Old High School (Bremen)
|Old high school Bremen|
|Lyceum Kleine Helle - Bremen|
|type of school||Humanistic high school|
Small light 7–9
The three-storey building was built from 1872 to 1875 according to plans by senior building officer Alexander Schröder in the historicizing style for the secondary school (pre-school, grammar school and business school).
The school building formed the backdrop for the feature film Ich bin ein Elefant, Madame (1969) by Peter Zadek , the building at the Kleine Helle 1993–1997 for the ARD early evening series Not von Bad Eltern and Aus gute Haus ; both produced by Radio Bremen .
The building has been a listed building since 1984 .
Small light 7–8
Since 1987 the school has been located on the site of the former grammar school on the Kleine Helle. Since 2006, after the University of the Arts moved to Überseestadt , the school has also been using the building at Am Wandrahm 23 . Among other things, a cafeteria for the students was built there. The school is now an all-day high school.
The building was built from 1914 to 1916 according to plans by Hugo Weber and Hans Ohnesorge for the first municipal college for girls in Bremen (Lyceum). The brick-faced building with its monumental pillar facade and the parapets decorated with terracottas is completed by a mansard roof. The three wings form a courtyard open to the northeast. Originally there were two gyms. To the east is the ballroom above. A terrace with three distinctive flower baskets is located above the intensely designed entrance area to the street. The girls' figures on the pillars of the portal were designed in Art Nouveau forms by the sculptor Rudolf Gangloff .
The building has been a listed building since 1984 .
Free Latin School
"Anno 1528 is tho Bremen a frey school prepared dorch the erbaren Radt" - this is the message about the establishment of the old high school in an old chronicle. The old grammar school has existed for almost 500 years and it has a checkered history.
The “Schola Bremensis”, as it was called at the time, was a fruit of the Reformation . With the introduction of the new faith, the monastery schools responsible for education were also dissolved. Now the authorities in town and country should take care of the upbringing and education of the children and young people - according to the reformer Martin Luther . Initially, in the new "school of scholars", which was housed in the rooms of the former St. Catherine's Monastery , the focus was on studying the ancient languages that are important for understanding the Bible: "Lectiones in Hebrew, Grekeschen and Latin".
After 1562 Mayor Daniel Buren the younger the Lutheran orthodoxy had overcome in Bremen, he opened the school for the offspring of the "common citizens people," and the Bremer Council approved a curriculum that "fundamenta Pietatis, linguae Latinae, Arithmeticae et Musicae" included. Johann Oldenburg from Münster († 1569) was the first rector of the Latin school. He taught with two other teachers. The main subjects were Protestant religion and Latin. Johannes Molanus from Flanders was one of the important teachers from 1553 to 1559 and the second rector of the Latin School from 1563 to 1583.
Latin school and publica classis
A helper from Buren was Christoph Pezel . In 1579 he was asked to settle the teaching disputes among the preachers in Bremen. In 1581 he stayed permanently in Bremen and in 1584 became superintendent . In 1584, Pezelius divided the school into an upper school class and a publica classis. The Latin school thus received an academic superstructure in the sense of a grammar school illustrious , in the Reformation period a hybrid of higher school and university. In 1595, with his help, the Consensus Bremensis , the reformed doctrinal and church order, was created. Pezel taught theology, history and ethics as a professor at the school.
The doctor Johannes Ewich (1525–1588) became the first professor of medicine at the grammar school in 1584 . His speech at the opening of the grammar school on October 15, 1584 has been handed down in print. In his letters and pamphlets he emerged with investigations into the nature of the plague from a medical and social point of view and as a critic of the persecution of witches .
Educational museum and grammar school illustrious
When the school got into a crisis, the city council restructured the institute in 1610. In addition to a six-class elementary school, the Paedagogeum , there was the illustrious grammar school that built on it and enabled university studies in the four classical faculties of theology, law, medicine, and philosophy and philology. Now the school was also a university-like academy. The first rector was the theologian Mathias Martinius († 1630). With Gerhard Meier from Bremen, rector from 1655 to 1695, the school experienced a high point in its development.
The newly organized academic high school illustrious enjoyed a good reputation and attracted students from all over the place. In 1613 70 students had registered. The number of registrants then fluctuated between 27 and 106 in the years up to 1730. Then the number decreased drastically, in some years there were only 8 to 15 entries. In the Matrikel Album Studiosorum from 1610 to 1810 7,755 names are listed.
