|founding||May 15, 1940|
Oak Brook , Illinois ,
( President and CEO )
|Number of employees||205,000 (end of 2019)|
|sales||21,070,000,000 US dollars (2019)|
|Branch||Quick service system catering|
With sales of US $ 20.8 billion and a profit of US $ 5.8 billion, McDonald's is the 20th largest company in the world according to Forbes Global 2000 (as of 2020). The company had a market capitalization of approximately $ 139.5 billion in mid-2020 .
The first McDonald's restaurant (internally called “store (s)”) was opened on May 15, 1940 by the brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald (“Dick & Mac McDonald - McDonald's Bar-BQ”) in San Bernardino , California . The restaurant became famous after 1948 when the brothers introduced an innovative and rational way of preparing hamburgers - the Speedee System - and switched to self-service . Neil Fox became the brothers' first franchisee in 1953 . For the first time, the "Golden Arches" (German "golden arches") adorned his restaurant in Phoenix (Arizona) . In 1954, the milkshake mixer salesman Ray Kroc approached the McDonald brothers with a proposal to open more McDonald's restaurants because he was impressed with the efficiency of the restaurant. He tried to get Walt Disney , his comrade from the war days, to allow him to open a McDonald's fast food restaurant in Disneyland, which was then under construction . When Disney declined, Kroc opened his first own restaurant in Des Plaines . Kroc recruited the first franchisees mainly from his close circle of friends and acquaintances. Due to the unsuitability of some of them and conceptual flaws such as B. pledges to protect the area , the now rapidly expanding company almost threatened to go under; Today the group tries to ignore this critical period in its publications as far as possible.
The success of Krocs is based on several factors: on the one hand on a sophisticated system of co-determination rights of the franchisees in strategically important decisions, especially in planned campaigns at restaurant level, on the other hand on the development of a lucrative real estate marketing concept. A Krocs employee originally responsible for real estate development, Harry Sonneborn, had developed the concept of inseparably linking the hamburger and real estate business by first attempting to acquire the land on which its branches were to be built and then excluding the franchisees In addition to the actual franchise fee, they also had to pay turnover-dependent leases (which made McDonald's - little noticed - at the same time one of the world's largest real estate companies).
Strategic partnerships with other large corporations secured the “Hamburg sales” that are important for this development. Examples are the cooperation with the Coca-Cola Company and the close relationship between McDonald's and Disney. The latter is evident, for example, in the regular collaborations, such as B. film-related additions to the HappyMeals and corresponding advertising material in the branches.
The contract with the McDonald brothers stipulated that Kroc would be responsible for the expansion of the chain , while the brothers retained control of production and shared in the profits. In 1961, Kroc became increasingly dissatisfied with this constellation . After some negotiations, the now wealthy McDonald brothers agreed to sell the rights to the McDonald's brand to Ray Kroc for $ 2.7 million. Kroc had borrowed the money for this from several investors , including an investment portfolio in which Princeton University and several other elite American universities were involved. The contract allowed the brothers to continue to call their restaurant The Big M. It stayed open until Kroc dislodged the brothers by opening a McDonald's eatery just across the street. If the brothers had kept the original contract that guaranteed them 0.5% of the chain's annual revenue, they would now receive nearly $ 180 million a year. Kroc's company was originally called McDonald's Systems Inc. and was renamed McDonald's Corporation in 1960 . In 1977, Kroc wrote his autobiography Grinding It Out .
Since 1967, McDonald's has also opened restaurants outside of the United States (for the first time in Canada and Puerto Rico ). The first McDonald's branch in Europe opened in Amsterdam in 1971 . In contrast to the USA, where McDonald's is seen by many as the epitome of cheap and unhealthy food, McDonald's food is a status symbol in other parts of the world, for example in the People's Republic of China . McDonald's opened the 100th restaurant in Shanghai. In the US, 50% of residents live less than a three-minute drive from the nearest McDonald's. In Germany there is an average location every 16 km. According to its own information, the company was active in around 120 countries towards the end of the 1990s. Since then, the Group has withdrawn from some regions due to difficult economic conditions. The IPO of his Japanese subsidiary fell short of analysts' expectations.
