|High school, lyceum|
|Type of school (general)||general secondary school|
|ISCED level||2 + 3A|
Primary school diploma ,
u. U. aptitude tests
levels : from 5
standard age from 10
A gymnasium ( plural : schools ), partly Lyzeum (plural secondary schools ), a secondary school of secondary formation area , which for university entrance leads. The start and length of training in a grammar school depends on the school system in question. A student in a high school is called a high school student (or obsolete lyceist ).
Gymnasium is the Latinized form of the Greek γυμνάσιον Gymnásion . In ancient Greece a gymnasium was a place of physical and mental training for the male youth, but the focus was on the physical. In the gymnasiums, people trained in the nude, which is evident in the origin of the word ( Greek γυμνός gymnós 'naked') as well as in gymnastics (from Greek γυμνάζομαι gymnázomai ' gymnastics with a completely naked body'). The establishment of such a high school can be traced back to the pentathlete Ikkos of Taranto (Taras), who rose to become γυμνάστης ('gymnast') as the best coach of his time . In addition, a high school was an institution such as B. was to be found in Alexandria, where one could be philosophically and scientifically active.
Lyceum is derived from the Lyceum of antiquity, a grove near Athens dedicated to Apollon Lykeios , in which the famous Aristotle Gymnasion took place. This is why the name is used later when one means schools that serve “aesthetic” education (i.e. higher education ). The name is particularly found in Austria and southern Germany for Latin and scholar schools .
At the end of the 19th century, the German high school for girls (a girls 'school that supplements the previously non-existent higher education for female pupils) is called the “Lyceum” in order to differentiate it from the boys' “Gymnasium”, which also has a sporty one Exercise in the sense of the mens sana in corpore sano aims: Girls' sport was unthinkable until the 1910s (if only because of the dress code , quite apart from the indecent reference to nudity). The term can therefore be found in many girls' high schools as a school name.
In the Romance and Slavic language areas, this distinction between lyceum and grammar school is not known. French Lycée , Italian Liceo , Spanish Liceo , Portuguese Liceu , rum. Liceu , Russian Лицей Licej , Serbian Лицеј Licej , Turkish Lise , Finnish. Lyseo / lukio generally stands for either the German term Gymnasium in today's sense or for lower-level high school / secondary level I. The neo-Greek. Λύκειο Lýkeio and the Polish Liceum (since the 1990s) refer to the upper secondary school , the upper secondary level, while Γυμνάσιο Gymnasio or Polish Gimnazjum means the (comprehensive) school for the lower secondary level. In Czech, the Gymnázium is the general upper secondary school leading to higher education entrance qualifications.
In the Anglo-Saxon world and in the Anglo-Saxon-influenced education systems around the world, the term grammar school is not used for an educational institution. It is only found here occasionally as a school name when a classical humanistic orientation is to be indicated. In general, the word gymnasium (or gym for short ) in Anglo-Saxon usage means "gym", "training room" or "fitness studio".
Development of grammar schools in German-speaking countries
The beginnings of scholarly instruction in modern times were monastery schools and city schools in the Middle Ages . These were mostly church institutions that primarily served the training of prospective priests. In Protestant areas, with the Reformation in the 16th century, these schools were also often converted into Latin schools , the supervision of which changed to the sovereigns or the city councils. The main goal of school education remained the acquisition of Latin, and increasingly also Greek, language skills for reading the Bible. The designation as grammar school was common in the early modern period for both Protestant ( Philipp Melanchthon ) and Catholic ( Jesuit school ) learned schools that qualified for study . Many grammar schools were also directly connected to a high school at which it was possible to study. They were called Gymnasium academicum or Gymnasium illustrious . It was not until the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century that German , modern foreign languages (mainly French ) and natural sciences became increasingly popular .
In the Habsburg Empire, various school reforms in 1735, 1752 and finally 1764 reformed the curriculum of the grammar schools and expanded state influence. For example, the humanistic grammar school should only have six classes, with Greek being transferred to the university. Finally, in 1770, the k. k. Studienhofkommission printed a compilation of the textbooks used at grammar schools.