However, in the 18th century the college began to decline gradually. The competition from other universities such as Göttingen and the declining importance of a Christian-denominational higher education course gradually removed the floor from the grammar school illustrious, so that the pedagogue moved more and more into the foreground.
In his school history, published in 1928, Hermann Entholt paints a vivid picture of the conditions prevailing in the Paedagogeum: “[The pupils] ... often came as 'tender plants' at the age of three ... Around 1600 they were employed non-stop even on Sundays , with repeated church attendance and school-like lessons about what they heard, and in 1749, for example, the Quartans sat in school from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., with only an hour's lunch break. For this they retaliated with tumult, stone throwing and 'inhuman hum' ... The writing was done on the knees, if not on the benches, as there were no tables yet. Geography was taught in such a way that only the textbook was read, without any map. For a long time there were no mathematics lessons at all, because there was no suitable teacher for it ... Of course the boys always spoke Low German to each other, 'the mob language' as the teachers said ... had to just to make ends meet financially.
The pedagogical museum becomes the old grammar school
Around 1800 Bremen had a further secondary school in addition to the Paedagogeum, the Lyceum, which was founded by Lutherans in Bremen, which was predominantly Calvinist and which had emerged from the Cathedral School and the Athenaeum Bremen after 1803 . When the later mayor of Bremen, Johann Smidt, was responsible for education as a scholarch , he reorganized the Bremen secondary schools. In 1817 he combined the Paedagogeum and Lyceum to form the three-branch general scholar, action and pre-school, later called Hauptschule for short . The basis was the pre-school, in which boys from 8 to 14 years of age were taught religion, German, Latin, French, history, geography, natural history, mathematics and drawing. English and Greek were added as electives in the final year of preschool.
After that, the pupils could either attend the commercial school founded in 1802 , which prepared them for the commercial profession, or the scholarly school, which was soon to be called a grammar school , which created the prerequisites for university studies. The pre-school and business school were housed in a building belonging to the Domdechanei on Domsheide , the so-called Eschenhof .
For the time being, the school of scholars remained in the rooms of the Lyceum in the Kapitelhaus at the cathedral, but in 1857 it was also located in the Eschenhof and was now called the Gymnasium.
In 1875 all three branches of the secondary school moved into a new classical building, which was built on Dechanatstrasse and which was to house the school until 1987. In 1886 the preschool was closed and most of it was attached to the other two schools. A little later the commercial school was renamed to Oberrealschule . Now the secondary school under construction on Dechanatstrasse comprised only two branches of the secondary school and the upper secondary school, but these now had nine grades from sixth to upper primary. Growing numbers of pupils and changes in the school system in the German Reich prompted the Senate to reorganize Bremen's higher education system again in 1905; the grammar school was now officially called the old grammar school. With the New Gymnasium ( Gymnasium am Barkhof ) and the Bremen Realgymnasium on Kaiser-Friedrich-Straße (today Hermann-Böse-Straße), two other educational institutions were added to the side, which led to the Abitur.
During the Third Reich , the Alte Gymnasium was unable to completely oppose attempts to harmonize it, but the school's humanistic profile was largely retained. Many teachers and students kept an inner distance from the spirit of the times.
After the war, in which the school had not suffered too serious damage from bombing, teaching was resumed. However, the building soon turned out to be too small, so that the secondary school was relocated to Parsevalstrasse in 1958. But the lack of space remained. In addition, the building, which had long been neglected by the city, fell into disrepair. Therefore, as part of a program to close numerous high schools in Bremen, the Senate ordered the relocation of the old high school to the building of the high school on the Kleine Helle, which was closed at the same time. In 1987 the move was completed. The Music Department of the Bremen University of the Arts and the Klaus Kuhnke Archive for Popular Music are located in the building on Dechanatstraße .
The school seal of the old grammar school
The school seal of the old grammar school comes from the early days of the school, when it was still called "grammar school illustrious". In the form we know today, it dates from the 17th century, namely as an oblate seal on a quotation by Studiosus Ptolemäus Sticht from Jever on June 13, 1647. And as was customary in the past, a clear statement was made on the seal that refers to the origin and the aims of the school.
