|Area :||17.15 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||6 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||82-200 to 82-210|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 55|
|License plate :||GMB|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||DK 22 : Kostrzyn nad Odrą / Germany - Grzechotki / Russia|
|DK 55 : Nowy Dwór Gdański - Stolno|
|Ext. 515 : Susz- Malbork|
|Rail route :||
PKP - Route 9: Warsaw-Gdansk
PKP route 204: Malbork Mamonowo / Russia
|PKP route 207: Toruń – Malbork
PKP route 222: Małdyty – Malbork (closed)
|Next international airport :||Danzig|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||2243 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||2209011|
|Administration (as of 2015)|
|Mayor :||Marek Charzewski|
|Address:||pl. Słowiański 5
Malbork [ ˈmalbɔrk ], German Marienburg , is the district town of the powiat Malborski in the Polish Pomeranian Voivodeship . It is the seat of the independent rural community Malbork , but does not belong to it itself.
The city of Marienburg became famous for the Marienburg of the same name ( Polish: Zamek w Malborku ), which is considered to be the greatest work of brick Gothic . The castle complex was the seat of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order from 1309 to 1457 and thus the main building and power center of the Teutonic Order state .
History of the city and the order castle
13th to 17th centuries
In 1274, forty years after the beginning of the conquest of the Prussian region , the Landmeister Konrad von Tierberg the Elder began . Ä. on the right bank of the Nogat , an estuary of the Vistula , with the construction of the Marienburg. To the southwest of the castle, the town of the same name and church were built in 1276 and equipped with a festival . The north wing of the high castle with church and chapter house was completed by 1280. The outer bailey was rudimentary from 1309. The Grand Master's Palace was built from 1305 to 1393. Since that time, the fortunes of town and castle could no longer be separated. In connection with the acquisition of Danzig and Pomerania , Grand Master Siegfried von Feuchtwangen moved the seat of the Order of Venice to Marienburg in 1309 . In the last quarter of the 14th century, Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode initiated the construction of the Neustadt and founded a Latin school. The Gothic town hall was completed in 1380, and around this time the Gothic city gates and the city wall were built. After the lost battle of Tannenberg in 1410, Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen had the city burn down except for the church and town hall, retired with the residents to the castle and repelled the siege of Marienburg . From 1411 to 1448 further enclosing structures, the Plauen bulwarks, were built.
In 1454 the order had pledged the Marienburg with other order locks to the totality of the order mercenaries as security for outstanding pay payments. A group of mercenaries under a Bohemian knight took control of the Marienburg in 1457 and immediately sold it to the King of Poland Casimir IV. Andrew , called the Jagiellon, who moved in on June 7th and took possession of it. The Grand Master had only managed to escape the day before. He then moved his seat to Königsberg . The city of Marienburg had stood on the side of the order in the Prussian city war between the order and the Prussian Confederation and was recaptured on September 27th by mercenaries loyal to the order. Under Mayor Bartholomäus Blume it held out for three years against a siege by Polish troops and Prussian bundlers until August 6, 1460, but suffered severe damage. After the city was conquered, flowers were hanged and quartered.
In the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466, the town and castle were transferred from the religious order to the autonomous corporate state of Prussia, the royal part , which had voluntarily submitted to the sovereignty of the Polish crown. A Marienburg Voivodeship was established, which also included Elbing , Stuhm and Christburg . The church, which was destroyed in the city war, was rebuilt between 1468 and 1523.
However, the West Prussian cities received many privileges. During the two Swedish Wars 1626–1629 and 1656–1660, the city was continuously occupied by Swedish troops and expanded into a fortress.
From the 18th to the 21st century
As part of the first Polish partition , Marienburg became part of the State of Prussia in 1772 , was in the newly created province of West Prussia from 1773 and became the administrative seat of the district of the same name. From the Prussian administrative reform of 1815 until 1919, Marienburg was in the Danzig administrative district of the West Prussian province.
In 1816 the old Latin school was replaced by the Höhere Stadtschule , which was then expanded into a full grammar school in 1860 .
The first restorations of the castle, which has since fallen into disrepair, served to use the castle as barracks and to restore the structure . After prominent historians pointed out its value, the castle was restored from 1817 and was the scene of historicizing events under Kaiser Wilhelm II , which glorified the era of the Knights of the Order.
After the First World War , the population in the Marienwerder voting area voted on whether they would continue to belong to Germany or join Poland. The district of Marienburg voted 98.9 percent to remain with Germany, in the city of Marienburg, 9,641 people voted to remain with East Prussia, and Poland had 165 votes. The area was then annexed to East Prussia, which had remained German, when the German province of West Prussia was divided up and the Polish corridor was formed as the West Prussian government district. From 1920 to 1939 the Nogat formed the border between Germany and the Free City of Danzig . The Marienburg district of Kalthof , west of the Nogat , belonged to the Free City of Danzig in those years.