In Latin America, the franchisee Arcos Dorados operates 2100 restaurants in 20 countries. The group, which was founded in 2007, was able to increase sales by 26% to USD 3.5 billion by 2008 and again achieve USD 3.3 billion in 2017.
McDonald's has been represented in Israel since 1993 and has opened restaurants there, some of which comply with the kosher rules. Since 1999, in the Abasto - shopping mall in Buenos Aires ( Argentina a kosher restaurant). All restaurants that offer kosher food are closed on the Sabbath . In 1963, a place in a Catholic neighborhood in Cincinnati , Ohio , offered the FishMac for the first time because it didn't eat meat on Fridays. Similarly, in Islamic countries there are halāl (i.e. McDonald's which are laid out according to Islamic food regulations) and in Hindu India there are no beef dishes, instead poultry burgers and the lamb-based “McMaharajah”. In 1992 the first Moroccan McDonald's restaurant opened on the fashionable Corniche of Casablanca , not far from the newly built Hassan II Mosque . In the fasting month of Ramadan , McDonald's in Morocco offers a typical menu with harira and dates. Today there are 28 branches in Morocco, 50% of the products come from local suppliers. McDonald's is the main sponsor of the Moroccan SOS Children's Villages .
From 1991 until his death on April 19, 2004, Jim Cantalupo was the head of the world's largest restaurant group. His successor at McDonald's, CEO Charlie Bell , resigned from his post on November 23, 2004 because of colon cancer. The new CEO was 60-year-old Jim Skinner . President and new CEO became the head of US operations, Mike Roberts. Under the leadership of Cantalupo and Bell, the fast food chain was able to increase its sales significantly. New menus with salads and new breakfast options were given as the reason. During this time the German Gerd Raupeter, the Dutch Adrian Hendrix (2003) and the Serbian Bane Knezevic (July 2005) alternated in quick succession as CEOs. Bane Knezevic, who previously worked in Austria, has since been responsible as President Western Division not only for Germany but also for Austria and the Central and Eastern European countries of Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Croatia. This continued the trend of creating supranational administrative associations within Europe in order to use synergies on the one hand and to reduce national competencies on the other. In October 2013, Knezevic was replaced as head of Germany by Holger Beeck, who joined the group as a management trainee in 1984, after the first drop in sales in Germany.
McDonald's Europe has been divided into three divisions (south, north, west) and the Eastern Europe region since mid-2005. The French Denis Hennequin has been President McDonald's Europe since July 1, 2005, responsible for operations in 51 countries, after serving as President and Managing Director of McDonald's France from 1996-2004. In 2004, Hennequin was named Executive Vice President of McDonald's Europe and in this role worked closely with Russ Smyth, President of McDonald's Europe, until he left the company.
The Austrian subsidiary of the group has been subordinate to the “West Region” in Munich since 2005, after previously being subordinate to the “Central Europe headquarters” at Schwechat Airport. From there, Central Europe boss Andreas Hacker opened around 1,400 branches in Eastern Europe. In the fourth quarter of 2005, Andreas Hacker left the company with the comment that the "fun factor" had been increasingly lost.
At the beginning of March 2006, the "Managing Director" of McDonald's Austria, Harald Sükar, announced his retirement from the executive chair of the Group's Austrian subsidiary. The Briton David Newman, born in 1958 and has been with the fast food group since 1986, became the new Austrian boss. Before that, he was responsible for the McDonald's subsidiaries in eleven Central and Eastern European countries.
