Johann Georg Kohl

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Johann Georg Kohl, New York 1854
Johann Georg Kohl

Johann Georg Kohl (born April 28, 1808 in Bremen , †  October 28, 1878 in Bremen) was a German travel writer , essayist and city librarian in Bremen.


Kohl was the son of a wine merchant. He attended the Alte Gymnasium in Bremen and studied law at the University of Göttingen , the University of Heidelberg and the University of Munich . After the death of his father, he had to break off his studies penniless in 1830. He then worked as a tutor in Courland for six years . After traveling to Saint Petersburg , Moscow and southern Russia , he lived in Dresden for a while from 1838 . Here he wrote his first Russian travelogues. From Dresden he then traveled to almost all countries in northern and western Europe and described his experiences. His travel books, which were practically serialized in the 1840s - 27 volumes appeared in the years 1841 to 1844ǃ alone - established him as the most famous "tourist" on the German-speaking book market.

From 1850 he was in Berlin , Paris , London and Oxford and prepared his trips to the USA . From 1854 to 1858 Kohl traveled to North America and became known there to numerous well-known scientists and writers. His studies there and the writings based on them, which he wrote about his time in the USA and in general about the geography and settlement history of North America, made him known in German-speaking countries as a North American expert and in the USA to a minor celebrity; the American researcher Henry Stevens (1819–1886), himself author of the Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America (1869), considered Kohl's work on the early mapping of the United States to be "the most excellent that has been delivered on this subject". Even in the 20th century, American geographers were of the opinion that Kohl was the " foremost Americanist of the nineteenth century ". His book Kitchi-Gami - meaning "Great Lake" ( gichi-gami ) and the indigenous name for Lake Superior - about the Ojibwa became his most popular book in the United States. It appeared in English in 1860 and was reissued several times in the 20th century, most recently by the Minnesota Historical Society in 1985.

In 1858 he returned to Bremen. In the following years he dealt extensively with the cultural history of Bremen and wrote about the Seefahrt house , the Bremen Ratskeller , the collaboration between Bremen and Riga and the chronicler Johann Renner . He also published the Northwest German Sketches and the episodes from the cultural and art history of Bremen .

It is noticeable that during the 1860s Kohl increasingly turned to topics and countries that - unlike in the case of the writings from earlier years - were not or only very insufficiently known to him from his own experience and travel experience. Especially the Illustrirte Familienbuch for the entertainment and instruction of domestic circles , published by the Österreichischer Lloyd in Trieste , gave him plenty of space to write about the peoples of southern and south-eastern Europe, although he had at best superficial knowledge of these parts of the world; Most of these "ethnographic" descriptions then flowed into the richly illustrated work Die Völker Europa’s (1868), which in turn was v. a. Eastern and Southeastern Europe , sometimes even the Ottoman Empire . The benevolent, often even enthusiastic reception of these later writings in the press shows, however, that Kohl's fame as a well-traveled "tourist", which he had acquired in the 1840s and 1850s, now gave him sufficient authority to talk about countries and ethno to be able to write cultural communities he was barely qualified to portray. Kohl's attitude towards the various peoples he describes is clear from the fact that he only titled descriptions by the Italians, Spaniards, Romanians and others as "ethnographic sketches", while the Jews and Gypsies of him each with a "character sketch." "(ǃ) or a" character and moral painting "(ǃ) were considered.

On October 2, 1863, he was appointed full-time city librarian in Bremen and was thus entrusted with a task that he performed with great dedication. After his appointment, Kohl managed to double the annual budget of the city ​​library from 100 to 200 Reichstaler. He also managed to take over the libraries of the Natural Science Association , the Historical Society , the Medical Association, the Agricultural Association and parts of the scientific writings of the Society Museum in the city library.

From the early 1870s onwards he increasingly wrote aphorisms and essays on practical wisdom. As was customary in the 19th century, most of the chapters of his books appeared as preprints in various newspapers and magazines. In addition, he dealt with linguistic phenomena (sound theory, phraseology ) and questions of political geography (location of European capitals, "world position" of Lisbon and Venice). The general impression that emerges in view of the works published by Kohl in the 1860s and 1870s is that of a busy, multi-faceted, but sometimes superficial writer-researcher, who in his seventh decade was still undecided what his was going to be Attention should actually be directed the most.

Together with his sister Ida (later Countess von Baudissin ) he edited "English Sketches" (Leipzig 1845, 3 volumes).