The number of inhabitants increased from 12,983 to 21,039 between 1910 and 1925 and reached a level of 26,159 in 1939. At that time, in addition to the aforementioned grammar school, there was a higher agricultural school with an attached secondary school and a lyceum in the city . Thanks to the good transport connections - Marienburg was a railway junction on the Berlin - Königsberg - Eydtkuhnen , M. - Deutsch-Eylau lines . M.– Thorn , M.– Allenstein and M.– Tiegenhof , owned a river and airport - rubber , parquet , soap , sugar , roofing felt , malt and cigar factories had settled, as well as a sand-lime brick and one Sawmill . One of the best-known mayor of Marienburg was the reigning from 1918 to 1933 Hindenburg's confidant Bernhard Pawelcik . In the November pogrom of 1938 the Marienburg synagogue was destroyed.
At Königsdorf, east of Marienburg, a small civil airport opened in 1929 ( Malbork military airfield since the 1950s ), which was taken over by the Air Force in 1934 . During the Second World War , the Marienburg branch of the Bremen aircraft manufacturer Focke-Wulf was located there, which manufactured half of all Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter aircraft . The plant was badly hit in two air raids by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) on October 9, 1943 and April 9, 1944.
Towards the end of World War II, the Red Army conquered the Marienburg area on January 25, 1945 as part of their East Prussian operation . The battles for castle and town lasted until March 9, 1945, 80% of the old town was destroyed and the castle was also badly damaged. Most of the more than 27,000 residents had fled before. The ruins of the castle, which had been destroyed on the land side, remained, the Gothic town hall, the Gothic town church, the two town gates (pottery gate and Marientor gate) and the town wall. The Red Army placed the city under the administration of the People's Republic of Poland . This renamed Marienburg in Malbork, drove out the remaining inhabitants and settled it with Poles .
The castle complex was rebuilt and renovated after the Second World War. The reconstruction was largely carried out in the style of the time it was built. The roof of the large Remter, preserved from the Middle Ages , burned down in 1959. In 1997 the UNESCO declared the castle complex a world heritage site. The old town was rebuilt with abandonment of the historical floor plan, so that among other things the picturesque arcades of the patrician houses on the market ("Hohen" and "Niederen" arcades) were lost and the historic town hall in the middle of the new two- and three-storey open residential buildings looks out of place. The number of inhabitants grew continuously from 22,500 (1955) to over 38,000.
In October 2008, a mass grave with more than 2,100 dead was found during civil engineering work for a luxury hotel . The exact circumstances of death and who the victims were could not yet be conclusively clarified (as of 2014). However, all victims are attributed to the then German population of Marienburg. On August 14, 2009, all 2116 dead were buried at the German military cemetery in Neumark near Stare Czarnowo with an ecumenical service .
- Population development until 1945
|1783||4,575||without the garrison and civilians belonging to it (12 companies of infantry, 819 people in total)|
|1867||8,219||including 4,875 Evangelicals, 2,873 Catholics, 144 Mennonites and 317 Jews|
|1890||10,279||of which 6,027 Protestants, 3,816 Catholics and 217 Jews|
|1905||13,095||of which 7,739 Protestants, 4,831 Catholics and 165 Jews (97.4% Germans)|
|1925||21,039||thereof 13,039 Evangelicals, 7,731 Catholics, 41 other Christians and 179 Jews|
|1933||25.121||of which 15,444 Protestants, 9,414 Catholics, one other Christian and 133 Jews|
|1939||26,159||15,590 Protestants, 9,689 Catholics, 168 other Christians and 34 Jews|
- Population since 1945
→ Main article: Marienburg (Ordensburg)
The Marienburg was the most important castle of the Teutonic Knights and from 1309 to 1457 the seat of the grand masters. Construction began in 1272, and after its completion at the beginning of the 14th century it was considered the most powerful fortress in Europe.
Parish Church of St. John
St. John's Church, located in the north-west of the city near the castle, was built in its current floor plan between 1468 and 1523 after the previous building from the 13th century was completely destroyed in the Thirteen Years War around 1460. The three-aisled hall church was built as a Gothic brick building. The tower in front of the middle of the south front with its massive square substructure and the wooden bell storey was built last and was not completed until 1635. In 1668 a fire destroyed the western part of the building, which was not rebuilt. The east facade was given its present appearance in 1851. At the end of the Second World War , the roof and the bell storey of the tower were destroyed, the vaults partially broken through. The reconstruction could not be completed until 1979. Most of the interior was preserved, the inventory dates from the 16th century. Two baptismal fonts were made in the 14th century, and a figure of Saint Elisabeth of Thuringia around 1410. The neo-Gothic pulpit was created in the 19th century.