A golden lion standing upright on a red field forms the seal; in his right hand he holds the silver city key, in his left the open Bible. On the two leaves of the book you can read the first letters of the Latin text from the biblical book of Joshua (1,8): “Ne discedat liber iste legis ex ore tuo; sed meditaberis de eo interdiu atque noctu. ”The German translation reads:“ This code of law should not leave your mouth, but think about it day and night (and it goes on: so that everything you do is aligned with my instructions. Then you will Have success and everything you start will happily finish) ”.
Sorted by year of birth
- Matthias Glandorp (1595–1636), medic
- Levinus Warner (c.1618-1665), orientalist
- Henry Oldenburg (c.1618–1677), diplomat, natural philosopher, editor and leading intellectual of the 17th century, secretary of the Royal Society in London
- Paul Glandorp (1626-1696), medic
- Reinhold Pauli (1638–1682), Reformed theologian, preacher and university professor
- Philipp Otto Vietor (1646–1718), Reformed theologian and superintendent
- Joachim Neander (1650–1680), important hymn poet and early knife at St. Martini
- Friedrich Grimm (1672–1748), Reformed Inspector and Consistorial Councilor in Hanau, great-grandfather of the Brothers Grimm
- Heinrich Bass (1690–1754), surgeon and anatomist, professor of medicine in Halle
- Friedrich Grimm (1707–1777), pastor and grandfather of the Brothers Grimm
- Johann Philipp Cassel (1707–1783), historian, theologian, philologist, teacher, translator and author
- Martin Crugot (1725–1790), court preacher to Prince Hans Carl zu Carolath-Beuthen
- Heinrich Lampe (1746–1817), Senator and Mayor
- Diederich Meier (1748–1802), Bremen Senator and Mayor
- Johann Friedrich Gildemeister (1750–1812), lawyer and university professor
- Adolf Friedrich Furchau (1752–1819), educator
- Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758–1840), doctor and astronomer
- Arnold Heeren (1760–1842), historian
- Johann Heineken (1761–1851), physician and city physician of Bremen
- Gottfried Menken (1768–1831), theologian, representative of revival theology
- Johann Smidt (1773–1857), mayor, Bremen's greatest statesman of the 19th century
- Isak Hermann Albrecht Schumacher (1780–1853), lawyer, senator and Mayor of Bremen
- Diederich Meier (1787–1857), Senator and Mayor
- Georg Treviranus (1788–1868), pastor at St. Martini, co-founder of the Inner Mission, the Evangelical Alliance and the German Evangelical Church Congress
- Friedrich Ludwig Mallet (1792–1865), reformed pastor of the revival movement
- Johann Georg Kohl (1808–1878), travel writer and city librarian
- Hermann Henrich Meier (1809–1898), founder of North German Lloyd
- Hermann Alexander Müller (1814–1894), teacher and art historian, graduated from high school in 1832
- Johann Gustav Gildemeister (1812–1890), orientalist
- Johannes C. Achelis (1836–1913), businessman and Senator from Bremen
- Johann Friedrich Iken (1837–1902), theologian and church historian
- Diederich Volkmann (1838–1903), classical philologist and rector of the Fürstenschule Schulpforta for 20 years
- Eduard Gildemeister (1848–1946), important architect with a penchant for classicist and renaissance designs
- Johann Focke (1848–1922), council syndicate and founder of the Focke-Museum named after him
- Clemens Carl Buff (1853–1940), lawyer, Bremen senator and mayor
- Friedrich Wilhelm Rauschenberg (1853–1935), architect
- Verena Rodewald (1866–1937), women's rights activist and politician
- Ludwig Quidde (1858–1941), historian and politician. Was convicted of insulting majesty under Wilhelm II because he had compared the emperor to Caligula. As the spokesman for the world peace movement, Quidde was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927.
- Heinrich Bömers (1864–1932), senator and wine merchant
- Alwin Lonke (1865–1947), historian, particularly active in the field of North German prehistory and early history and the history of Bremen.