On November 23, 2009, McDonald's announced that at least in Europe it would change its corporate color. The yellow logo will be retained, but the background will in future be green instead of red. As the first branch in Germany with a new color scheme, a restaurant opened at Munich Airport on November 21, 2009 . The new color scheme will initially only be used for new openings, but will later be extended to existing establishments. A color change also took place in Austria, which was completed at the end of 2009. In Switzerland, the brand's first restaurant with a new color scheme opened in December 2009 in Kölliken ( canton Aargau ). The new color scheme is already widespread in France, and the McDonald's France website has also been adapted to the new color scheme.
CEO Jim Skinner announced on March 22, 2012, to retire from the group after 41 years. His successor was the previous US CEO and Don Thompson , who has been with the group for over 25 years , and his replacement was announced in March 2015. A decline in sales and image problems would be the reason why the Board of Directors elected Steve Easterbrook as the successor. In 2014, the prices of the products were raised, and the eating habits of customers had changed. In November 2019, Steve Easterbrook had to vacate his position as CEO and President due to an internal love affair , successor was Chris Kempczinski , who was previously responsible for McDonald's USA.
In March 2015, as part of an offensive against customer loss, a table service was promised for branches that are important to the company and the range of products on offer was expanded in the higher-quality area. The German head office announced that it had hired another advertising agency.
McDonald's is a system catering company and currently operates restaurants in 120 countries. Of the 36,899 restaurants (as of the end of 2016), 31,230 are operated by franchisees and 5,699 by McDonald's as their own restaurants. 1.8 million people are employed by McDonald's Corporation or one of its franchisees around the world, around 60,000 of them in Germany. The company was originally founded in 1940 by the brothers Richard and Maurice ("Dick & Mac") McDonald. The foundations of the corporate concept were laid by sales representative Ray Kroc , who later bought the restaurant concept from the brothers and developed it into the restaurant concept with the highest international sales. Through the franchise structure, in which each restaurant is an independent company that employs its employees, the group protects itself against violations of labor law, which are attributed to the respective restaurant operator. At the end of July 2014, the US National Labor Relations Board decided that in future the licensor McDonald's Corporation would be treated as a joint employer together with the respective restaurant operator . Violations of labor law, including the unlawful prevention of union activity, can result in fines and restrictions on McDonald's Corporation. The company announced that it would defend itself against the decision. If the decision is upheld in court, it would have major consequences for the structure of McDonald's and all other franchise-based companies in the USA.
The group receives its income primarily from fixed or percentage monthly rents, which are based on net sales. Harry J. Sonneborne, one of the founders of McDonald's, said the following one day: “We are actually a real estate company. The only reason we sell hamburgers is because they make the most profit that our restaurant owners can use to pay us rent ”. If you calculate the real estate rent per square meter, you will also come across higher prices in the “provinces” than in the Frankfurt banking district. The group itself emphasizes in this context that it is about lease income, since in addition to the actual property, it also provides the special kitchen technology and above all the business concept, the brand and the advertising controlled by the franchisor. In Germany, some licensees had sued the company in the past because of the high rents.
in billion US dollars
in billions of dollars
In Europe, the group is represented in 39 countries with more than 7,300 restaurants. It employs 415,000 people serving 14.5 million customers every day. Sales in 2011 were approximately $ 10.9 billion and operating profit was $ 3.2 billion.
|rank||country||Number of restaurants|
|2||People's Republic of China||3.002|
In Belgium , the first McDonald's restaurant opened in 1978 opposite the Brussels Stock Exchange. Today there are 63 Belgian restaurants with 2,750 employees, which in 2008 generated a turnover of 110 million euros.
|McDonald's Germany LLC|
|legal form||Limited Liability Company|
|Seat||Munich , Bavaria|
|management||Holger Beeck (chairman)|
|Number of employees||58,000 (2018)|
|sales||3.247 billion euros (2012)|
|Branch||Quick service system catering|
|As of March 22, 2018|
The McDonald's Germany GmbH started in September 1971. Already on December 4, 1971 the first German store opened in the Martin-Luther-Strasse in Munich in the district Obergiesing , it is still in operation today. The first branch in the new federal states was opened on December 21, 1990 in Plauen , Saxony . The German branch with the highest turnover is located at Munich's Stachus . The largest McDonald's branch in Germany has been located at Frankfurt Airport in Terminal 2 since April 1, 2015 ; the McCafe there is the largest in Europe.
