Parking garage

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Signs for a multi-storey car park in Germany
Parking garage in hot-dip galvanized steel construction
Parking garage with ramps
Automated parking garage in Thessaloniki

A multi-storey car park is usually a multi-storey building with parking spaces for cars or motorcycles and, more rarely, for trucks or bicycles . Parking garages are mostly built in larger cities in order to make better use of the limited inner-city space and to relieve the street space of parked cars (so-called stationary traffic ). One floor of a parking garage is called a parking deck . A multi-storey car is a ramp accessible, not lying on the ground floor garage , a parking garage is a garage below the earth's surface.


Self-service elevator at the Munich Central Station Bayerstraße car park

A distinction is to be made in principle according to the type of development:

  • Via ramps and half ramps (whereby the drivers almost always drive their vehicle to the parking space and pick it up there)
    • A space-saving variant is the D'Humy system , also known as the split-level system.
    • Parking garages that have parking spaces on parking ramps are very economical.
  • by elevators (e.g. automatic parking garage ) or movement of vehicles by garage personnel - the drivers hand in their vehicle and key
This parking garage shows the occupancy of each parking space.

A parking fee usually has to be paid for parking a vehicle. For security reasons, many parking garages are monitored by video cameras. In modern systems, an occupancy detection is usually installed that shows the user how many parking spaces are still free. This is often also linked to a parking guidance system. In some parking garages there are parking spaces specially reserved for women ; these are often wider, are usually located in easily visible places, close to the security guards or they are specially monitored by video cameras.

Related terms

Helical driveway to a parking garage in Braunschweig

The term “ large garage”, which is often used in parallel , also refers to garage systems that only include single-storey vehicle halls or a number of individual garages in combination with a workshop and a gas station - that is, they have little in common with a car park in today's sense.

Often referred to by the term car park and underground car parks , which are in contrast to high garages / parking garages underground. There are also combinations of the two.

History / development

The need to create parking facilities for automobiles on a larger scale probably first arose in the USA , where mass motorization began much earlier than in other parts of the world. The construction of multi-storey car parks in the metropolises began shortly after the First World War .

London's first multi-storey car park was built near Piccadilly Circus on May 5, 1901 and stretched over seven floors.

Situation in Germany


The first parking garages were built in Germany in the 1920s. Examples (without claim to completeness):

Former Opel store in Aachen (status 2002)

However, parking garages only became really popular in Germany after the Second World War , when mass motorization also began here.

Haniel garage in Düsseldorf
Price list for a parking garage at Zurich Airport
Automatic car park Dresden
Marina City ; Chicago, Illinois
Designated smart parking lot ...

More recent developments are moving in the direction of technically complex, space-saving, fully automatic parking garages , where the user only has to put his car in a parking box, from where it is then moved to its parking position by the system.


Many car parks in Germany are operated by specialized companies, the largest providers in Germany are APCOA with 200,000, Contipark with 130,000 and Q-Park with 86,000, B + B multi-storey car park with 21,000 and Vinci Park with 13,000 parking spaces (as of 2011).

Among other things, APCOA operates the multi-storey car parks at Düsseldorf (17,000 parking spaces) and Stuttgart (10,000 parking spaces) and Berlin-Schönefeld (5,900 parking spaces) as well as the Allianz Arena (11,350 parking spaces). Among other things, Q-Park operates the parking garages at Berlin-Tegel Airport. Contipark has a 49% stake in DB BahnPark , which operates multi-storey car parks at train stations.

Large parking garages

Only large, individual parking garages are listed here. Large complexes of several parking garages, such as B. at many airports, but sometimes have significantly more capacity.

rank Parking garage local community Levels Parking spaces
1. Frankfurt am Main airport - multi-storey car park T1 Frankfurt 14th 12,000
2. Allianz Arena - multi-storey car park Munich 4th 9,800
3. Daimler AG, Mercedes-Benz Sindelfingen plant - P307 Sindelfingen 6th 8,000
4th Zurich Airport - multi-storey car park 6 Balls 10 7,485
5. Munich Airport - Parking garage P 20 Erding 11 6,400
6th Hamburg Airport - multi-storey car park P2–4 Hamburg 3-9 5,900
7th Audi AG - Parking garage Gate 6 Neckarsulm 7th 5,700
8th. Messe Frankfurt - Rebstock car park Frankfurt 5,400
9. New Munich Trade Fair Center - West car park Munich 7th 4,600
10. Frankfurt am Main airport - parking garage T2 Frankfurt 4th 4,500
11. Audi AG - Multi-storey car park T39 Ingolstadt 8th 4,300
12. Messe Stuttgart - multi-storey car park above the motorway Stuttgart 5 4,200
13. Daimler AG , Mercedes-Benz Sindelfingen plant - P 305 Sindelfingen 7th 4,000
14th Cologne / Bonn Airport - multi-storey car park 3 Cologne / Bonn approx. 4,000


The Auto Club Europa criticizes that only a few parking garages have so far widened their parking bays and thus adapted them to the increased width of many cars. The ACE requires a parking bay width of 2.50 meters instead of the 2.30 or 2.20 meters found in many places. For the disabled and families with children on board, seats 3.50 m wide are desirable.

The ADAC makes and publishes parking garage tests every year. In 2011 he checked 50 parking garages; he rated three as “very poor”.


  • Beatrice Haerig: In the eye of the double helix . In: Monuments December 2013. 23 Vol. 6, pp. 66–73.
  • Jürgen Hasse : Overlooked spaces: On the cultural history and heterotopology of the parking garage. transcript Verlag , 2007, ISBN 978-3-89942-775-2 ( preview on Google Books )
  • Joachim Kleinmanns: Parking garages. Architectural history of an unloved necessity. Jonas Verlag , Marburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-89445-447-0 .
  • Madelaine Rose Mayer: Parking Lots: An Investigation of Public Space in the Contemporary American City (Dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology), Atlanta 2005
  • Academy of the Hesse Chamber of Architects and Urban Planners, German Architecture Museum, Quantum AG, NH Group (ed.): More than just parking. Thinking car parks further , JOVIS Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86859-282-5

See also

Web links

Commons : Parking garages  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Parking garage  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Duden | Parking deck | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin. Retrieved February 14, 2020 .
  2. Duden | Multi-storey car park | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin. Retrieved December 17, 2019 .
  3. Sven Bardua: Berliner Kant-Garagen, All around, that's not difficult , The amount of cars in the big cities to accommodate is a problem that has not yet been solved. But it can be alleviated by cleverly built parking garages. The Berlin Kant garages are not. Now they are threatened with demolition. FAZ from June 22, 2014
  4. Contipark company data
  5. Parking spaces in Germany - figures and information. Accessed July 2, 2013.
  6. Market position ( Memento of the original from May 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Apcoa goes to Eurazeo ,
  8. Overview by operator ( memento of the original from May 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. Parking spaces are too narrow ,, 2011
  11.  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. 2Template: Dead Link /