- Elard Ordemann (1866–1945), pastor and local history researcher
- Fritz Overbeck (1869–1909), painter
- Heinrich Rodewald (1869–1939), theologian and church historian
- Carl Hartlaub (1869–1929), lawyer and chess player
- Hermann August Kippenberg (1869–1952), educator
- Karl Hampe (1869–1936), historian and university professor
- Fritz Schumacher (1869–1947), architect, town planner, senior construction director and university professor
- Theodor Spitta (1873–1969), lawyer, mayor in 1920, was again a member of the Senate from 1945 and played a key role in the democratic state constitution, which still provides the framework for political action in the Hanseatic city.
- Bernhard Averbeck (1874–1930), industrialist and association official (cement industry)
- Anton Kippenberg (1874–1950), publisher (Insel-Verlag)
- Rudolf Alexander Schröder (1878–1962), architect, poet and translator
- Alfred Walter Heymel (1878–1914), man of letters, founded the artistic-literary magazine Die Insel with RA Schröder , from which the Insel-Verlag emerged
- Friedrich Rauers (1879–1954), economic historian and archivist
- Hugo Gebert (1888–1944), member of the Bremen citizenship
- Friedrich Forster (1895–1958), writer, screenwriter, actor and dramaturge
- Christian Lahusen (1886–1975), German composer
- Georg Carl Lahusen (1888–1973), entrepreneur, head of the North German wool combing and worsted spinning mill
- Otto Gerlach (1894–1963), private scholar
- Hilda Heinemann (1896–1979), wife of the Federal President Gustav Heinemann, Hilda née Ordemann grew up in Bremen, chairwoman of the board of trustees of the German Mothers' Recovery Association, patron of Amnesty International, founder of the Hilda Heinemann Foundation
- Wilhelm Melchers (1900–1971), ambassador
- Heinrich Schmidt-Barrien (1902–1996), author of High and Low German novels, short stories, plays and radio plays; 1954 received the Rudolf Alexander Schröder Prize of the city of Bremen
- Eduard Nebelthau (1902–1971), Bremen merchant and patron, from his estate a. a. the Eduard-Nebelthau-Gymnasium in Bremen-Lesum was founded.
- Jules Eberhard Noltenius (1908–1976), Senator and Mayor (CDU) of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen
- Hans Günther Oesterreich (1910–1990), first program director for Radio Bremen
- Karl Carstens (1914–1992), Federal President (1979–1984)
- Hans Budde (1920–2002), architect, chairman of Aufbaugemeinschaft Bremen eV, vice-president of the Bremer Eiswette
- Karsten Vilmar (* 1930), Honorary President of the German Medical Association
- Hermann Michael Wolff (1931–2013), Benedictine priest, pastor, lecturer
- Rolf Becker (* 1935), actor and voice actor
- Henning Scherf (* 1938), Mayor of Bremen
- Ulrich Tilgner (* 1948), TV journalist, Middle East correspondent for ZDF
- Andreas Roloff (* 1955), forest scientist
- Achim Wixforth (* 1956), physicist
- Barbara Stühlmeyer (* 1964), author, mediaevalist, musicologist
- Claas Rohmeyer (* 1971), member of the Bremen citizenship
- Bas Böttcher (* 1974), writer and poet
- Mark Tavassol (* 1974), musician and doctor (We are heroes)
- Jakob Nebel (* 1977), musician and guitar teacher ( Livingston )
- Thomas Ehmke (* 1978), politician
- Jens Crueger (* 1984), politician and historian
Ordered in time
- Johannes Molanus (1510–1583), from Flanders, 1553–1559 teacher, 1563–1583 rector of the Latin School; not to be confused with Johannes Molanus (1533–1585) who was also a teacher at the Latin school for two years.