Classical teaching in Prussia was temporarily strengthened after 1800 by neo-humanism and Wilhelm von Humboldt . In the Kingdom of Prussia, a decree dated November 12, 1812, gymnasium became an official, uniform name for schools that were released directly to university . The decree was based on an initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, which was intended to ensure a uniform higher level. In the German-speaking countries from this point on, there were repeated reforms of both the higher schools themselves and their administration. Contrary to the “prejudice prevailing in public opinion”, the German grammar school of the 19th century was not a “school of the upper class”.
Gymnasium classes for girls were only allowed in Germany at the end of the 19th century. The first girls' grammar school in what is now Germany was founded by the Women's Education Reform Association under the direction of Hedwig Kettler in Karlsruhe in 1893 . A turning point occurred in the German Empire at the end of the 19th century with demands for education in natural sciences and modern foreign languages as a result of world trade and the beginning of modernity . In Germany, the humanistic grammar school , the Realgymnasium and the Oberrealschule have led to the Abitur with equal rights since 1900 . In the Weimar Republic, the Richert grammar school reform supplemented this with the German Oberschule . For the girls' grammar schools in Prussia , the year 1908 was decisive, in which the state committed itself to also providing for higher education for girls and thus to enable women to have comprehensive university access.
Before the Second World War , the Wehrmacht was considerably upgraded by officer cadets, as a decree of November 30, 1936 shortened the higher education period. At boys' grammar schools, the 12th grades had to take the final exams in March 1937, the 13th grades left the higher school without a written exam. The written Abitur examination after the 12th grade was not introduced at girls’s schools until Easter 1940.
With the division of Germany in 1948/49, the further development split: In the Federal Republic of Germany the nine-year grammar school of the Weimar Republic was restored, in the GDR the school form was continued as a four-year high school and after the school reform in 1959 it was replaced by the extended high school (EOS).
"The Federal Republican high school emerged from the Third Reich with remarkable personal continuity". Denazification procedures rarely had serious consequences for high school teachers; even the burdened ones were considered indispensable. "A racist who in 1936 had advocated the end of the inflow of 'Jewish blood into the German national body', was able to become a respected member of the Biology Commission for Baden-Württemberg's high schools in 1955 without too much trouble."
Structure of high schools
A distinction is traditionally made between the specialist profiles
- Humanistic Gymnasium (HG) with a focus on ancient languages (Latin, ancient Greek),
- neusprachliche Gymnasium (NG) or linguistic Gymnasium (SG) with a focus on the new languages (formerly also called Athenaeum or Realgymnasium ) - see also bilingual teaching ; sometimes abbreviated as NGE (English), NGL (Latin) or NGF (French) depending on the first foreign language.
- Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Gymnasium (MNG), formerly: Realoberschule or Oberrealschule , in Austria Realgymnasium , in Bavaria since 2003 natural science-technology Gymnasium (NTG), since mathematics is taught equally intensively in all subject profiles.
Often the mathematical-scientific and modern-language profile are combined. In some federal states (e.g. North Rhine-Westphalia ) this subdivision has been officially abolished and only lives on in so far as some traditional schools maintain their own profile within the framework of generally binding regulations, for example only offering Latin as the first foreign language. In other countries, the subject profiles are filled with life through various lesson tables.
Special profiles have:
- Vocational high schools , e.g. technical high school , business high school (WG) with a focus on business administration and languages, economics high school (WWG), nutritional high school , agricultural high school , biotechnological high school , social science high school (SWG), health high school (GG), etc. v. a. m .;
- musisches Gymnasium (MuG) with a focus on the arts, music high school with music with a compulsory instrument;
- Sports high school with regard to the training of aspiring competitive athletes;
- European high school with a focus on languages, three foreign languages are taught, a fourth is possible as an elective;
- High schools with an International Baccalaureate degree ;
- Gymnasium upper level of the second educational path and evening grammar school .