A Miszelle published in January 1847 summarized Kohl's literary work as follows:

A sensible assessor of the writings of this industrious tourist makes the following judgment: We have read through the new three volumes (The People and Islands of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein) by Mr. Kohl with sympathy; we have found in it a great deal of instruction and entertainment; we must praise the diligence of the collector, who has sought out the material for this partly from the most hidden corners; we must allow the author, with all the negligence of a sentence structure and all foreign words, a clear and lively way of writing; but this, like all other books by Mr. Kohl known to us, lacks a certain something, the lack of which no style, no erudition, and no diligence is able to completely cover up, it lacks the expression of individuality, of decisive character. In Mr. Kohl's we never come across an eloquent sign of deep moral excitement, a stronger pulse, a more rapidly inspired imagination; he has no hatred and no love, he knows no other life's work than that of looking at the country and its people and then writing nice books about them. The constant cheekiness, the peace of mind that nothing in the world disturbs, the eternal peacefulness of the author become desperately monotonous when they accompany the reader page by page through ten and twelve, I could well say through twenty and thirty volumes. It is at least possible that there are readers who regard these negative qualities as just as many advantages. As I said, we have a different opinion, we demand of a writer who wants to acquaint us with life, whether German or foreign countries, that he be moved by the movements of the time; we demand that he should not be indifferent to the wishes and wishes of the peoples; we demand that he should not remain indifferent to the fighting game of public passions; We demand, in a word, that he should see something more important in the conditions of the present than the material for travelogues, as such friendly, in many respects extremely attractive gifts they appear to us.

In a review of Kohl's book Kitschi-Gami or Erzählungen vom Oberen See (1859), published in the Blätter für literary entertainment in December 1859, it saysː

Any new work from a writer like Kohl can be accepted unseen as a grateful gift; The business of criticism is easy and pleasant here, difficult at most where it is necessary to give the reader a reasonably complete picture of the overflowing rich and varied content of his actual travelogues.

In April 1866, a reviewer of the Neue Freie Presse (Vienna) discussed Kohl's German folk pictures and views of nature from the resin and came to the following verdictː

German tourist literature has recently been directed to the lyrical and poetic field. Colorful pictures, shimmering gloss, the varnish of the depiction surpass the achievements of the past. But there always remains the need for those descriptions which, scientifically sound, offer real content in a graceful form, and in this genre Kohl is certainly one of the most trusted authorities. … Kohl has made a great contribution to the extensive, 436-page book about the countless Harz visitors who look for refreshment and relaxation every year under the shade of the most beautiful beeches, oaks and linden trees. … As usual, the layout of the book is also very nice.

Quotes from contemporaries

“The latest time has two tourists par excellence that are very different in their individuality , namely Hermann Heinrich Ludwig Fürsten von Pückler-Muskau (born in 1785 in Muskau) and Johann Georg Kohl (g. Bremen, 1808); The former is a witty man of the world who, however, knows how to sketch out what he has seen superficially but tastefully, the latter the pattern of all travelers, who particularly describes what others, especially the learned professors, do not want to see or describe, namely the people, and who never let the purpose of their journey to portray the individuality of the country and the nation they are visiting, not their boring personality, out of sight "

- Johann GT Grässer : Handbook of the general literary history of all known peoples of the world , Volume IV (1850)

“Kohl is one of the famous travelers and the best travel writers of our time. [...] If one wants to designate the peculiarity of his being with one word, one can call him a contemplative nature. His style of writing is clear and attractive, the latter especially in that he invidivualises as much as possible everywhere, puts the reader quickly in the middle of the matter and knows how to get the most interesting pages from him. He succeeds in painting states of mind to a high degree and gives him particular pleasure personally. "

- August Lüben, Carl Nacke : Introduction to German Literature , Part III (1864)