Old Town Hall
The town hall was completed in 1380 in the brick Gothic style . It is one of the few remaining buildings in the city from the time of the order. After the Second World War, the city's cultural center moved into this building. The original building was partially destroyed in the Thirteen Years War and rebuilt in its present form between 1457 and 1460. The north gable of the original building is decorated with panels, while the south gable from the 15th century has half-arches. In the basement with vaults there is an arcade , the upper floor is structured by flat pilaster strips , the windows with stone crosses are inserted in pointed arches. The roof turret with its tapering attachment in the middle of the gable roof had to be replaced after a fire in 1899 and after the destruction of the Second World War. The former courtroom is only closed off by a dome-like vault resting on ribs.
The Plauener Wall, a complicated wall-ditch-kennel system with a partially quadruple wall ring, was built on the orders of Heinrich von Plauen in the middle of the 15th century. Between 1656 and 1659 the Swedes built further defensive walls in the northern and eastern aprons, parts of the facilities have been preserved. To the west on the Nogat is the Recket Tower, also called the Buttermilk Tower, from the 15th century. It was reconstructed after the Second World War. The twelve meter high and nine meter wide Gothic pottery gate stands in the east and was only slightly damaged in 1945. The destroyed roof was restored in 1955. The Marientor to the south is ten meters high and eight meters wide. It was also built in the Gothic style around the middle of the 14th century and increased in size in the 16th century. Destroyed to the ground in 1945, its reconstruction could not be completed until 1964.
To the south of the village is the Malbork Commonwealth War Cemetery , where British soldiers from the First and Second World Wars are buried. Is located in the cemetery beyond the Malbork Memorial, which since the 1960s 39 dead British POWs from the time of World War I, on the cemetery of Lidzbark Warmiński is thought are buried.
- Water tower, neo-Gothic before 1900
- Barracks complex from the Wilhelminian era around 1890
- Malbork station, brick building from the Wilhelminian era around 1890
- Monument to Casimir IV. Andrew, called the Jagiellonian, who entered Marienburg as King of Poland on June 7, 1457 and took possession of the castle as the new royal seat. In 2010 the 3.48 m high bronze monument was erected on the central town square
Economy and Infrastructure
The airfield to the east of the center, which was laid out in German times, is used exclusively for military purposes.
Malbork is located on the Nogatquerung of the former Prussian Eastern Railway , here today's Warsaw – Gdańsk railway line . The Malbork – Braniewo railway , also part of the former Prussian Eastern Railway, and the Toruń – Malbork railway begins and ends in Malbork. The narrow-gauge railway Lisewo – Malbork , the narrow-gauge railway Malbork – Nowy Dwór Gdański and the narrow-gauge railway Malbork – Świetliki of the Żuławska Kolej Dojazdowa are closed.
Malbork maintains town twinning with
- Nordhorn , Lower Saxony
- Margny-lès-Compiègne , France
- Solvesborg , Sweden
- Trakai , Lithuania
- Monheim am Rhein , North Rhine-Westphalia
sons and daughters of the town
- Achatius Cureus (1531–1594), author and neo-Latin poet
- Count Gerhard Dönhoff (1590–1648), castellan of Danzig
- Nathanael Theodor von Paulitz (~ 1735–1786), Prussian district administrator
- Friedrich John (1769–1843), engraver
- Friedrich von Gayl (1776-1853), General
- Ferdinand Friedrich Wilhelm Werner von Podewils (1801–1881), major general
- Karl Johann Cosack (1813–1868), Protestant theologian
- Adalbert Krüger (1832-1896), astronomer
- Bernhard Stadié (1833–1895), pastor, West Prussian historian, publisher
- Carl Legien (1861–1920), member of the Reichstag for the SPD
- Martin Spahn (1875–1945), historian, politician and publicist
- Bruno Kurowski (1879–1944), central politician in the Free City of Danzig
- Friedrich Hayduck (1880–1961), brewing scientist and professor for chemical technology at the Agricultural University in Berlin
- Kurt Neumann-Kleinpaul (1882–1958), rector of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Berlin
- Walther Grosse (1884–1969), general and military historian
- Max Draeger (1885–1945), President of the Königsberg Higher Regional Court
- Philip Rosen (1888–1951), filmmaker in the USA
- Conrad Patzig (1888–1975), admiral
- Ottomar Schreiber (1889–1955), founder of the East Prussian Landsmannschaft
- Erich Kamke (1890–1961), mathematician
- Erich Abraham (1895–1971), General
- Bruno Hartmann (1898–1963), educator and politician
- Harry von Rosen-von Hoewel (1904–2003), lawyer, ministerial official and federal judge
- Heinz-Günter Stamm (1907–1978), actor, radio play and theater director
- Ulrich Sporleder (1911–1944), Protestant pastor (Confessing Church) and officer in the resistance against National Socialism
- Heinz Galinski (1912–1992), President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany
- Alfred Struwe (1927–1998), film and television actor
- Hartmut Boockmann (1934–1998), historian
- Ulrich K. Preuß (* 1939), German legal and political scientist
- Klaus Ampler (1940–2016), racing cyclist and trainer
- Wolfgang Barthels (* 1940), football player
- Dietmar Lutz (* 1941), lawyer and editor
- Roland Kutzki (* 1942), architect and urban planner
- Grzegorz Lato (born 1950), football player
- Katarzyna Rosłaniec (* 1980), film director
- Rafał Murawski (* 1981), football player
- Sławomir Zemlik (* 1992), volleyball player
- Bartosz Pietruczuk (* 1993), volleyball player
Malbork rural community
Malbork is the seat of a rural community of the same name, but is not itself part of it. The rural community, which almost completely covers the city, has an area of 101 km², on which 4804 people live (June 30, 2019).
