Storage buildings in use are referred to as barn (Upper German also Scheuer , Stadel , Schupfen , Swiss German Schüür , Upper Swabian Schuir , Schopf , Gade ) . It also serves as a storage room for a wide range of operating resources (e.g. agricultural equipment ) and as a roofed workspace for upstream and downstream processing steps in the agricultural production process (preparation of goods, vehicle repair and maintenance).
According to the structural design as well as the geographical arrangement, three basic types can be distinguished.
- Barns that are structurally integrated into the house are classified as tracts .
- Structurally from residential buildings (the farmhouse ) remote barns are building law as so-called in Germany outbuildings , in Switzerland as a farm building called.
- Free-standing small buildings on agricultural land are designated, depending on the actual use at the location, a field barn (in arable land), hay barn, haystack (on hay meadows) or game barn (for feeding game). However, these buildings are a completely independent design and cannot be compared with the barn on a farm.
Typing and linguistic derivation of the names
According to the basic meaning, the word Schupfen lives on in the Upper German- speaking area .
The Schober always referred to the storage pile in fields and meadows ( Diemen ). In the course of history, this term was also used to include small agricultural buildings.
In the English-speaking cultural area, barns, as well as stable buildings , are called barn . In addition, in the course of history, German-speaking settlers in Pennsylvania have even developed an independent type of barn called a Dutch barn . This in turn should be distinguished from the barn types of the same name in New Jersey, which were introduced by Dutch settlers.
Components and forms of use
Barns are primarily used for weatherproof storage of agricultural resources and secure storage of the raw products from the original production. The barn is also used as a weatherproof place of work, for example for the further processing of the preparation as well as the typical packaging. The usual maintenance processes, such as repair and maintenance of typical equipment, are also carried out in barns.
Historically, barns were often divided into several work areas:
- The drive , a part of the building that enables access by car, according to the type of hallway in the house, and which also serves as a garage for setting up the transport vehicles and agricultural machinery .
- The threshing floor was primarily used to describe the work area where the grain was threshed out stationary before the invention of the combine harvester .
- For example, the bans as storage rooms for grain were arranged by the threshing floor . Here, in particular, the grain shells that had yet to be threshed were stored and then the threshed grain stored in layers.
- Floors are various false ceilings that delimit parts or entire floors. Depending on the use, this is called a hayloft , the storage room for the hay , i.e. the feed for the cattle, straw floor (for litter ), grain floor and the like.
How these parts are arranged to each other and to the other basic elements of the farm ( living rooms , various stables , other storage and work spaces) is very diverse and depends on regional customs of work processes, on the farming methods and the range of cultivated products and livestock landscape and often the size of the property. This gives rise to the numerous basic and local types of courtyard forms :
- The barn that is structurally integrated into the house is called a courtyard , that is, all functional wings form one building
- Free-standing barns combine, for example, to form the Paarhof , with the stable belonging either to the house or the barn, or the various forms of the group courtyard , which are even more distributed
Field barn and hay barn far away from the farm are found where harvest logistics require intermediate storage before onward transport (e.g. in landscapes of widely distributed corridors or unsafe local climates). Above all, they are a defining landscape element in some grassland-dominated landscape areas and serve, among other things, to accommodate the mowed hay or straw in a weatherproof storage room away from the courtyard property. Often the harvest was only finally brought in in winter, when it is easier to transport with sleds than with wagons.
In addition to the arrangement of barns as individual buildings on individual parcels, there are also barn districts . These are areas in which barns were built in a physiognomically connected corridor away from the villages. In the past, this was done because of the imminent danger that possible fires could affect neighboring residential areas or towns.