Structure and grades
The high school course is divided into either
- Lower level,
- Intermediate and
- Upper school.
That depends on which educational qualifications are possible in the school system before the school leaving examination.
Traditional designations: In some German schools have traditionally been the grades five referred to thirteen (or twelve) with descending Latin numerals, starting from the conclusion of class ( fine , first ') to bottom ( sexta , sixth') was counted. Originally there were only six classes, which were later further subdivided.
|School class of
the high school
|8th grade||Sub-tertia||4th||U III|
|9th grade||Obertertia||5.||O III|
|10th class||Sub-second||6th||U II|
|11th grade||Obersekunda||7th||O II|
From this, the sixth to fourth as the lower level, the lower secondary to lower secondary as the intermediate level and the upper secondary to upper primary as the upper level.
High school teacher
Gymnasium teachers in Austria (until 1918 also in the German Reich) are usually addressed as “ professor ”, although strictly speaking this term is reserved for tenured (civil servant) teachers. This salutation was still common in Bavaria for a long time ("class professor"), but gradually disappeared after 1968. In Poland , the salutation “ panie profesorze ” or “ pani profesor ” ('Mr / Mrs Professor') is still common in everyday use at lycees (but not at grammar schools) .
High schools and lyceums in different countries
Federal Republic of Germany: Gymnasium
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the Gymnasium exists as an educational program in the structured school system in Germany, which provides “ pupils with an in- depth general education ”. Other types of school (for example vocational colleges ) use the designation gymnasiale Oberstufe . The term high school used to refer exclusively to the grammar school; today the colloquial term also includes other types of schools . A high school for girls was formerly called the Lyceum .
After the Second World War, in Directive No. 53 of 1947, the Allies demanded the establishment of a comprehensive school system in which there would have been no room for the traditional grammar school. In the GDR , the secondary school was introduced to obtain the university entrance qualification. After joining the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 , the grammar school was reintroduced in the five new federal states.
In Germany, the grammar school begins in most federal states with grade five ( sixth grade ), in Berlin and Brandenburg after the six-year elementary school has finished . In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , pupils have been attending the regional school together in fifth and sixth grades since 2006 . In Lower Saxony there was an orientation stage in grades five and six for all pupils from 1972 to 2004 , in Bremen from 1977 to 2005 . The grammar schools only started in grade seven at this time.
The regular training period at a grammar school up to the Abitur (general higher education entrance qualification ) is usually nine school years (graduation after grade thirteen, or G9 for short). In Saxony and Thuringia , even after joining the Federal Republic of Germany, there were still eight school years, i.e. graduation after grade twelve. From 2004 onwards, all federal states made it possible to complete eight years of high school (Abitur in the twelfth grade, shortened course of study, G8 for short). In Rhineland-Palatinate , since the 2002 Abitur class, after a shortened schooling period, the Abitur has been available after twelve and a half years of total schooling.
In some countries, the curricula or framework plans for the grammar schools of the ministries of education determine basic training content and their placement in the curriculum according to defined branches . In other countries the traditional branches have been abolished through student choice. Depending on the school funding or personnel expenses , a distinction is made between state, municipal and private (also church) high schools. From the private or church high schools, state-recognized and state-approved high schools lead to the Abitur examination. Due to the school financing laws, all private high schools are financed to around 65 to 85 percent from public funds.
In the 2005/2006 school year there were 3,096 grammar schools in Germany (24 fewer than in the previous year) with 2.43 million students (around 27,000 more than in the previous year). The students were taught in 62,430 classes by 163,500 teachers (73.6 percent of whom were women). In 2007, 1,701,109 high school students attended secondary level I and 763,891 high school students attended upper secondary level. The secondary level I students were taught by 97,220 teachers, the upper secondary level II students by 56,555 teachers. In the school year 2008/2009 2,468,949 attended the grammar school. There were 3,070 grammar schools in Germany in the 2008/2009 school year.
