City of Oxford
|OS National Grid||SP513061|
|Residents||154,327 (as of: 2018)|
|surface||45.59 km² (17.6 mi² )|
|Population density:||3385 inhabitants per km²|
|ZIP code section||OX1 - OX4|
|Part of the country||England|
|region||South East England|
Oxford (English [ ˈɒksfəd ]) is the capital of the county of Oxfordshire in England , Great Britain . The city lies on the Thames and Cherwell 90 km northwest of London , has over 150,000 inhabitants and is the seat of the old and renowned Oxford University and the younger Oxford Brookes University . Oxford also forms an independent district within the county.
Oxford is known as the “ city of dreaming spiers ” , a term that Matthew Arnold coined due to the harmonious architecture of the university buildings . Unlike its big rival Cambridge , Oxford is also an industrial city .
Oxford appeared for the first time in the time of the Saxons under the name Oxanforda , which means "Ford of the Oxen", ie ford of oxen, ie ox ford. It goes back to the founding of the monastery of a Saxon princess and nun named Frideswide in the 8th century and was first mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 912. In the 10th century, Oxford became a militarily very important city in the battle between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex .
In 1322, a council was held in Oxford, during which, among other things, the taking of confession from women in dark places was forbidden.
The Christ Church Cathedral is a college chapel and cathedral . Originally the main church of St. Frideswide , the building has been expanded and incorporated into the structure of Christ Church College as a chapel . It has had its dual function both as a chapel for the college and as a cathedral for the Diocese of Oxford since 1546. This partnership was often very difficult and many students were killed on the St Scholastica Day riot of 1355.
During the English Civil War of 1642, after the King was expelled from London, Oxford became the seat of government of King Charles I , although there was widespread support for parliamentarians in the city . The city fought under General Fairfax in 1646 for the cause of the parliamentarians.
Since 1790 the Oxford Canal has linked the city with Coventry and the industrial area around Birmingham . For a short time the Oxford Canal was one of the most important and profitable routes in England, on which the Oxford Canal Company handled most of the trade between London and the Midlands . So-called narrowboats were used to transport mainly coal, stone and agricultural products. With the commissioning of the canal, the price of coal in Oxford fell to one eighth within a very short time.
In the 19th century, the dispute over the Oxford movement in the Anglican Church brought the city into the focus of the population. Oxford City Hall was built during Queen Victoria's reign . Although Oxford the status of a since 1542 City has, City Hall will continue Town Hall called.
In the first decades of the 20th century Oxford experienced a great boom, after printing and publishing houses in particular had settled there. As a result, the number of residents also increased significantly. Around the same time, William Morris founded the Morris Motor Company in Cowley , a suburb of Oxford. Because of this industrialization, Oxford gained 40,000 more residents. The plant he founded still produces cars today and is now part of the BMW Group as the Mini production facility .
Automobile production brought numerous guest workers to Oxford. Together with the immigrants from Southeast Asia and the many students, they give the city a cosmopolitan character. This is especially true for the Headington district and Cowley Road with its many pubs, cafes, restaurants, clubs, Asian shops and fast food restaurants.
In addition to Oxford University, the city is also home to another university, Oxford Brookes University, the establishment of which can be traced back to 1865. It has had the title "University" since 1992 and has its headquarters in Headington.
A 2015 report revealed that in Oxford and throughout Oxfordshire from 2000 to 2015, 373 girls aged 11 and over were victims of gang sexual abuse of children and adolescents, child prostitution and human trafficking by British-Pakistani men. As in similar cases in Rochdale , Rotherham , Derby and Bristol, the authorities did not intervene despite information. As with other abuse scandals in Great Britain, the authorities did not react because they feared serving racial prejudice. The girls were usually white British.
Structure of the district
On the outskirts of the district are four smaller parishes ( Civil Parish ): Blackbird Leys, Risinghurst and Sandhills, Littlemore and Old Marston. The vast majority is outside this system as an unparished area . This means that all decisions are made at the district level, as well as the completion of related tasks.
Districts, suburbs and neighboring towns
Barton, Binsey, Blackbird Leys, Botley, Cowley, Cowley Marsh, Cutteslowe, East Oxford, Godstow , Grandpont, Greater Leys, Headington, Headington Quarry, Iffley, Jericho , Littlemore, Marston, New Headington, New Hinksey, Kennington, New Marston, Norham Manor, North Hinksey, North Oxford, Osney, Risinghurst, Rose Hill, Sandhills, South Hinksey, Summertown, Temple Cowley, Walton Manor, Wolvercote, Wood Farm.
