Bremen 1925.
- GOV: Neustädterfeld, Nowe Pole, Elblag-Nowe Pole
- Goods traffic across the Haff , Preußische Allgemeine Zeitung / episode 17-11 of April 30, 2011
- See http://www.gminaelblag.pl/wspol.php