from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Residential buildings

A building is a structure that encloses rooms , can be entered and is used for the residence of people, animals or the storage of things . A building does not necessarily have walls or a basement , but always a roof . Otherwise, the properties of a structure also apply to a building. Some definitions take the term a little narrower and limit it to structures that rise above the ground .

To the subject

The state building regulations of the German federal states usually define as follows: "Buildings are independently usable, covered structures that can be entered by people and are suitable or intended to serve the protection of people, animals or things." ( Model building regulations ).

The Austrian building regulations, building laws and building technology laws of the federal states define the buildings as “covered, all-round or predominantly enclosed structures that can be entered by people.” The structure is “a system that is connected to the ground and for its professional production structural engineering knowledge is required ". With regard to the ancillary buildings , it is also stated "whether in the case of a connection with a main building there is an attached annex or a structural unit with the main building, i.e. an extension to this, depends on the structural design and the functional context of the independent building or a mere building parts of the building to be qualified building from. "


As with the term building, there is no uniform or binding, generally recognized categorization. One can differentiate according to various aspects:

According to construction and material

For example:

According to function

When differentiating between functions, there is no uniform or binding categorization. Some functions are:

the function as a residential building , residential and commercial building
the function of a workplace such as office buildings , commercial buildings and department stores or factories and workshops
Storage , handling of goods
the function of warehousing in stores or warehouses .
Social life
function as public buildings such as town halls and government buildings
Education and sciences
the function of the home of an educational institution such as schools , colleges , universities or institutes
Health and welfare
the function as a hospital , sanatorium , old people's home , nursing home , spa building or penal institution
the function of a culture or assembly building, such as libraries , museums , concert halls , opera houses and cultural or community centers
the function of a sports facility such as sports halls and swimming pools
the function of a sacred building such as a temple or church building
the function of changing modes of transport in train stations , bus stations , airports and special reception buildings , as well as for parking vehicles or bicycles in multi-storey car parks ,
Administration, law and politics
the function of such town halls , county houses , country houses , parliaments and courts

According to shape

There are free-standing buildings (single houses) as well as semi-detached houses and groups of houses in open construction . Building ensembles are made up of several individual buildings, e.g. B. a three-sided farm . In the closed development , the individual building no longer appears so clearly as a single object, but several buildings together form a building block (surrounded by streets), a building complex or a larger element of the urban structure; Nevertheless, a distinction is made between the front, transverse and rear buildings , and between corner and central buildings.

From a legal point of view

According to energy standards

There are low-energy houses , passive houses and so-called plus - energy houses . These are different energy standards that make a statement about the energy requirements of the building.


The largest building in the world is the New Century Global Center in Chengdu , China , which opened in 2013 . It is 100 meters high, about 500 meters long and 400 meters wide. Inside are hotels, shopping streets and a water park. The Commerzbank Tower is the tallest building in Germany. The longest building is the former KdF-Seebad Rügen in Prora .

See also

Portal: Architecture and Construction  - Overview of Wikipedia content on architecture and construction


  • Ernst Seidl (ed.): Lexicon of building types. Reclam, Stuttgart 2006.

Web links

Commons : Buildings  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: buildings  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Hans Koepf : Picture Dictionary of Architecture (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 194). 2nd Edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-520-19402-3 with a reference to Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm : German dictionary . 1878.
  2. Model building regulations (November 2002 version) PDF file on
  3. something like Oö. BauTG 2013.
  4. World's largest building: The New Century Global Center officially opens in China., July 1, 2013
  5. Top 25: Germany's largest building , Der Spiegel from August 29, 2008.