In Germany, the company operates as McDonald's Germany LLC, a company under the laws of the US state of Delaware . Most of the restaurants run by franchisees , however, are German GmbH . Since the mid-1990s, more and more locations have been handed over to franchisees. Breakfast has been available since April 1994. Hochland has been the official partner and cheese supplier of McDonald's Germany since 1973 . OSI is the only supplier of meat products for McDonald's Germany.
The German headquarters are now in Munich . In addition to this so-called main service center (HSC), there are three other regional service centers (RSC) in Munich, Offenbach am Main and Berlin . The former regional service centers in Hamburg and Düsseldorf were converted into subordinate regional offices (RS) following regional reforms. The test kitchen in which McDonald's Europe tests and develops products is located in Frankfurt-Niederrad . At the company's headquarters in Oak Brook , Illinois , McDonald's runs a training facility for selected employees, known as the Hamburg University . Like its German counterpart, this in-house training institution only awards internally recognized degrees, i.e. no generally recognized university degrees.
Some cities and property owners with strict design statutes and requirements have created McDonald's branches with special logos and designs. The former branch on Arnulfsplatz in Regensburg was housed in a historic, former tavern and was called "Zum Goldenen M", while the branch in Rothenburg ob der Tauber had a golden M emblazoned on a wrought iron nose shield . Both branches are now closed.
In Germany, the first worldwide slogan campaign “i'm lovin 'it”, which has been running since 2003, uses the German-language variant “I love it”. The English version is used in Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
The most popular products in Germany are the cheeseburger, followed by the chicken burger and the Big Mac. From February 14, 2013 to April 24, 2013, McDonald's Germany offered currywurst for the first time (already withdrawn from the offer). In 2013, annual sales in Germany fell by a few percent for the first time. In October, the company changed its long-time boss in Germany. One of McDonald's new competitors in Germany is called Hans im Glück . At the end of April 2019, McDonald's launched the Big Vegan TS with an imitation meat from Nestlé .
In the area of mobile commerce , Mobile Order & Pay was launched in February 2018 . The service was offered in around 980 German branches in May 2019.
McDonald's is a member of the Employers' Association of the Federal Association of System Catering (BdS). The collective bargaining agreement concluded with the food-gourmet restaurant union and the collective wage and salary agreement are implemented in all McDonald's branches in Germany. Was 2015 McDonald's of the largest US employers in Germany (including franchises), but was in terms of sales with around 3 billion euros in 15th place this ranking .
in billions of euros
(Ø number of locations
(including satellites )
(approx. / Annual mean )
guests (in millions)
|2002||2.28||263 ("Two or more")||1,211 (62)||47,000||715.0||788|
|2003||2.27||272 (3.2)||1,244 (90)||47,000||740.8||920|
|2004||2.30||271 (3.3)||1,262 (107)||47,000||751.8||1,432|
|2010||3.02||251 (4.5)||1,386 (174)||62,000||981.9||2,099|
In France , the brand's first restaurant opened on June 30, 1972 in Créteil . After disputes with the French general franchisee Raymond Dayan, McDonald's France withdrew its license after a few years and even opened a restaurant in Strasbourg on September 17, 1979 , which McDonald's France now regards as the first French branch. In 2011, the company said it had 63,000 employees and served around 1.7 million guests per day in 1,226 restaurants. In 2010 it generated sales of 3.9 billion euros.
