Outer bailey

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Vorburg of Pyrmont Castle

A bailey is that part of a castle in which there are buildings that are used for the management of the facility or are necessary for the supply of the castle residents. These farm buildings include not only workshops , stables and the Marstall also storage spaces like barns , storage and scales , but also servants houses as accommodation for staff such as maids , servants and castle or vassals . In addition, there is often a brewery and a bakeryand Kitchen, the kitchen does not sodenn in Palas the castle is located. Vorburgen are often referred to as a farm yard.

The term outer bailey is also common for the farm buildings of castles , whereby this often includes a coach house or guest accommodation such as cavalier houses , i.e. buildings that were not yet common in medieval castles. Large complexes often have more than just one outer bailey, as is the case, for example, with Monschau Castle and Bürresheim Castle . In the case of larger castles, markets were also held within the outer bailey (cf. Suburbium ).

Most of the outer castles are secured by their own curtain wall and separated from the actual living area of ​​the castle -  called the core castle - by a moat , a wall and a gate.

In the case of low-lying castles on land, the outer bailey is usually grouped in the shape of a crescent directly around the core bailey. In the case of moated castles , these two areas are usually located on two separate islands, and the side of the outer bailey facing the main castle is almost always undeveloped. In the case of hilltop castles , the conditions of the terrain had to be taken into account during construction, so that in such systems the outer bailey is usually a little lower than the core bailey. The Rudelsburg in Saxony-Anhalt is an example of the rarer case in which the core and outer bailey were on the same level . There are isolated cases in which the castle area is too small to accommodate farm and supply buildings in addition to the main castle; like for example the Veste Heldburg . As an exception, the outer bailey is not located in the immediate vicinity of the core bailey, but further away, for example in the valley below the core system.

As a rule, the outer bailey is on the access side of a system. In many cases, the main access to the main castle is through the outer bailey, which not only provides additional protection for the manorial living area, but also a kind of defensive buffer and which in the past often served as a refuge for the population of the surrounding country. This also explains why the chapel of a castle complex can often be found in the outer bailey: It also functioned as a parish church for the population.


Individual evidence

  1. Herbert de Caboga-Stuber: Small Castle Studies. Reprint of the 1961 edition. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne [1993], ISBN 3-7972-0496-X , p. 33.
  2. Michael Losse : Small Castle Studies. 2nd Edition. Regionalia, Euskirchen 2011, ISBN 978-3-939722-39-7 , p. 49.
  3. G. Ulrich Großmann: The world of castles. History, architecture, culture. 2013, p. 96.