A school of scholars is a higher school that has served as a pre-university education since the Reformation .
Academic schools were higher schools in Protestant areas that have been run either by a city or a sovereign since the time of the Reformation . In his writing To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation on the Improvement of the Christian Class , Martin Luther demanded in 1520 that the secular authorities should take special care of the school system. As a result, especially after the abolition of most of the monasteries in reformed territorial states, secular state schools in the pre-university area and high schools emerged as quasi-university universities. The teaching schools had the task of preparing for university studies and were closely related to the academic high schools . The curriculum therefore always included the classical languages Latin and Greek . The other subjects were mostly humanities and mathematics . The Protestantism and the Renaissance humanism influenced the profile of the schools of learning.
“The boys, who are not supposed to decide on any particular subject anytime soon, are not allowed to be taught in special schools from the start. Several classes of society require the same common level of general intellectual education. They are supposed to gain this at schools which, in view of their purpose of producing general intellectual education, could appropriately be called general schools, as opposed to the general schools that prepare for certain subjects. The classes of society can generally be divided into those whose main aim is education of the mind and those whose main aim is acquisition (the liberales vel ingenui and mercenarii of the ancients). The former is the name of scholars in the broadest sense, to which higher artists are also to be counted, and since their education should at least be the highest, the ultimate and highest purpose of the general schools must also be assumed to lead to the general intellectual culture that is necessary for the same as it prepares for the special schools of their subject, the universities and art schools. To the extent that they serve this purpose, they are 'schools of scholars'. "
Significant schools for scholars came into being in Marburg (directly connected to the university), in Cassel , Korbach and Brandenburg an der Havel ( Neustadt school for scholars ). The north German church ordinances of Johannes Bugenhagen led to the establishment of schools for scholars, such as the Hamburg School of Scholars of the Johanneum (1528) and the Katharineum in Lübeck (1531). The traditional name is now used by the Johanneum School of Academics, the Kiel School of Academics , the Lauenburg School of Academics and the Meldorfer School of Academics .
Jewish schools of scholars
In the Jewish context, schools of learning are used to refer to the training centers for studying the Talmud that also served as courts , e.g. B. the school in Jawne . Since the Middle Ages the name for the Talmud schools has been Yeshiva .
- Arnd Friedrich: The learned schools in Marburg, Kassel and Korbach between Melanchthonianism and Ramism in the second half of the 16th century. Historical Commission for Hesse, Marburg 1983, ISBN 3-88443-135-8 .
- Fritz Blättner: History of the high school. The change from the old Protestant school of scholars to a humanistic grammar school . In: Hermann Röhrs (Hrsg.): The high school in the past and present . Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Frankfurt am Main 1969, pp. 1–41.