In Greece , the first store opened on November 12, 1991 in Syntagma Square in central Athens . There are currently around 29 Greek restaurants of the brand with 1,200 employees. The branches are located in metropolitan areas as well as on numerous islands. In Greece, McDonald's is in particular competition with the national fast-food chain Goody’s .
In Italy , the first branch was opened in 1985 in the South Tyrolean capital Bozen . After ten weak years in which only 33 restaurants were opened, the economic rise began with the takeover of the Italian competitor Burghy from Cremonini , which at that time had around 80 locations. In 2004, the company had 12,000 employees in administration and around 340 branches; 180 million visitors brought the company a turnover of 527 million euros.
A specialty of the Dutch branches is the "McKroket", a burger made from a roll with meat croquettes, which are very popular in the Netherlands, and a dressing sauce. Since June 1, 2015, gluten-free burgers have also been offered in around 50 Dutch branches . With Spain and Sweden, you are one of the few countries in which this is possible.
The first branch in Austria opened on July 27, 1977 on the ground floor of Palais Wertheim on Schwarzenbergplatz in the inner city of Vienna. At first there were differences with the authorities, because according to the commercial custom laid down in the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus , minced beef had a fat content of 10%, but the McDonald's patties had a fat content of 17% according to the American model. This was specially signposted at the beginning. McDonald's Austria now employs around 9,500 people with 195 branches, who served around 158 million guests in 2016 and generated sales of 586 million euros.
The first branch in Russia was opened on January 31, 1990 on Pushkin Square in Moscow during the times of the Soviet Union . At the time it opened, this was the largest McDonald's restaurant in the world and, with over 20 checkouts (2006), is still the largest in Europe. In July 2012 there were 319 stores in Russia.
Switzerland and Liechtenstein
In Switzerland , the first branch was opened in Geneva in 1976 . In 2016, 7,000 employees in 165 branches served around 100 million guests in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Together with its 43 licensees, McDonald's Switzerland achieved sales of CHF 708.7 million in 2016 and bought food for more than CHF 127 million in Switzerland. This corresponds to a share of 86 percent of local ingredients. 78 percent of the restaurants in Switzerland are run by licensees. Originally, the first restaurant was to be opened on Bahnhofstrasse in Zurich , but due to protests among the city population, the group initially decided in favor of Geneva. A branch in Zurich only opened three years later, and McDonald's has been operating in the canton of Ticino since 1993 . The only branch in Liechtenstein is in Triesen .
Frigemo has been the exclusive French fries supplier to McDonald's Switzerland since 1976 and Bell is responsible for the beef patties. Around 12% of the beef is imported from Austria. In 2017, 85.2 tons of bacon from Germany were consumed. This will in future be supplied by the Ospelt Group . The Cheddar cheese comes from the Allgäu .
In March 2020, all branches across Switzerland completely ceased operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic .
In Serbia (at that time still part of Yugoslavia ) the first branch was opened on March 24, 1988 on Slavija Square in Belgrade . It was also the first McDonald's restaurant in Southeast Europe . Today (as of July 2012) McDonald's operates 16 branches in Serbia. There are 11 in Belgrade. Others are active in Niš , Novi Sad and Subotica as well as at the motorway service station at Velika Plana and in the shopping center in Kragujevac . In the medium term, McDonald's plans to open additional branches in other locations. In 2009 McDonald's was one of the 300 most successful companies in the Balkans.
In the United Kingdom , the first McDonald's restaurant opened in Woolwich , London, in October 1974 . In 2012 there were 2,600 restaurants, making the country one of the largest markets for McDonald's.
In Hungary , the first branch opened its doors in Budapest at the end of May 1988 , which at that time was also the first in the so-called Eastern Bloc . By 2010 a network of 100 branches had been established. The company employs around 5,000 people in Hungary, 50% of whom are students. The restaurant in Budapest's West Train Station was integrated into Gustave Eiffel's existing industrial design .