Oxford is located about 80 kilometers north-west of London and is connected to the capital to the south-east and to Birmingham to the north by the M40 Motorway . There are railway connections u. a. to London Paddington , Birmingham, Worcester and Bicester . There is also a direct express bus connection between Oxford and London Victoria Coach Station , which is operated by two bus companies with several departures per hour.
The Oxford Canal connects Oxford with the city of Coventry . It has lost its economic importance as a traffic route and is now only used by leisure captains on their narrowboats that have been converted into floating holiday homes .
In Kidlington (about 7 km north of the city center) is London Oxford Airport , an airport used by private and business jets.
Probably the best known is the rowing team, which competes against the Cambridge team in a boat race on the Thames every year . The Kassam Stadium in Blackbird Leys is the home ground of the Oxford United football club , which despite high investments only plays in the lower leagues of England.
In motorcycle racing, the Oxford Cheetahs Speedway Elite League professional team is one of the best-known on the British Isles.
Oxford has many major tourist attractions, some of them university- related , such as B. The Ashmolean Museum , the Pitt Rivers Museum and the Bodleian Library . In the city center is the Carfax Tower from the 11th century. In the summer, boat trips on the Thames and Cherwell are popular. Other attractions are
- Christ Church Cathedral
- Church of St Mary the Virgin (also called University Church )
- St. Aloysius Church , Roman Catholic
- Clarendon Building
- Radcliffe Camera
- Sheldonian Theater
- Somerville College
- Radcliffe Observatory
- Oxford University Press
- Botanical Garden
- Numerous parks including University Parks and South Park .
Sister cities of Oxford are:
- Bonn , Germany
- Grenoble , France
- Leon , Nicaragua
- Perm , Russia
- Leiden , Netherlands
- Umeå , Sweden
- Catania , Italy
→ Main article: List of personalities from the city of Oxford
Literature in Oxford
The crime novels about "Inspector Morse" by Colin Dexter are set in Oxford and were also written here. Other authors associated with Oxford:
- John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (English Professor at Pembroke College , previously a student at Exeter College )
- CS Lewis (Fellow at Magdalen College )
- John Henry Newman (Fellow at Oriel College )
- Iris Murdoch (Student at Somerville College and Fellow at St Anne's College )
- Philip Pullman
- Lewis Carroll
- Javier Marías (Spanish writer, taught for a year in Oxford, his novel All Souls is set there)
- Dorothy L. Sayers (one of the earliest Oxford students ( Somerville College ), her detective novel Gaudy Night (1935) is a classic Oxford crime fiction)
- Peter Sager: Oxford and Cambridge . A cultural story. Schöffling, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 978-3-89561-671-6 .
- Peter Sager: Oxford . A cultural story. Insel , Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-458-35034-7 (Insel-Taschenbuch 3334).
- Fabian Pregel: Oxford . Goldfinch, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-940258-04-5 .
- Eleanor Chance, Christina Colvin, Janet Cooper, CJ Day, TG Hassall, Mary Jessup and Nesta Selwyn: A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 4, the City of Oxford. London, 1979. (English)
- Oxford . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 12, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 580.
- Official site of the city of Oxford (English)
- Statistical data based on the census on the site of the 2011 Office for National Statistics (English)
- District Oxford in the database of the Ordnance Survey (English)
- Office for National Statistics : UK Midyear Estimates 2019 , Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, June 25, 2019 (XLS file; 1.4 MB).
- Oskar Panizza : German theses against the Pope and his dark men. With a foreword by MG Conrad. New edition (selection from the “666 theses and quotations”). Nordland-Verlag, Berlin 1940, p. 42.
- Oxford Brookes University: Archived copy ( Memento of the original of June 8, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Retrieved August 19, 2011.
- Allison Pearson: Oxford grooming gang. We will regret ignoring Asian thugs who target white girls. In: The Telegraph , May 15, 2013.
- Sandra Laville: Professionals blamed Oxfordshire girls for their sexual abuse, report finds. In: The Guardian , March 3, 2015.
- Option One: No change to local governance. Description of such a constellation using the example of Bexhill from autumn 2017 on the occasion of a review triggered by a petition from the population, website of the Rother district , accessed on March 29, 2018 (English)