Denmark: high school
The grammar school in Denmark corresponds to the grammar school upper level and lasts three years. It begins after the nine or ten year Folkeskole (comparable to the German comprehensive school ). In addition to the high school (STX), there is the commercial high school (HHX) and the technical high school (HTX) as a secondary school.
In France , the equivalent of the upper secondary level in German-speaking countries is called Lycée and prepares students for the Baccalauréat , which is issued for a wide variety of academic subjects and professional activities. In France, around 40 percent of the working population have such a qualification. What is special about the French system is that the baccalauréat is a university degree despite a high school education: the final exams are conducted by the university and a passed baccalauréat entitles you to study at a university in any case.
Greece / Cyprus: Gymnasio - Lykeio
In Greece and Cyprus , the Gymnasio Γυμνάσιο is the common lower secondary level / lower level for all students between the ages of 12 and 15 with the Esperino Gymnasio (evening high school) as a special form. The Greek Γενικό Λύκειο Geniko lykeio , German 'Allgemeine Lyzeum, Gesamtschule ' follows as a secondary level II / upper level in the general education sector, there is also the Tehnika Epangelmatika Ekpedeftiria TEE (vocational training institutions). These types have existed since the 1997/98 school reform.
UK: Grammar Schools
In Great Britain there are grammar schools that roughly correspond to German-speaking grammar schools. However, today there are only a few grammar schools, as many closed from Labor or in comprehensive schools ( comprehensive schools ) were converted. Many of the well-known grammar schools like King Edward's in Birmingham, however, did not want to give up the principle of selection and therefore became public schools (private schools).
Italy: Liceo / high school
There are six types of grammar schools (Liceo) in Italy :
- The humanistic grammar school (Liceo Classico) focuses on the humanistic field and on the ancient languages Latin and Greek.
- The Realgymnasium (Liceo Scientifico) focuses on mathematics and the natural sciences.
- The pedagogical high school (Liceo delle Scienze umane) focuses on pedagogy and social affairs.
- The modern language grammar school (Liceo Linguistico) focuses on modern foreign languages.
- The Art High School (Liceo Artistico) focuses on art education.
- The musical high school (Liceo Musicale e coreutico) focuses on music and dance.
The first four grammar schools have in common that they provide a good basis of general knowledge, teach Latin and philosophy and are geared towards further studies. The art high school does not teach Latin and the general education component is secondary to the artistic component.
Canada: University-preparatory schools
University-preparatory schools also exist in Canada .
Lithuania: high school
Lithuania maintains the Lithuanian grammar school.
Luxembourg: Classical Lyceum
The Classical Lyceum ( Lycée classique ) begins in Luxembourg in the 7th grade and ends after the 13th school year with the diplôme de fin d'études secondaires , which enables access to university studies. The language of instruction in the 7th grade is German (with the exception of mathematics lessons), from grade 8 onwards French. The classic lyceum selects around a third of Luxembourgish students.
Netherlands: Gymnasium, Atheneum
Austria: Gymnasium / AHS
|Collective name for high school
|requirement||Completed elementary school in crossing from high school minimum grades|
|Duration||4 or 8 years, rarely 9
levels : 5th
/ 9th– 12th (8th, 13th) school level Standard age 10 / 14–18 (14.19)
|Graduation||Matriculation examination ( Matura )|
|School types||Gymnasium (G), Realgymnasium (RG), Wirtschaftskundliches Gymnasium (WRG), advanced and advanced high school (AG / ARG), Werkschulheim (WSH); pure lower and upper school forms as well as for employed persons|
|number||340 - (2011/12)|
|student||200,742 - (2011/12)|
|prefixed B… sponsored by the federal government|
type of school
|ISCED level||2 + 3A (rarely only 2)|
|Classification (national)||General education school / General education secondary school (13.2)|
|Duration||8 (4) years
Levels : 5th – 12th (8th) school level
Standard age 10–18
|Graduation||Matriculation examination ( Matura )|
Humanistic grammar school , modern language grammar school , music grammar school , sports grammar school , other focus areas;
Cooperative middle school (KMS, lower level form)
|number||204 - (2012)|
|Bundesgymnasium (BG)… sponsored by the federal government|
The classic types of Gymnasium (G) in Austria are:
- humanistic grammar school , whichfocuses on humanistic subjects (especially the cultural languages Latin and ancient Greek ); traditional forms called academic high school and
- Modern language grammar school with a focus on living foreign languages (mainly French , Italian and Spanish ).