- Johannes Ewich (1525–1588), professor of medicine
- Christoph Pezel (1539–1604), professor of theology, history and ethics, preacher at St. Ansgarii Church
- Nathan Chyträus (1543–1598), rector 1592
- Matthias Martinius (1572–1630), rector 1610, professor of theology
- Ludwig Crocius (1586–1655), professor of theology and philosophy, pastor at the St. Martini Church
- Philipp Caesar (* around 1580; † after 1642), professor, preacher at St. Martini and St. Ansgarii
- Gerhard Meier (pedagogue) (1616–1695), professor of logic and metaphysics (1648), theology (1651) and mathematics (1652), rector from 1655
- Cornelius de Hase (1653–1710), professor of theology (1683), rector from 1699
- Albert Schumacher (1661–1743), professor of philosophy (1697–1698), then professor of theology
- Conrad Iken (1689–1753), professor of theology, rector from 1740
- Heinrich Gerhard Schumacher (1695–1766), professor of law from after 1721
- Johann Caspar Häfeli (1754–1811), 1802–1805 professor of theology, pastor at St. Ansgarii Church
- Johann Heineken (1761–1851), from 1786 professor of medicine and experimental physics
- Johann Heinrich Menken (1766–1838), professor of painting
- Wilhelm Ernst Weber (1790–1850), director of the grammar school 1829–1850
- Hermann Alexander Müller (1814–1894), professor of French, teacher since 1847
- Johann Heinrich Volkmann (1804–1865), theologian, 38 years teacher at the old grammar school, member of the Bremen citizenship
- Carl Theodor Gravenhorst (1810–1886), classical philologist, writer and translator, professor, director of the school of scholars from 1857 to 1866, member of the Frankfurt National Assembly
- Wilhelm Hertzberg (1813–1879), professor, rector from 1866, writer and translator
- Emil Brenning (1837–1915), from 1865 philologist and literary historian at the school, 1899 professor
- Eduard Friesland (1841–1911), professor. Author of the travel report From my world trip. Memories of Prof. Dr. Eduard Friesland. From the estate of the author, edited by Gustav Friesland, Hong Kong . Hanover 1912
- Lothar Koch (1860–1915), professor, rector from 1907 to 1915, school reformer
- Gerhard Hellmers (1860–1944), professor, Germanist, rector from 1915 to 1925, co-founder of the Goethebund, theater critic
- Johannes (Hans) Schaal (1888–1963), archaeologist and classical philologist, director from 1926 to 1945 and from 1947 to 1953 teacher
- Emil Schwartze (1888–1950), teacher since 1915, dismissed in 1933, senior teacher in 1945 and director from 1945 to 1950 (†)
- Erwin Lebek (1891-1981); Teacher, teacher, senior director and director from around 1951 until after 1954
- Klaus-Dietrich Koch (1927–2017), deputy director from 1970 and director from 1973 to 1991
Sources and literature
- Program of the secondary school in Bremen. Bremen 1862–1887 ( digitized version )
- Program of the Gymnasium zu Bremen (department of the secondary school). Bremen 1888–1893 ( digitized version )
- Report on the school year ... Bremen 1894–1905 ( digitized version )
- Reports on the school years ... Bremen 1906–1940 ( digitized version )
- Friedrich Prüser : The Bremen high school Illustrious in its landscape and personal relationships (= history of the universities and secondary schools in Bremen since 1528. Vol. 2). Schünemann, Bremen 1961.
- Initiativkreis “450 years celebration of the old grammar school in Bremen” (Ed.): 450 years old grammar school in Bremen. 1528-1988. Döll, Bremen 1978, ISBN 3-920245-48-2 .
- Godhard OA Tietze (ed.): 475 year old high school. 1528-2003. Döll, Bremen 2003, ISBN 3-936289-45-X .
- Helgard Warns, Ralf Schneider: The story of a penne. The old grammar school in Bremen. Reprint of the 1st edition from 1985 with additions and updates. Hauschild, Bremen 1999, ISBN 3-89757-009-2 .
- Website of the old grammar school in Bremen
- Entry for the Lyceum Kleine Helle in the monument database of the LfD
- Entry on the old grammar school Dechanatstraße in the monument database of the LfD
- Monument database of the LfD Bremen
- Monument database of the LfD Bremen
- Friedrich Prüser: The Bremen high school Illustrious in its landscape and personal relationships. In: Bremisches Jahrbuch. Vol. 45, 1957, digitized . , pp. 52-78,
- Wiltrud Ulrike Drechsel: How the people of Bremen founded a university for the first time and then closed it again. In: diskurs 7, 1982.
- Helgard Warns, Ralf Schneider, The story of a penne. Retrospective of the old grammar school in Bremen. Bremen 1985, p. 163.
- Source situation from 1947 unclear.
- Godhard OA Tietze (ed.): 475 years old high school. 1528-2003. Döll, Bremen 2003, ISBN 3-936289-45-X .
- Obituaries in the Weserkurier