Due to the Arab League 's boycott of Israel, McDonald’s first branch in Israel was not opened until 1993 in Ramat Gan . McDonald's operates several kosher and non-kosher restaurants. Both types of restaurants use kosher beef. The difference in the non-kosher restaurants is that those are open on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays and that dairy products are also offered in addition to meat. Most branches only sell special unleavened burger bread on Passover . The largest burger restaurant chain after McDonald's is Burgeranch here . Burger King withdrew from the country in 2010 and became active again in 2016. A former competitor was the Israeli chain MacDavid , which was dissolved in 2003 .
- see also Edificio McDonald’s , Montevideo
Branch types and distribution channels
McDonald's distinguishes between four main variants:
- In-store : restaurants located in existing buildings in city centers, shopping centers or train stations.
- Freestander : Restaurants in standardized new buildings built for this purpose on the outskirts or near the autobahn and on main roads. Wherever possible, these are carried out with a McDrive , i. H. an additional car counter and an advertising tower ( pylon ).
- Satellites : very small branches without seating and with a limited range of products, always logistically linked to a larger McDonald's restaurant. The name McExpress originally used is generally no longer used in Germany.
- Affiliated branches : very small restaurants with seating. Usually they are connected to a gas station or a motorway service station. The first branch of this kind is in Darmstadt . The product range is limited.
An additional pedestrian counter called McWalk or McStop can be found at individual branches in city centers ( in-stores ), i. H. mostly in pedestrian zones. A McWalk can be found in Hamburg ( ZOB ), in Hanover (Bahnhofstraße), in Oldenburg (Lange Straße), in Flensburg and in the Bavaria Filmpark Munich.
In Duisburg , Cologne and Frankfurt am Main there was a cooperation with C&A in the nineties , in whose department stores smaller restaurants with the name "McDonald's Express" and a limited product range opened.
The world's smallest McDonald's restaurant (with an area of just under 46 m²) is located in Tokyo , Japan ; the largest was the restaurant in the Olympic Park built for the 2012 Olympic Games in London. The northernmost restaurant is in Murmansk , Russia , the southernmost in Invercargill , New Zealand . Nearly 400 meters below sea level on the Dead Sea coast in En Bokek , Israel , is the chain's lowest-lying restaurant. The highest McDonald's density (with a branch distance of about 400 meters) can be found in Manhattan in New York .
The first McDrive , a drive-in of a McDonald's branch, was introduced in 1975 in the city of Sierra Vista , Arizona . In Germany, the corresponding first car track was not created until the early 1980s (in Ludwigsburg ).
The names McDrive or Drive-in do not come from the US branches, where it is called drive-thru (drive-through). The name McDrive was chosen because of the easier pronunciation for German-speaking people compared to the English " th ". The first Swiss drive-in was built in 1990 in Wil SG .
The first McCafé opened in Australia in 1993 , the first official McCafé in Germany didn't open until 2003 in Cologne . At first there were McCafés mostly at airports, train stations and in large cities, but only as “shop within a shop”, that is, they are located in a McDonald's restaurant. Previously, the largest franchisee in southern Germany, Michael Heinritzi, had already opened his own McCafé concept in his restaurant on Irschenberg (on the autobahn) in 2000. At the end of 2004, the headquarters in Munich named Braunschweig (four McCafés) and Helmstedt as test markets.
By the end of 2005, a total of 54 McCafés had opened in Germany. In the course of 2008, the 500th German McCafé branch was opened. By mid-2013, the number of German McCafés had risen to 817. At the end of 2011 there were 143 McCafé branches in Austria. By February 2012, 27 McCafés had opened in Switzerland.
In 2012 McDonald's sold bubble tea in its McCafés in Germany and Austria .
