Academic high school

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As a classical secondary school ( latin : high school academicum , often high school illustrious ) or High school is called a secondary school in the early modern period, especially in the Protestant territories of the Holy Roman Empire emerged and adjacent areas and high-school and university association studies.

Protestant academic high schools of the early modern period

In his writing To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation on the Improvement of the Christian Class , Martin Luther demanded in 1520 that the secular authorities should take special care of the school system. As a result, especially after the abolition of most of the monasteries in Protestant territorial states, academic high schools and scholarly schools in the pre-university area and high schools as quasi-university universities were established either by a city or a sovereign . Alongside Protestant teaching, the ideas of Renaissance humanism were the second influence that worked on the profile of these schools.

School program

The school program combined high school and academic studies and was divided into two parts: In the nine-year schola classica , the students received school education, followed by the five-year schola publica , which was characterized by freer academic lectures. High schools are those schools that offered academic instruction and were forerunners of today's universities . In contrast to the universities, these educational establishments did not have the imperial privilege of being able to award academic degrees ( master's and doctoral degrees ). Academic grammar schools, however, were not necessarily also “high schools”, i.e. universities. Some of them dealt with the subject matter of the artist faculty in the higher classes, but had no higher faculties such as theology, law and medicine.

The Strasbourg Academy (from 1556 and from 1621 university) served as a model for the organization of many high schools . It influenced most of the foundations in Calvinist - reformed countries, which for religious and political reasons were not granted the privilege of founding a regular university. These high schools included the High School Herborn , the Illustrious Gymnasium in Burgsteinfurt , the Academic Gymnasium Danzig , the Casimirianum Neustadt , the universities in Bremen , Zerbst , Marburg , Hanau , Duisburg , Hamm and Lingen (Ems) .

Some universities later emerged from academic grammar schools, such as the Landfermann grammar school founded in 1559 , which became the old University of Duisburg , or the Ratsgymnasium Stadthagen , which became a grammar school illustrious in 1610 and after being converted into a university in 1621 in Rinteln was relocated.

Catholic Academic Gymnasiums of the Counter Reformation

In the Catholic territories, the Counter-Reformation reacted to the success of the academic high schools with the establishment of Jesuit colleges and universities with similar characteristics. There, an “academic high school” in the narrower sense was a high school connected to a university. Such academic high schools were founded in Linz in 1542 , in Vienna in 1552 , in Innsbruck in 1562 , in Graz in 1573 , in Passau in 1611 and in Salzburg in 1617 . Today's successor institutions in Austria bear the designation “Academic Gymnasium” as an honorary title.