Articles and lectures

  • 1839: "The Germans in Russia". In: Der Adler , No. 158 (July 4, 1839), p. 549.
  • 1839: "The Jewish sect of the Karaites in southern Russia". In: Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums , III. Vol., No. 84 (Leipzig, August 10, 1839), p. 399 f .; No. 85, pp. 410-412; No. 87, p. 439
  • 1840: "Vegetation of the southern Russian steppes on the Pontus". In: The Abroad , No. 32 (February 1, 1840), p. 125 f .; No. 33, pp. 130 f .; No. 34, pp. 134 f .; No. 35, pp. 137 f .; No. 36, pp. 141-143; No. 37, p. 146 f .; No. 38, p. 151 f .; No. 39, pp. 154 f .; No. 40, p. 157 f .; No. 41, pp. 162 f .; No. 42, p. 166 f.
  • 1840: "The Petersburg Winter". In: Morgenblatt für educated readers , No. 34 (February 8, 1840), pp. 133 f .; No. 35, pp. 138 f .; No. 36, pp. 141 f.
  • 1840: "The Petersburg Fiaker". In: Morgenblatt für educated readers , No. 40 (February 15, 1840), p. 157 f .; No. 41, pp. 162-164; No. 42, pp. 165-167
  • 1840: "Russia. The tea stalls in St. Petersburg". In: Magazine for Foreign Literature , No. 24 (February 24, 1840), p. 93; No. 25, p. 99 f.
  • 1840: "Russia. The Petersburg Madhouse". In: Magazine for Foreign Literature , No. 91 (July 20, 1840), p. 363 f .; No. 92, p. 367 f.
  • 1840: "The Monasteries of Moscow". In: The Abroad , No. 214 (August 1, 1840), pp. 853–855; No. 215, pp. 859 f .; No. 224, pp. 893 f .; No. 225, pp. 898 f .; No. 228, pp. 909 f .; No. 234, pp. 933 f .; No. 244 (August 31, 1840), pp. 973 f.
  • 1840: "Details of a great Russian fair". In: The Abroad , No. 306 (November 1, 1840), pp. 1221 f .; No. 307, pp. 1226 f .; No. 308, pp. 1230 f .; No. 309, pp. 1233 f .; No. 310, p. 1238 f; No. 311, pp. 1242-1244; No. 313, pp. 1249 f .; No. 314, pp. 1253 f .; No. 315, pp. 1258 f .; No. 316, pp. 1262 f .; No. 317, pp. 1266 f .; No. 318, pp. 1270 f .; No. 319, pp. 1273-1275; No. 320, pp. 1277-1279
  • 1845: "Weirdos (From Travels in the Interior of Russia and Poland)". In: Der Wanderer (Vienna), No. 61 (March 12, 1845), p. 241 f .; No. 62, pp. 245 f .; No. 63, p. 249; No. 64, pp. 253 f .; No. 65, pp. 257 f.
  • 1846: "Recruitment in Russia". In: Oesterreichisches Morgenblatt (Vienna), No. 37 (March 28, 1846), p. 146; No. 38, p. 150; No. 39, p. 154; No. 40, p. 158
  • 1849: "The conflicting interests of Austria and Germany on the one hand and Russia on the other in the mouths of the Danube and the Black Sea". In: Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift , 1. Heft (1849), pp. 99–132
  • 1850: "From my huts". In: Abendblatt der Wiener Zeitung , No. 16 (January 18, 1850), pp. 1–3 ( digitized ANNO ); No. 17 (January 19, 1850), pp. 65 f.
  • 1850: "Miscelle". In: Austrian audience. Journal for the Educated , No. 63 (March 16, 1850), pp. 501–503
  • 1850: "The material well-being and reforms in housing, food and clothing of the inhabitants of Europe, especially Germany", Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift , second booklet (Stuttgart 1850), pp. 259-312 ( digitized ANNO )
  • 1853: "Village, house and farm of the Lower Saxony. Communicated by JG Kohl". In: Illustrirte Zeitung (Leipzig), No. 511 (April 16, 1853), pp. 247–250; No. 512, pp. 259-261
  • 1853: "The Montenegrins". In: Karl Gutzkow (Ed.): Conversations at the home hearth (Leipzig), No. 24, pp. 369–374; No. 25, pp. 393-397
  • 1854ː "Brief History of the Discovery and Conquest of Mexico". inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , Volume IV (1854), pp. 216–224
  • 1854ː "Agnes Bernauerin". In Illustrirtes Familienbuch zur Entertainment und Aufehrung [ domestic circles ] , Volume IV (1854), pp. 279–283
  • 1856ː "Brief description of the character and effectiveness of Christopher Columbus". In Illustrirtes Familienbuch zur Entertainment und Aufehrung [ domestic circles ], Volume VI (1856), pp. 258–269
  • 1859ː "Notes on the atlas on the history of discovery of America published by the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences on March 28, 1859". Inː Weser-Zeitung , then printed in continuations in the features section of the Temesvarer Zeitung , from No. 171 (29, July 1859), p. 1161 f.
  • 1861: "The floating land in Wakhusen". In: Die Gartenlaube (1861) , No. 42, pp. 666–669; Issue 43, pp. 678-681
  • 1862ː "The Armenians in Europe. An Ethnographic Sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume II, Heft 3 (1862), pp. 101-104
  • 1862ː "The Haidschnucken". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume II, Heft 5 (1862), pp. 176–182