Further types of schools that can be distinguished from the grammar school in the strict sense of the word are:
- Realgymnasium (RG) with a focus on natural sciences,
- Wirtschaftskundliches Gymnasium (WRG) with a focus on economic subjects;
- Aufbaugymnasium / Aufbaurealgymnasium (AG / ARG), a rare upper school form;
- Gymnasium, Realgymnasium and business studies Realgymnasium for working people , i.e. post-secondary forms
- the music grammar school with a focus on cultural disciplines (music, artistic education, theater, dance, ...), in which graduates are also awarded;
- the sports grammar school, a higher school (mostly high school) for athletes with the option of offering young competitive athletes the opportunity to attend an AHS parallel to their sporting training and competitions in parallel to their sporting training and their competitions and to pass the school-leaving examination there (especially in Austria : Ski school ) with nine-year forms.
There are now numerous other transitional forms between the grammar schools, such as grammar schools with a school-independent focus on economics or computer science, ecology and others. There are also bilingual schools for minority languages or international schools .
In connection with the introduction of the New Middle School (NMS), which is replacing the Hauptschule (HS), there are also attempts at school in the lower grades, e.g. b. the Cooperative Middle School (KMS), which can also represent a collaboration with a secondary school.
In Austria there are currently 340 grammar schools of all types, of which 272 long-form with lower level, 7 without upper level, 108 only with upper level and 8 for working people, including 204 grammar schools, 152 secondary schools, 75 upper secondary secondary schools, 17 economic secondary schools, 4 advanced (real) secondary schools and 2 factory schools - many schools have several types. The grammar schools of all types make up a little over 5% of the schools in Austria (about 6200 in total), but they are attended by a total of about 200,000 students, that is 1 ⁄ 6 of all Austrian students.
The grammar school is divided into two sections, each usually lasting four years:
- Lower level ( secondary level I , 5th-8th grade)
- Upper level ( secondary level II , 9th-12th grade, rarely also 5 years old with 13th grade)
- In the 1960s, efforts were under way to extend the normal general high school to nine years. This was also done for two years. This project was then given up again.
The numbering of the classes usually starts anew with each school, i.e. the first class in the grammar school corresponds to the fifth grade (after the four years of elementary school ) and runs up to the eighth (ninth) grade, which takes the Matura , in the upper grades one counts first to fourth grade.
The curriculum of all these types of schools is uniform for the 1st and 2nd grade (5th / 6th grade), except for the schools with a special focus. From the fifth grade onwards, the first foreign language taught is usually English . In the humanistic and modern language profile, this is supplemented in the seventh grade by a second foreign language (e.g. Latin , Italian, French, Spanish) or the school branch that relates more to mathematics and the natural sciences is chosen (secondary school). The lower level of the Realgymnasium largely corresponds to the subjects of the Hauptschule . The transfer from the Hauptschule to a Gymnasium is possible if the student has attended the subjects German, mathematics and modern foreign language in the best ability group and all other subjects were assessed as satisfactory (3) or better (the grading scale in Austria comprises five grades: very good / 1, good / 2, satisfactory / 3, sufficient / 4, not sufficient / 5) - the regulation changes for the new middle school , as this type of school is run according to the AHS curriculum.