Other forms of distribution
Further attempts to open up new forms of distribution were z. B. in Switzerland and Germany the McTrain , a dining car from McDonald's for the SBB and the DB , the McPlane , an airplane with McDonald's offers, again in Switzerland the McBus and, as a private project of the then Swiss franchisee, the McHotel am Zürcher Airport . A McDonald's branch was also operated on the Stena Explorer high-speed car ferry , which operates between Holyhead in the UK and Dún Laoghaire in Ireland , but this has now been transferred to the competitor Burger King. In Osnabrück , Lower Saxony , McDonald's is also currently testing a delivery service model called McHome , based on the already established delivery service of its main competitor Burger King . In 2017 McDelivery was launched in cooperation with UberEATS and is available as of January 2019. a. available in the USA, Germany (with Lieferando.de ), Great Britain and Switzerland.
The name and logo of McDonald's are among the best-known symbols in the world, the international spread of the chain and its business model gave rise to various concepts. The Big Mac Index compares the prices of the chain's internationally popular product in different countries and enables a very simply structured global comparison of purchasing power. In a theory from 1993, American sociologist George Ritzer describes McDonaldization as the application of various aspects of fast food restaurants, such as the underlying management and rationalization model, in other areas of society. As a McJob , little permanent and poorly paid jobs are called and criticized.
With reference to Richard Cobden , Thomas Friedman described the McDonald's logo as a symbol of an increasingly peaceful world, intertwined by strong trade relationships, and he pointed this out in 1999 in his humorous thesis of the golden arcs of conflict prevention . It is extremely unlikely that two states, in which the American fast food chain operates restaurants, waged war against each other. A well-known counterexample, however, is the war in Kosovo that began the same year . Naomi Klein's book No Logo , published in 2000, on the other hand, criticizes the worldwide distribution of the chain and the intensive marketing of McDonald's and other international companies, especially among young people and children, as an expression and cause of “brand madness” at the expense of local production and trade relationships.
According to Eric Schlosser, the success of McDonald's in the early days of the chain was primarily due to the fact that the restaurant was more family - friendly than classic American diners . Many diners and hamburger restaurants attracted mostly young men with loud music and attractive female waitresses. McDonald's, on the other hand, was intent on offering "morally clean" offers for the whole family in the puritanical sense. McDonald's also benefited from public and press support.
According to Schlosser's otherwise very critical book, McDonald's is now the largest private supplier of playgrounds in the United States and its logo and in-house identification figure Ronald McDonald is almost as well known among American children as Santa Claus . A charity organization of McDonald's in Germany, the Ronald McDonald House Charities - Foundation , builds and operates so-called Ronald McDonald Houses in the environment of nationally important children's hospitals to jointly accommodate families during the treatment of seriously ill children.
In the McLibel case , a long-standing libel suit in Great Britain over a leaflet critical of McDonald's, the company's business practices and dealings with critics, as well as the British libel case law, were heavily criticized. The Stella Liebeck case also became internationally known . McDonald's was fined over half a million US dollars in pain and suffering after a woman was scalded from a coffee spilled in a car. The case led to the dedication of the Stella Award, which is presented for exaggerated or curious claims for damages and court rulings.
On July 18, 1984, the 41-year-old mentally disturbed American James Huberty entered a McDonald's branch in San Ysidro , a district of San Diego , California with several firearms , killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before he was caught by the police was shot. This rampage went down in criminal history as the McDonald's massacre . The branch was demolished after the bloody event. In 1985, director Mark Gilhuis filmed the rampage under the title Bloody Wednesday . The death metal band Macabre wrote McMassacre a song about the event.
Angry farmers, led by the sheep farmer José Bové, devastated the shell of a McDonald's branch in the southern French city of Millau on August 12, 1999 . They were protesting against punitive tariffs on French products such as Roquefort cheese , which the US introduced as a "retaliatory measure" when the European Union had previously refused to import genetically modified food from the US. Bové was sentenced to three months in prison in 2000 for instigating this action.