  • 1863: "A trip to the Teufelsmoor". In: Die Gartenlaube (1863) , Issue 29, S: 460–463; Issue 30, p. 474 f.
  • 1863ː "The Walhalla". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume III, Issue 2 (1863), pp. 63–66
  • 1863ː "The Magyars. An Ethnographic Sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume III, Heft 3 (1863), pp. 86–98
  • 1863ː "The Jews in Europe. An ethnographic-historical character sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume III, Issue 4 (1863), pp. 121–135
  • 1863ː "Fragments on Physiognomics". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume III, Issue 6 (1863), pp. 199–203
  • 1863ː "The Appennine Country and the Italians. An Ethnographic Sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume III, Issue 9 (1863), pp. 300-314
  • 1864ː "Reminiscences of Emperor Nikolaus". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume IV, Issue 1 (1864), pp. 14-25
  • 1864ː "A steamship across the ocean". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume IV, Issue 6 (1864), pp. 202–212
  • 1864ː "The Pyrenean Peninsula and the Spaniards. An Ethnographic Sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume IV, Issue 11 (1864), pp. 376–388
  • 1865ː "Africa and Europe. On the influence of the nations in the south of the Mediterranean Sea on the population and culture of our continent". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume V, Issue 1 (1865), pp. 27–34
  • 1865ː "Village scenes from a valley in the Harz Mountains". Inː Morgenblatt für educated readers , No. 5 (January 29, 1865), pp. 97-102; No. 6, pp. 127-138
  • 1865ː "The Gypsies. A Historical-Ethnographic Character and Moral Painting". Inː Illustrirtes Familienbuch zur Entertainment und Aufehrung [ Domestic circles ] , NF Volume V, Issue 3 (1865), pp. 88–99
  • 1865ː "The Wallachians or Romanians. An Ethnographic Sketch". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume V, Heft 5 (1865), pp. 167–178
  • 1865ː "The Ottomans". Inː Illustrated family book for entertainment and instruction in domestic circles , NF Volume V, Issue 7 (1865), pp. 240–252
  • 1867ː "French-German and German-French". Inː The Salon for Literature, Art and Society (Leipzig), Volume I (1867), pp. 226–231, 339–355
  • 1868ː "The philosopher in the mountains . Aphorisms from a small mountain and bathing place on the Moselle". Inː The Salon for Literature, Art and Society (Leipzig), Volume I (1868), pp. 342–347, 441–447, 626–630
  • 1869ː "The first German, organized from the Weser around 1040, expedition to the North Pole". Inː Petermanns Mittheilungen , Volume 15 (1869), pp. 11-19
  • 1870ː "The first German expedition to the North Pole". Inː Bremisches Jahrbuch , Volume 5 (1870), pp. 174–191
  • 1872ː "The School of Courtesy". Inː The Salon for Literature, Art and Society (Leipzig), Volume X (1872), pp. 678–681
  • 1872ː "About the geographical position and world position of Trieste-Venice". Inː Neue Freie Presse. Abendblatt (Vienna), No. 2862 (August 13, 1872), p. 4; No. 2863, p. 4; No. 2865 (August 16, 1872), p. 6
  • 1873ː "About the geographical position and global position of the city of Lisbon and its port". Inː The Abroad , Volume 46 (1873), pp. 375–379
  • 1873ː "Eating and Drinking. A Little Aesthetic of Meals". Inː The Salon for Literature, Art and Society (Leipzig), NF Volume I (1873), pp. 634–639, Volume II (1873), pp. 1114–1119
  • 1873ː "Why do we sometimes show off our weaknesses and shortcomings?" Inː The women's world. Illustrirte Muster- und Modezeitung (Vienna), No. 19 (October 15, 1873), pp. 299–302
  • 1874ː "A Chapter on Fearfulness. Essay". In Over Land and Sea , Volume 33 (Stuttgart 1874), S, 576-578
  • 1874ː "Modern Phraseology". Inː Oesterreichisch-Hungarian Wehr-Zeitung , No. 66 (August 15, 1874), pp. 1–4 (taken from the Wiener Abendpost )
  • 1875: "Superstitious opinions and customs of the residents of the Ore Mountains". In: Journal for German Cultural History , New Series IV (Hanover 1875), pp. 514–533, 714–742
  • 1880 (posthumously) ː "The Bremen people building the city of Riga". In communications from the area of ​​the history of Liv, Estonia and Courland . Volume XII (Riga 1880), pp. 3-33. It was a lecture that Kohl had given on April 15, 1870 at the Society for History and Antiquity of the Baltic Sea Provinces of Russia .
  • 1911 (posthumously) ː "Asia and America". In Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 21 (1911), pp. 284-338