At the beginning of the upper level, an additional language is offered in all branches - a second language in the Realgymnasium, a third in modern-language and humanistic grammar schools . These are mostly French, Italian, Latin or Spanish, in the humanistic grammar school it is ancient Greek, Russian or French. From the tenth grade onwards, students can also set their own priorities. To do this, they have to invest a limited number of hours in compulsory elective subjects . These six compulsory elective subjects are to be distributed over the tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade (sixth, seventh and eighth grade). Students can invest more than six hours on a voluntary basis, but this must be approved by the school management. In the eleventh and twelfth grades, students can usually choose between the subjects of music education and art education . This decision is important if a student wants to graduate in one of these subjects. In the subject that a student does not choose, he cannot take a Matura.
Poland: Gimnazjum - Liceum
Since the Polish educational reform in 1999, the six-year primary school (szkoła podstawowa) has been followed by a three-year middle school called gimnazjum , which all pupils must attend. Following the gimnazjum , until compulsory schooling is fulfilled at the age of 18, either a 4-year technical high school or a two-year vocational school with various subjects (e.g. trade, tourism, health and social affairs) is attended or at a liceum ( high school - different variants) acquired the university entrance qualification in three years. The gimnazjum did not exist before 1999 , instead the liceum (four years) and other types of secondary school followed directly from the elementary school (eight years).
Since 2017 the "gimnazjum" has been abolished and the "liceum" has become a four-year school again.
See also Poland Education .
Switzerland: Cantonal school
In Switzerland, the grammar school is referred to as a canton school in some cantons , in others as a grammar school , also middle school, seminarium can be found, French-speaking cantons call the grammar school Gymnase , Collège (college) or, rarely, Lycée , Italian Liceo (lyceum) based on the French-Italian school type. It is a pure form of upper secondary level and lasts three to four years. In addition, there is a preliminary level, the Unter- / Progymnasium (three years), then the schools as a long-term high school (LZG) are six to seven years old. There are numerous focus types (letter code of the profiles).
In 2003 there were 170 grammar schools in Switzerland with 63,400 students. Since 1993/1994 the proportion of women has been greater than the proportion of men and in 2003/2004 it was 56 percent. In 2004 around 16,000 high school diplomas were issued and in 2010 around 18,900.
In Slovenia , the Gimnazija is a general high school after successfully completing nine years of elementary school (osnovna šola). The training lasts four years and is completed with the general higher education entrance qualification (matura).
Czech Republic and Slovakia: Gymnázium
In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the Gymnázium is a general high school that leads to a general higher education entrance qualification (maturita) . Attendance at grammar school lasts four or eight years (after nine or five years of primary school), less often six years (after seven years of primary school).
Also in Turkey , a type of secondary school (between elementary school and university) is called Lise (the origin being the French word lycée ). It lasts four to five years depending on the type of school. Since the 2013/14 school year, admission to the Lise has been based on a special calculation system with an additional examination, called Temel Öğretimden Ortaöğretime Geçme Sistemi (TEOG), after completing the 8-year basic education.
United States: University-preparatory schools
In the United States there are university preparatory schools that are similar in terms of curriculum to the upper level of the German-speaking grammar school, but also have some differences. They average about $ 10,000 to $ 50,000 per school year. As a result, they have advantages such as a very low student-teacher ratio and numerous sports opportunities. About one in 100 American students goes to such a school. Graduates typically attend the best universities in the United States.
- High school professor
- Bilingual classes
- comprehensive school
- Middle school leaving certificate
- Boarding school , Konvikt , school detention center
- Primus , Primus Omnium , Mulus
- Subjects: German language , mathematics education , foreign language teaching , French lessons , teaching Latin , Greek lessons , history lessons , Biologiedidaktik , teaching chemistry , physics education , art education , music education , physical education , religious education , teaching philosophy , Role Play
- Fritz Blättner: The high school. Tasks of the higher school in the past and present. Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg 1960.
- Torsten Gass-Bolm: The grammar school 1945–1980. Educational Reform and Social Change in West Germany. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-869-8 .
- Martina G. Lüke: Between tradition and new beginnings. German lessons and reading books in the German Empire. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-631-56408-0 .