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Part II, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 16-18, No. 2).
- August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore or description of Prussia. A manual for primary school teachers in the province of Prussia, as well as for all friends of the fatherland. Bornträger Brothers, Königsberg 1835, pp. 422–430, no. 34.
- Isaac Gottfried Goedtke: Church history of the city of Marienburg from the year 1548–1766. In: Preußische Provinzial-Blätter , Volume 21 (1839), Pages 15-30 , Pages 137-153 and Pages 254-268 .
- Johannes Voigt : History of Marienburg, the city and the main house of the German knight order in Prussia. Königsberg 1824. ( online via Google books )
- Hermann Eckerdt: History of the Marienburg district. Bretschneider, Marienburg 1868 ( e-copy ).
- Ludwig Lucas : Historical news of the city and castle Marienburg in Prussia. In: Contributions to the customer of East Prussia , Volume 2, Königsberg 1819.
- Bernhard Pawelcik : Marienburg. Publishing company for urban development, Berlin 1930.
- Erich Weise (Hrsg.): Handbook of historical places . Volume: East and West Prussia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 317). Unchanged reprint of the 1st edition 1966. Kröner, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-520-31701-X .
- Dehio-Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler: West Prussia and East Prussia. Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-422-03025-5 .
- Dorna Maciej: The Brothers of the Teutonic Order in Prussia 1228–1309. A prosopographical study. Translated from Polish by Martin Faber. Böhlau, Vienna et al. 2012, ISBN 978-3-412-20958-2 .
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- Website of the city, Władze Miasta - Burmistrz Miasta Malborka , accessed on April 12, 2015
- L. Wiese: The higher school system in Prussia. Historical-statistical representation. Berlin 1864, pp. 75-76
- Historical view from 1729: Delineatio Geometrica Arcis et Civitatis MARIENBURGENSIS in Borussia obsessae February 7th. Et captae 28. Eiusd. from Exercitus Suecici sub ductu Illustriss. Et excellent. D [omi] n [i]. Gustavi Ottonis Steenbock Comitis in Bogesund Baronis de Oresten et Kronebbeek. Regni Sueciae Supremi Rei Armamentariae Praefecti. Anno 1656 (...) Gustavi Magni Regis Sueciae . ( Digitized version )
- Herbert Marzian , Csaba Kenez : self-determination for East Germany. Documentation on the 50th anniversary of the East and West Prussian referendum on July 11, 1920. Göttinger Arbeitskreis , 1970, p. 127
- Article "Marienburg in West Prussia" in: Der Große Brockhaus, 15th edition .
- Website of the Malbork Tourist Information Office, Historia - Ryszard Rząd , accessed on October 27, 2014
- The potter Thor in Malbork , the Central Journal of the building administration , no. 43, October 25, 1884 p 439, retrieved on 1 January 2013
- The mirror "The Secret of the Bones"
- www.volksbund.de: "The investigation of the dead of Marienburg"
- NY Times Facing German Suffering, and Not Looking Away
- IPN, PRZEGLĄD MEDIÓW - 6 stycznia 2009, archived copy ( memento of the original dated June 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. and PRZEGLĄD MEDIÓW - 15 stycznia 2009, archived copy ( memento of the original dated June 30, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia . Part II, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 16-18, No. 2).
- Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 3: Kr – O , Halle 1822, p. 156, item 470.
- August Eduard Preuss : Prussian country and folklore or description of Prussia. A manual for primary school teachers in the province of Prussia, as well as for all friends of the fatherland . Bornträger Brothers, Königsberg 1835, pp. 422–430, no. 34.
- Gustav Neumann: Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 40-42, item 3.
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Marienburg district in West Prussia (Polish Malbork). (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Community for the province of West Prussia: based on the materials from the census of December 1, 1905 and other official sources, pp. 76-77.