  • 1833: German mouth lute , Königsberg: Aug. Wilh. Unzer (published under the initials "JGK")
  • 1834: Contributions to the prehistory of some inventions , Königsberg: Aug. Wilh. Ounce
  • 1834: Children's stories and non-stories , Königsberg: Aug. Wilh. Unzer (published under the initials "JGK")
  • 1841: The German-Russian Baltic provinces, or natural and national life in Kur-, Liv- and Esthland , Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1841: Petersburg in pictures and sketches , Dresden – Leipzig. Second, increased and improved edition: Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung 1845–46. An English edition appeared in 1852 udT Panorama of St. Petersburg in Londonre Simms & McIntyre
  • 1841: Travels in South Russia . 3 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. Italian edition in one volume udT Viaggi nella Russia meridionale. Great version of the inglese di Enrico Valtancoli Montazio . Florenceː Società Ed. Fiorentina 1842. Dutch selection translation in one volume udT De Ukraine en Klein-Rusland. Uit het Hoogduitsch . Groningenː W. van Boekeren 1844
  • 1841: Travels in the interior of Russia and Poland . 2 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. Modern, revised new edition udT Moscow 1841. A travel companion , ed. by Kurt Scharr and Ksenia A. Scharr, Innsbruck: Studien Verlag 2005
  • 1841: The traffic and settlements of the people in their dependence on the design of the earth's surface ; Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. Second edition 1850, Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1842: A hundred days traveling in the Austrian states. 5 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. An English (slightly shortened and supplemented from other writings) edition in one volume udT Austria. Vienna, Prague, Hungary, Bohemia, and the Danube; Galicia, Styria, Moravia, Bukovina, and the Military Frontier appeared in London in 1844: Chapman & Hall
  • 1842ː Journey to Styria and the Bavarian highlands . Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung (single publication)
  • 1842–43: Russia and the Russians, in 1842 . 2 volumes. London: H. Colburn. American edition in one volume udT Russia and the Russians in 1842 . Philadelphiaː Carey & Hart 1843
  • 1843: Travels in Ireland . 2 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. English edition 1844 in one volume udT Ireland. Dublin, the Shannon, Limerick, Cork, and the Kilkenny Races, the Round Towers, the Lakes of Killarney, the County of Wicklow, O'Connell and the Repeal Association; Belfast and the Giant's Causeway , New York: Harper & Brothers
  • 1844: Country and people of the British Isles. Contributions to the characteristics of England . 3 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1844: Travels in England and Wales . 3 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. Engl. Edition 1845, translated by Thomas Roscoe, udT Travels in England and Wales , London: Sherwood & Co.
  • 1844: Travels in Scotland . 2 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung. First English edition udT Travels in Scotland. Translated from the German . With Notes by the Translator, in Correction or Elucidation of Mr. Kohl's Observations . Londonː Bruce & Wyld 1844. Second English edition udT Travels in Scotland. Translated from the German. New Edition . Londonː J. & DA Darling 1849. Swedish edition udT Resor i Skottland . Stockholm 1846
  • 1845: (together with Ida Kohl :) English sketches . 3 parts. Leipzig – Dresden: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1846: The marshes and islands of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein . 3 volumes. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1846: Travels in Denmark and the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. 2 volumes. Leipzig: FA Brockhaus. Swedish edition udT Resor i Danmark jemte en utflygt till södra Swerige. Öfversättning från tyskan af MS 2 volumes. Stockholmː Bonnier 1847
  • 1847: Remarks on the relationship between German and Danish nationality and language in the Herzogthume Schleswig . Stuttgart – Tübingen: JG Cotta
  • 1848ː For a German fleet . Dresdenː BG Teubner 1848
  • 1849: Alpine trips . 2 parts. Dresden – Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1850: From my huts, or confessions and dreams of a German writer . 3 volumes. Leipzig: Friedrich Fleischer
  • 1850ː Travels in the Netherlands . 2 volumes. Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1851: The Rhine . 2 volumes. Leipzig: FA Brockhaus
  • 1851: Travel to Istria, Dalmatia and Montenegro . 2 parts. Dresden: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1851: Views of nature from the Alps . Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung
  • 1851: Sketches from the life of nature and people . 2 parts. Dresden: Rudolf Kuntze