- Margret Kraul: The German Gymnasium 1780–1980. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1984.
- Eckart Liebau, Wolfgang Mack, Christoph Scheilke (Hrsg.): The high school: everyday life, reform, history, theory. Juventa, Weinheim 1997, ISBN 3-7799-0357-1 .
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
|Wikisource||- Sources and full texts|
- The (educational) system film 2016 (YouTube)
- Anton Hügli : Gymnasium. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- List of canton schools and grammar schools in Switzerland
- Melanchthon, Nuremberg and the establishment of the first German grammar school. In: www.melanchthon-gymnasium.de. Retrieved April 18, 2020 .
- Anna Günther, Hans Kratzer: "There is humanistic education without Latin and Greek". In: www.sueddeutsche.de. Süddeutsche Zeitung , April 18, 2017, accessed on November 12, 2018 .
- Lyceist . Wiktionary
- Gundolf Keil : Vegetarian. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 29–68, here: p. 30.
- Ferdinand Tremel: 400 years of the Academic Gymnasium in Graz. In: 400 Years of the Academic Gymnasium in Graz 1573–1973. Festschrift. Verlag des Akademisches Gymnasium in Graz, Graz 1973, p. 16
- Andreas Dorschel : Abolish pedagogy! In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 28, 2005, p. 16.
- Ulrike Rückert: Founder of the first German girls' high schools . Calendar sheet, Deutschlandradio Kultur , January 5, 2012
- Angelika Schaser: Women's Movement in Germany 1848-1933 . Darmstadt 2006, pp. 24-37.
- Rolf-Dieter Müller, Hans Erich Volkmann: The Wehrmacht . Oldenbourg-Verlag, 1999, p. 447
- Christa Berg, Dieter Langewiesche: Handbook of the German history of education . Volume 5. CH Beck-Verlag, 1989, p. 189 ( Google Books ).
- KMK agreement on types of schools and courses in lower secondary education (Pdf) In: www.kmk.org. Kultusministerkonferenz , 2006, archived from the original on August 28, 2008 ; Retrieved on April 18, 2020 (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of December 3, 1993 as amended on June 2, 2006).
- Students, classes, teachers and graduates of schools. In: www.kmk.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009 ; accessed on March 31, 2020 .
- Pupils by type of school ( Memento from August 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), destatis.de. Accessed December 30, 2009
- Schools and classes by type of school. In: www.destatis.de. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010 ; accessed December 2009 .
- The Danish school system. In: www.eures-kompas.eu. Archived from the original on April 25, 2019 ; accessed on April 25, 2019 .
- The Greek Education System - A Brief Introduction. In: www.dynot.net. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- Vasileia Vretakou, Panagiotis Rousseas: The vocational training system in Greece. Brief description. (Pdf) In: www2.trainingvillage.gr. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- Austrian school systematics , status 2011/12
- Schools in the school year 2010/11 by type of school. (Pdf) In: www.statistik.at. Statistics Austria , archived from the original on May 13, 2012 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- Schoolchildren 2010/11 by detailed type of training and gender. (Pdf) In: www.statistik.at. Statistics Austria , archived from the original on May 13, 2012 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- 13.1 General secondary schools, 1st and 2nd grade
- see list of schools with school code (PDF; 299 kB), bmukk.gv.at
- Schools 2010/2011 according to detailed types of training. (Pdf) In: www.statistik.at. Statistics Austria , archived from the original on May 13, 2012 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- AHS-long form lower level: 112,330, AHS-long form upper level: 59,728, upper level secondary school: 24,474, advanced high schools and advanced secondary schools: 686, high schools for working people: 3,524
- Data IDES 2004/2005
- secondary level: general and vocational education - overview tables. In: www.bfs.admin.ch. Federal Statistical Office , archived from the original on February 25, 2012 ; accessed on April 18, 2020 .
- Arthur Powell: Lessons from Privilege: The American Prep School Tradition. Harvard University Press
- see also: University-preparatory school