The first princely schools were the “State Schools for Boys”, which were founded in 1543 by Duke Moritz von Sachsen after the conversion of monasteries. The ducal councilor Georg von Komerstadt and Johannes Rivius , who was appointed inspector of the Saxon princely schools in 1544 and had a significant influence on their school regulations, had a major influence on the design of these schools .
The three princely schools are the oldest state schools in Germany:
- Schulpforta (1543) near Naumburg with planned 100 boys as pupils,
- St. Afra (1543) in Meißen with planned 70 boys as pupils and
- St. Augustin (1550) in Grimma . Its first rector was Adam Siber . Originally the Princely School in Merseburg was to be built with the planned 60 boys as pupils.
The much-discussed thesis comes from the important pedagogue Friedrich Paulsen that the three Saxon princely schools had been the most efficient university preparatory institutions in the Protestant-German-speaking area since 1543.
The Saxon princely schools emerged from secularized monastery property in preparation for the newly founded universities. For the teachers, celibacy was initially required because the monk cells were needed for the students and only the abbey was available for all teachers, so that all teachers had to share a room except for the rector (at least in Schulpforta), but also because they wanted to avoid that the students in their boarding school lived with women. But when it turned out that the teachers therefore mostly only stayed two to three years, at least the principal was initially allowed to marry. This was later extended to include teachers.
Reformation and the state schools
In connection with the Luther Decade and the anniversary “500 years of the Reformation 2017”, Volker Beyrich points out that the three princely schools in Schulpforta, Meißen and Grimma had intended “stabilizing repercussions” on the Reformation, as the text of the foundation charter shows: The schools should be founded "so that there is no shortage of church servants over time", that is, enough excellently trained state school leavers should be available in good time to study theology, graduates who later work as pastors in Evangelical Lutheran parishes or higher could exercise church offices. According to Beyrich's research, fifteen of the 25 boys who were admitted to the school in Grimma in the founding year 1550 and for whom the later profession is known, studied theology. Studies of 550 schoolchildren who attended the Grimma State School from 1701 to 1750 showed that more than 40 percent of them later exercised church professions - that is, the relative majority.
The Reformation made the state schools possible in the first place - both in terms of content and material. Conversely, according to Beyrich, the state schools contributed “not insignificantly to the stabilization of the Reformation and the Evangelical Lutheran Church: They also contributed to the strengthening of the Saxon rectory, which over the centuries was not only for the Christian faith and the Evangelical Lutheran Church played a major role, but for the entire cultural development of Saxony. "
To the historical names
When the monasteries emptied in the wake of the Reformation, the question arose of what should be done with the buildings and the considerable property. Duke Moritz von Sachsen decided to set up schools in three of these monasteries. This created schools that were run by the sovereign, i.e. state schools.
This is where the historical names of these schools come from - they were electoral schools, i.e. “ princely schools ”. In addition, they were schools in or for the ruler's sphere of influence, i.e. for the electorate, for the kingdom (from 1806), for the Free State of Saxony (from 1919) - in short for the "Land", from which the name " Landesschulen " resulted .
Following the example of these three schools, many more emerged, some of which also took the name of the Princely School:
- the Princely School Schwerin , founded in 1553 by Duke Johann Albrecht I ,
- The Fürstenschule Heilsbronn , founded in 1582 by Margrave Georg Friedrich on the site of the Heilsbronn Monastery, which was closed in 1578 and relocated to Ansbach in 1736,
- the Joachimsthalsche Gymnasium , founded in 1607 in Joachimsthal in Brandenburg under Elector Joachim Friedrich ,
- the Fürstenschule Neustadt (Hochfürstlich Brandenburgisch-Culmbachische Teutsche and Latin City School).
- Volker Beyrich : 1549: Duke Moritz clears the way for the Princely School in Grimma - Elector of Saxony regulates free education and enables sons of poorer city citizens access . In: Leipziger Volkszeitung , Muldental edition, June 4, 2018, p. 28 ("Topic of the day").
- Jonas Flöter: Elite education in Saxony and Prussia. The Princely and State Schools Grimma, Meißen, Joachimsthal and Pforta (1868-1933) (= contributions to historical educational research 38). Cologne 2009. ISBN 978-3-412-20319-1 .
- Jonas Flöter, Günther Wartenberg: The Saxon Princely and State Schools. Interaction between the Lutheran-humanistic ideal of education and education for the elite (= writings on Saxon history and folklore 9). Leipzig 2004, ISBN 3-937209-46-8 .
- Jonas Flöter, Marita Pesenecker: Education to the elite. The Princely and State Schools of Grimma, Meißen and Schulpforte around 1900 . Publication for the exhibition in the district museum Grimma. Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-937209-33-6
- Gerhard Arnhardt , Gerd-Bodo Reinert: The Princely and State Schools Meißen, Schulpforte and Grimma. Way of life and teaching over centuries (= publication series of the World Association for the Renewal of Education 5). Weinheim 2002 ISBN 3-407-32015-9 .
- Friedrich Wermuth, Karl Irmscher u. a .: From the electoral state school to the St. Augustin high school in Grimma 1550 - 2000. Beucha 2000, ISBN 3930076993
- Maren Rethemeier: About Pennalism in the Saxon princely schools from the beginning to the end of the 19th century. Scientific work for the first state examination for the teaching post for the primary level, Dortmund, August 1994 (unprinted).
- Georg Fraustadt u. a .: The Princely and State School St. Augustin zu Grimma in the past and present. Grimma 1930.
- Heinrich Theodor Flathe: St. Afra, history of the royal Saxon princely school in Meissen . Leipzig 1879.
- Karl Julius Rößler: History of the Princely and State School Grimma . Leipzig 1891.
- Eduard Wunder : The characteristics of the princely schools. Certificates of the importance of the princely schools for the training and education of the youth. Print version of the lecture from 1850. Published by the Association of Former Princely Students , Dresden 1889.
- Wilhelm Paul Corssen : Alterthuemer and art monuments of the Cistercian monastery St. Marien and the state school to the gate. Hall 1868.
- Anja Richter: Staged Education. Historical speeches as a mirror of Protestant school culture (= sources on the Protestant educational history No. 1). Leipzig 2013.
- The Saxon Princely and State Schools. Interaction between the Lutheran-humanistic ideal of upbringing and education for the elite. (Conference report 2003 by Jonas Flöter)
- ↑ Notarisation of the school's founding in 1543 ( memento from July 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Volker Beyrich : 1549: Duke Moritz clears the way for the Princely School in Grimma - Elector of Saxony regulates free education and enables sons of poorer city citizens access . In: Leipziger Volkszeitung , Muldental edition, June 4, 2018, p. 28 ("Topic of the day")
- ↑ Descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the Province of Saxony from 1905, pdf format, accessed on July 19, 2017, page 58 (original)
- ↑ Quote from the book presentation on the publisher's website ( Memento of the original from February 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed February 20, 2016
- ↑ Volker Beyrich: Reformation and state schools. "... so that over time there is no shortage of church servants and other learned people ..." p. 29 in: Leipziger Volkszeitung, Muldental edition, October 6, 2014.
- ↑ Volker Beyrich : 1549: Duke Moritz clears the way for the Princely School in Grimma - Elector of Saxony regulates free education and enables sons of poorer city citizens access . In: Leipziger Volkszeitung , Muldental edition, June 4, 2018, p. 28 ("Topic of the day").
- ^ Max Döllner : History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch up to 1933. Ph. C. W. Schmidt, Neustadt a. d. Aisch 1950; New edition, ibid. 1978, ISBN 3-87707-013-2 , p. 216, note 27.