  • 1852: Travels in Germany. First division: Travel in south-eastern Germany [= today's Austria]. 2 volumes. Leipzig: Friedrich Fleischer
  • 1854: The Danube from its origin to Pesth . Trieste: Literary and artistic department of Oesterreichischer Lloyd ( MDZ )
  • 1856: Travels in Canada and through the states of New York and Pennsylvania . Stuttgart – Augsburg: JG Cotta. In English translation in 2 volumes, published under the title Travels in Canada, and through the States of New York and Pennsylvania , London: George Manwaring 1861
  • 1857: A Descriptive Catalog of those Maps, Charts and Surveys Relating to America, which are Mentioned in Vol. III of Hakluyt's Great Work . Washington: Henry Polkinhorn
  • 1857: Descriptive and Historical Notes on Certain Maps and Charts, Relating to the Progress of Discovery in America, and Mentioned in Hakluyt's Great Work . Albany: J. Munsell
  • 1857: Travels in the Northwestern United States . New York: D. Appleton & Co.
  • 1859: Kitschi-Gami or Tales from the Upper Lake. A contribution to the characteristics of the American Indians . 2 volumes. Bremen: C. Schünemann. An Engl. Edition was published in 1860 by Kitchi-Gami. Wanderings Round Lake Superior . London: Chapman & Hall (repr. Minneapolis 1956). The translation of the 1860 edition by Lascelles Wraxall was reprinted in 1985 by Kitchi-Gami. Life Among the Lake Superior Ojibway. With a new introduction by Robert E. Bieder and additional translations by Ralf Neufang and Ulrike Böcker . St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press
  • 1860: The two oldest general maps of America. Executed in 1527 and 1529 on the orders of Emperor Charles V in the possession of the Grand Ducal Library in Weimar . Weimarː Institute of Geography
  • 1861: History of the Discovery of America from Columbus to Franklin . Bremen: Heinrich Strack
  • 1862: The seafaring house in Bremen . Bremen: Heinrich Strack
  • 1863: The Raths wine cellar in Bremen . Bremen: J. Küthmann
  • 1864: Northwest German sketches. Trips on water and on land in the lower regions of the Weser, Elbe and Ems . 2 parts. Bremen: J. Kühtmann
  • 1866: German folk pictures and views of nature from the resin . Hanover: Carl Rümpler
  • 1866: On the way. Look into the mind and world in aphorisms . Bremenː C. Ed. Müller
  • 1868: The peoples of Europe . Hamburg: Association bookstore. Dutch edition Geschiedenis der Europeesche Volken . s'Gravenhageː Joh. Ykema
  • 1868: History of the Gulf Stream and its exploration from the earliest times to the great American Civil War. A monograph on the history of the oceans and geographical discoveries . Bremen: C. Ed. Müller
  • 1868: Pilgrimage of Landgrave Wilhelm the Brave of Thuringia to the Holy Land . Bremen: C. Ed. Müller
  • 1868ː From the market and from the cell. Popular lectures and mixed up small scripts . 2 volumes. Hanoverː Carl Rümpler
  • 1869: A History of the Discovery of the East Coast of North America, Particularly the Coast of Maine; from the Northmen in 990, to the Charter of Gilbert in 1578 , printed as part of William Willis (Ed.): Documentary History of the State of Maine. Vol. I. Containing a History of the Discovery of Maine . Portland: Bailey & Noyes
  • 1870: Monuments to the history and art of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen , Department 2: Episodes from the cultural and art history of Bremen . Bremen: C. Ed. Müller
  • 1870ː Livonia, America and the new stock exchange image in Bremen. A lecture was given in Bremen in the stock exchange building on March 4, 1870 . Dorpatː W. glasses
  • 1871: Old and new times: Episodes from the cultural history of the free imperial city of Bremen . Bremen: C. Ed. Müller
  • 1872: On the prehistory of Livonia. Second unmutilated edition . Leipzig: E. Bidder
  • 1873ː About sound painting in the German language . Berlinː Lüderitz
  • 1874: The geographic location of the capitals of Europe . Leipzig: Veit & Comp.
  • 1876: Small essays . Vienna: Carl Gerold's son
  • 1877: History of voyages of discovery and shipping to the Strait of Magellan's and to the countries and seas that are adjacent to it . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer
  • 1878: The natural lure of peoples' intercourse. Remarks on the most important raw natural products, which promoted the spread of the human race over the earth, gave rise to the discovery of countries, settlements, the foundation of colonies and the construction of cities, and an excellent one in the history of geography. Played a role . Bremen: C. Ed. Müller
  • 1885 (posthumously): History of Discovery and Exploration on the Coasts of the United States , [Washington:] US Coast and Geodetic Survey
  • 1911 (posthumously): Asia and America. An Historical Disquisition Concerning the Ideas which Former Geographers had about the Geographical Relation and Connection of the Old and New World . Worcester, Massachusetts: The American Antiquarian Society