List of early modern academic high schools and high schools

Founded University history
1524 Ernestinum Gotha High School Emerged in 1859 from the merger of the Gymnasium illustrious (1542) and the Ducal Realgymnasium (1836), dissolved in 1945, re-established in 1991
1526 Aegidianum Nuremberg Predecessor institution of today's Melanchthon-Gymnasium Nuremberg
1527 Grammar School Philippinum Marburg
1528 High school in Bern Established for parochial education after the Reformation, and later to the Academy and in 1834 the University of Bern expanded
1529 Old high school Bremen
1542 Academic Gymnasium Linz
1552 Collegium Sapientiae et Pietatis , Klagenfurt Founded as a university preparatory school during the Reformation, accommodation in an outbuilding of the Protestant prayer house (today Klagenfurt Cathedral ); Sponsored by the Carinthian state estates . In the course of the Counter Reformation handover to the Jesuits in 1604; Lyceum since 1773; today Europagymnasium Klagenfurt .
1553 Academic Gymnasium Vienna Jesuit College
1556 Clementinum Prague Jesuit College; Merged with Charles University in 1654
1556 Strasbourg academic high school Founded in 1538, elevated to the rank of academy in 1556, transformed into a university in 1621 and a royal university in 1631
1558 Academic Gymnasium Gdansk Founded by the Gdansk City Council. School operations begin on June 13, 1558, initially with a rector and three professors. Then six professors at the end of the 16th century. Important position in the 17th and 18th centuries. 1817 Conversion into an old-language grammar school. Last days of classes in March 1945.
1559 Academic Gymnasium Duisburg founded as Schola Duisburgensis before 1280; In 1655 the old University of Duisburg risen
1562 Academic Gymnasium Innsbruck Jesuit Latin School and College
1573 Academic Gymnasium Graz Jesuit College; since the University of Graz was founded in 1585, academic high school; state since 1773
1574 Loosdorf High School Protestant state school; Closed in 1627
1578 Casimirianum Neustadt
1579 Old State School Korbach Founding of the Counts of Waldeck, the forerunner of the Count's School was a municipal school (since at least 1266), there was a spatial and partly personal continuity between the two
1582 Gymnasium Illustre (Anhalt State University) Zerbst was dissolved in 1798, but the Latin school , which had existed since 1526, was continued, was named Francisceum in 1836 and was expanded into a humanistic grammar school in 1842
1584 High School Herborn In 1817 absorbed into the "Theological Seminary of the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau"
1586 High school illustrious Durlach Relocated to Karlsruhe (new residential city) in 1724, the Durlach high school continued to exist
1588 High school Arnoldinum Steinfurt
1594 Thorner Gymnasium Founded in 1568
1601 Gymnasium academicum in Beuthen an der Oder
1605 Casimirianum Coburg
1607 High School Hanau In 1812, as part of the educational reforms in the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt under Carl Theodor von Dalberg, formally incorporated into the new grand ducal grammar school
1610 Ratsgymnasium Stadthagen Founded in 1330 as a municipal Latin school, in 1610 it became the Illustre grammar school , which in 1619 led to the founding of the university, which was relocated to Rinteln in 1621 as Alma Ernestina .
1611 Jesuit College Passau continued as a grammar school since 1773
1613 Academic high school Hamburg Repealed in 1883
1617 Academic high school Salzburg
1620 Gymnasium academicum Freiburg Founded around 1250 as a Latin school; since 1457 preparatory school for the university, 1620 taken over by the Jesuits as a grammar school academicum (as part of the university).
1623 Ummendorf High School In 1623 Bartholomäus Ehinger , abbot of the imperial abbey of Ochsenhausen, issued a Konviktsordnung for the Latin school which had existed since 1618 and which then continued as an academic grammar school until 1632
1623 Gymnasium Gleichense Founded in 1564 as a Latin school; Lyceum illustrious since 1623; 1870–1946 Gräflich Gleichensches Gymnasium; 1854–1945 Loss of the title of Lyceum and the direct university entrance qualification
1632 Athenaeum Illustre Amsterdam Is considered the predecessor institution of the University of Amsterdam
1646 Illustre Schole end Collegium Auriacum dead Breda ( Scola Illustris et Collegium Auriacum zu Breda ) High School en Orange College in Breda ; Repealed in 1669
1655 Illustre Schwäbisch Hall grammar school
1657 Hammonense high school since 1781 humanistic grammar school after merging with the Latin school
1660 Michaelis School Lüneburg Founded in the 14th century as a monastery school, converted into a knight academy in 1655 and an academic high school in 1660
1664 Gymnasium Illustre Augusteum Weißenfels Disbanded in 1794
1664 Christian-Ernestinum High School in Bayreuth In the 19th century Kgl. University of Bayreuth, since 1891 Royal Bavarian Gymnasium, since 1952 again under the old name Gymnasium Christian-Ernestinum, today linguistic, humanistic and scientific-technological high school
1686 Gymnasium Illustre Stuttgart
1697 Gymnasium Georgianum Lingen Founded in 1680 as a trivial school; 1697–1819 grammar school academicum, then grammar school
1707 High school illustrious Eisenach Founded in 1185 as a Latin school in St. Georgen; 1544 Schola Provincialis; 1707 elevation to grammar school illustrious; 1950 conversion to extended secondary school; 1960 dissolution and conversion into an institute for teacher training (IfL); since 1993/1994 Martin-Luther-Gymnasium
1709 Collegium Carolinum (Kassel) Founded as a "technical college"; In 1791 teaching was stopped
1720 Heilbronn academic high school Founded as a grammar school in 1620
1724 High school illustrious Karlsruhe moved from Durlach to the new royal seat; 1836 associated with the higher middle school
1737 High school Carolinum Ansbach founded as a municipal school in 1528, illustrious grammar school from 1737; 1792–1806 Royal Prussian High School
1738 Christianeum Altona Latin school as a forerunner since 1683
1745 Gymnasium Fridericianum Erlangen
1775 Academia Petrina , Mitau

See also


  • Joachim Castan: Higher Education and Reformed Confessionalization. The Illustre Gymnasium of the Principality of Anhalt in Zerbst, 1582–1652 . Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle 1999, ISBN 3-89812-016-3 (Studies on regional history, 2) [Definition and research status at Gymnasium illustrious, pp. 14-18]
  • Walter Rüegg (Hrsg.): History of the University in Europe. Volume 2. From the Reformation to the French Revolution (1500–1800). Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-36953-7 (especially pp. 72–74)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Europagymnasium. Europagymnasium Klagenfurt , archived from the original on June 8, 2010 ; accessed on November 21, 2014 (English).