Barns can be determined in more detail according to their function and construction according to certain criteria. As farm buildings, for example, they can be separated from the stable , which is more solid to protect the cattle. As far as the building materials are concerned, the barns are usually more simply built than the other courtyard buildings . In this area, for example, it is characteristic that the subsurface of a level hall floor often only consisted of tamped clay in the past . In most cases, large building gates were created to give vehicles the opportunity to pass through the barn in the facility operation. The latter property has been preserved to this day and is almost imperative due to the high level of mechanization with partly large-format agricultural machinery . In older buildings, these barn doors are usually designed with two leaves or as sliding doors. Nowadays, due to the interior design and functionality, roller gates are mainly used, which can be opened and closed in vertical guide rails. The gates are used in the opposite outer walls, regardless of the roof arrangement (gable or eaves side), to ensure that the machines can drive through. In this case, it is referred to as a drive-through barn. This is mostly not done on a hillside. A level access to the upper barn floor is possible here. In some regions, the barns could also be driven across and a ramp was built on one gable side , on which the second level could also be accessed.
Some also have attics in barns. This applies in particular to combined farm buildings in which a stable building is integrated into the barn parallel to the barn passage along the entire length of the barn.
Restored barn in the Scheunenviertel in Neubruchhausen
Scheunenviertel in Kremmen
Historic barn, Arkansas
Raising the combined barn and stable building at the Rhönhof
High entrance in the Ore Mountains - Schönheide
- Karl Baumgarten : Carpentry in Mecklenburg - The Barn , Berlin 1961.
- Judith Breuer: barns and other storage buildings. How to deal with their monument-relevant features in the event of a conversion. In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg , 36th year 2007, issue 4, pp. 223–230 ( PDF ).
- Robert F. Ensminger, Pennsylvania Barn. Its Origin, Evolution and Distribution in North America , Baltimore 1995.
- Anke Fissabre, Klaus Schmidt and Andrea Sonnleitner, half-timbered barns in Berlin and Brandenburg , Petersberg 2003 (preservation of monuments in Berlin and Brandenburg, vol. 1).
- Hermann Hinz : 'Entrance gate and harvest recovery', in: Bonner Jahrbücher 158 (1958), pp. 118–125.
- Malcolm Kirk, The Barn. Silent Spaces , Londen 1994.
- Günther Knesch, 'statliche Scheunen im Rottal', in: Bayerisches Jahrbuch für Volkskunde (2006), pp. 87–91
- Otto S. Knottnerus, Haubarg, Barghaus, Bargscheune and their medieval predecessors: materials on the prehistory of the Gulfscheune . In: Problems of coastal research in the southern North Sea region 32 (2008), pp. 105–125, also in: Der Maueranker: Baupflege in Nordfriesland, Dithmarschen and fishing 30 (October 2011), volume 3, pp. 7–29 ( bibliography online ) .
- Erik Roth: The barn as a historical testimony - even after a change of use? In: Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg , 36th year 2007, issue 4, pp. 219–222 ( PDF ).
- Klaus Wolfgang Schmidt, The Development of Barn Architecture in Brandenburg and Berlin. Half-timbered barns closed laterally after the 30 Years War until the middle of the 19th century , dissertation at the Technical University of Berlin, Berlin 2007.
- Petra Wichmann: Farm death and structural decay in our villages. Barn conversion instead of demolition. In: Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg , 36th year 2007, issue 4, pp. 204–210 ( PDF ).
- Petra Wichmann, Hermann Ringhof: barns as cultural monuments. On the construction task, the history of its importance and today's monument protection. In: Denkmalpflege in Baden-Württemberg , 36th year 2007, issue 4, pp. 211–218 ( PDF ).
- Terms & Abbreviations. Institute for Building Hygiene, accessed on October 1, 2017 (Swiss Standard German).
- Entry in DWDS (accessed on June 2, 2013)
- cf. for example hay stalls (also for storage rooms in general). In: Wilhelm Stadelmann: The building management in the Kingdom of Bavaria on this side of the Rhine: edited alphabetically on the basis of the Allerh. Building regulations of June 30, 1864, the Criminal and Police Penal Code, the Commercial Instructions of April 21, 1862,… . Verlag Buchner, 1864, p. 57 ( Google eBook, full view ).
- See Heuschober , Wiktionary - evidence there.
- The conceptual demarcation of this agricultural building in the Anglican-speaking area to the stable is partly different to the German classification.
- In this way, for example, the Scheunenhofviertel in Dresden, which is still called today, was created, which was built outside the city walls in the last quarter of the 17th century after a city fire.