  • Thomas Adam (Ed.): Germany and the Americas. Culture, Politics, and History. A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia . Volume I. Santa Barbara (Calif.) - Oxford 2005 (Transatlantic Relations Series), pp. 620 f. (Dieter K. Buse), ISBN 1-85109-628-0 .
  • Anneli Alexander: "JG Kohl and its importance for German national and national research". In: Deutsche geographische Blätter, 43, 1940, pp. 7–126.
  • Anon .: "Kohl's England and Wales". In: Littell's Living Age (Boston), Vol. III: From 3 November to 28 December 1844, pp. 314-318.
  • A. Brandt: "" The German-Russian Baltic provinces by JG Kohl "in relation to Polish Livonia". In: Das Inland , No. 38 (September 18, 1845), pp. 659–661.
  • Benjamin Franklin DeCosta: The Northmen in Maine; A Critical Examination of Views Expressed in Connection with the Subject, by Dr. J. Kohl, in Volume I of the New Series of the Maine Historical Society. To which are Added Criticisms on Other Portions of the Work, and a Chapter on the Discovery of Massachusetts Bay . Joel Munsell, Albany 1870 ( Archives ).
  • Thomas Elsmannː "Fleet Propaganda 1848: Johann Georg Kohls" For a German Fleet ". Inː Deutsches Schiffahrtsarchiv 29 (2006), pp. 307–316 ( pdf )
  • Thomas Elsmann: Johann Georg Kohl: a life between the old and the new world . Bremen: Schünemann 2010 ISBN 978-3-7961-1965-1 .
  • Thomas Elsmannː In the shadow of the businessman. Bremen scholars 1600–1900 . Schünemann, Bremen 2012, chapter on JG Koch. ISBN 3-7961-1999-9 .
  • Wilhelm Olbers Focke ː "Directory of Bremischer Naturforscher". Inː Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein zu Bremen 9 (1884–85), pp. 325–333, about Kohl under no. 28 on p. 331 ( PDF on ZOBODAT ).
  • Carola L. Gottzmann / Petra Hörner: Lexicon of the German-language literature of the Baltic States and St. Petersburg . 3 volumes. Berlinː Walter de Gruyter 2007. ISBN 978-3-11-019338-1 . Volume 2, pp. 707-710.
  • Hans-Albrecht Koch, Margrit B. Krewson, John A. Wolter (eds.): Progress of Discovery. Johann Georg Kohl. On the trail of the explorers . Akad. Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1993 (contributions by Dietrich Denecke and others).
  • Margrit B. Krewson : "From Bremen to America: Johann Georg Kohl, Chronicler of the American Continent". Inː German-Canadian Yearbook 16 (edited by Lothar Zimmermann, Hartmut Froeschle , Myka Burke. Historical Society of Mecklenburg, Upper Canada ). Toronto 2000, pp. 93-104 ISSN  0316-8603 .
  • Margrit B. Krewson: The Articulate Traveler. Johann Georg Kohl, Chronicler of the American Continents. Contributions to the Johann Georg Kohl Symposium, organized by the Goethe-Institut Washington. Library of Congress , Washington 1993.
  • Thomas K. Peucker: "Johann Georg Kohl, A Theoretical Geographer of the 19th Century". In: The Professional Geographer. 20, 1968, pp. 247-250.
  • Gottfried Pfeifer , '"... one shouldn't forget JG Kohl!"'. In: Karl-Friedrich Schreiber and Peter Weber (eds.): Mensch und Erde. Festschrift for Wilhelm Müller-Wille on October 26, 1976 (= Westphalian Geographical Studies, 33). Münster 1976, pp. 221-236.
  • Heinrich Armin Rattermann : "Dr. Johann Georg Kohl". In: The German Pioneer . Volume 10, No. 11, Cincinnati February 1879, pp. 419-422.
  • Silke Regin: Johann Georg Kohl. Ethnographic linguistic reflection in the 19th century . Carl Böschen Verlag , Siegen 2001, ISBN 3-932212-27-4 .
  • Hermann A. Schumacherː "Kohl's American Studies" Inː Deutsche Geographische Blätter . Volume XI, Issue 2, Bremen 1888, pp. 105-221 ( Archives ).
  • Herbert Black Forest : The Great Bremen Lexicon . 2nd, updated, revised and expanded edition. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2003, ISBN 3-86108-693-X .
  • Hans Gerhard Steimerː "Hermann Allmers, Johann Georg Kohl and the dispute over the Bremen stock exchange picture". inː Bremisches Jahrbuch 88, 2009, pp. 148–171 ( SUUB ).
  • Frederic Trautmann: "Glimpses of Michigan in 1855: The Travels of Johann Georg Kohl". In: Michigan History 67 (1983), pp. 33-39.
  • Frederic Trautmann: "Wisconsin through a German's Eyes in 1855: The Travels of Johann Georg Kohl". In: Michigan History 67, No. 4 (1984), pp. 263-278.
  • Frederic Trautmannː "Johann Georg Kohlː a German Traveler in Minnesota Territory". In Minnesota History 49, No. 4 (1984), pp. 126-139 ( pdf ).
  • Justin Winsor: The Kohl Collection (now in the Library of Congress) of Maps Relating to America , Government Printing Office, Washington 1904 ( Archive ).
  • Wilhelm Wolkenhauer:  Kohl, Johann Georg . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1882, pp. 425-428.
  • Arved von Taube : "Johann Georg Kohl and the Baltic countries" . In: Bremisches Jahrbuch, 48, 1962, pp. 261–318.
  • Valentina Vlajčićː Dalmatia in the trip to Istria, Dalmatia and Montenegro with Johann Georg Kohl. Diploma thesis University of Vienna, 2010 ( pdf on
  • Wilhelm Wolkenhauer: Johann Georg Kohl. In: From all parts of the world. Volume 10, pp. 138-141.
  • Mirna Zeman: "Weapons, costumes and square wheels. Things and national identity in Johann Georg Kohl's trip to Istria, Dalmatia and Montenegro". In: Materiality when traveling. On the cultural transformation of things (edited by P. Bracher, F. Hertweck, S. Schröder). Berlin 2006 (= travel literature and cultural anthropology, volume 8), pp. 199–214.

Web links

Wikisource: Johann Georg Kohl  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Johann Georg Kohl  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ "Geographical Works in North America" . In: Mittheilungen der kais. And Königigl. geographical society . XVI (NF 4). Vienna 1871, p. 156 .
  2. Barbara Freitag: Sheela-Na-Gigs. Unraveling to enigma . Routledge, London ‒ New York 2004, pp. 170 note 16 .
  3. City Library . In: State manual of the free Hanseatic city of Bremen to the year 1871 . C. Ed. Müller, Bremen 1871, p. 66 .
  4. ^ Libraries in Bremen. In: Handbook of the historical book inventory in Germany. Digitized by Günter Kükenshöner. Edited by Bernhard Fabian. Hildesheim: Olms Neue Medien 2003. SUB, accessed on October 14, 2019 .
  5. ^ "JG Kohl, the German tourist" . In: Viennese audience. Journal for the educated . No. 8 , January 13, 1847, p. 64 .
  6. On the characteristics of the American Indians . In: Sheets for literary entertainment . No. 49 , December 1, 1859, pp. 898 .
  7. Critical ads . In: New Free Press. Evening paper . No. 595 . Vienna April 27, 1866.
  8. "MS" is Martin Schück