McDonald's sells most of the children's toys worldwide through the addition of toys in its Happy Meals . The addition of these toys is said to cause the children to eat more. In November 2010, the San Francisco City Council decided that the distribution of free toys with children's meals would be banned from December 2011. McDonald's bypasses the ban by selling the toy for ten cents.
Due to the littering (English littering) through carelessly thrown away packaging waste by customers, for example in the surrounding parking lots, paths or green spaces, McDonalds has launched various initiatives such as "Anti-Littering" or "Dispose of garbage".
As the market leader, McDonald's often stands for fast food and system catering in general. The criticism mostly relates to environmental protection , quality and health aspects of food, hygiene and working conditions ( McJobs ). The following actions and reports received public attention:
The environmental protection organization Greenpeace accused McDonald's in its 2006 report "Eating up the Amazon" of being partly responsible for the decline of the Brazilian rainforest. Greenpeace sees a connection between the consumption of meat and the cultivation of soybeans on illegally cleared areas in the Amazon region . Soy meal is the most important protein-containing feed in animal fattening . That is why McDonald's was named as an example for other restaurants and supermarket chains in the study.
Further protests by Greenpeace followed, including in front of McDonald's branches. The Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise blocked the port of the main soy exporter Cargill in Santarem . Following the protests, McDonald's decided to work with Greenpeace. In McDonald's product policy, buying meat from the Amazon region was already excluded, so an agreement was reached on this point very quickly. Greenpeace and McDonald's put together a group of experts and visited Brazil in January 2007 to negotiate the issue. Cargill, which at first saw no urgent problem in its business policy, was convinced by the team of experts. Cargill itself helped to get the rest of the soy exporters to agree. The solution was to force the farmers to reforest their land. Otherwise their soy would not be bought.
Disregard for privacy
McDonald's requires potential franchisees to provide information on illegitimate relationships, "physical ailments" and "date and reason for the last medical examination".
Working and hygiene conditions
In a study by the Dortmund Social Research Center , the company is accused of actively obstructing the formation of works councils at individual locations.
Jamie Oliver criticized in his TV show "Jamie Oliver's Food Revolution" that McDonald's, Taco Bell and Burger King had treated meat products in the USA using ammonium hydroxide (ammonia dissolved in water), the boiling point of which is below that of water, to prevent salmonella and Kill E. coli bacteria. McDonald's quality manager Todd Bacon had already announced in early 2011 that this production process would be discontinued.
In 2014, McDonald's Europe-wide ended its voluntary commitment to refrain from using genetically modified feed in chicken fattening. According to calculations by Greenpeace, a chicken burger would become less than a cent more expensive if McDonald's continued to forego genetically modified feed.
After massive criticism, McDonald's has announced that from January 2018 in Europe it will only process chickens that have not been treated with reserve antibiotics . The aim is to prevent human resistance from developing through eating chicken meat.
Avoidance of tax payments
The Black Book Brand Companies mentioned McDonald's. The international trade union confederation PSI announced in May 2015 that McDonald's should have saved around 1.8 billion dollars between 2009 and 2013 through clever tax practices. The group is said to have directed payments to tax havens, where the company operates 42 subsidiaries - McDonald's reported 11 subsidiaries for 2014. Income from Europe often went to Luxembourg , those from Australia to Singapore and the USA in Delaware .
In November 2017, McDonald's is listed in the Paradise Papers publications .
- Super Size Me by Morgan Spurlock (2004)
- The McDonald's Check , WDR
- 15 Things You Need To Know About McDonald's , Sat.1
- The Founder (2017)
- John F. Love: The McDonald's Story: Anatomy of a World Success. Heyne, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-453-09916-8 .
- Ray Kroc : Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's. St. Martin's Press, New York 1990, ISBN 0-312-92987-0 .
- Siegfried Pater : For example McDonald's. Lamuv , Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-88977-595-0 . (2nd ed.)
- Naomi Klein : No Logo! . Goldmann, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-442-15312-3 .
- Morgan Spurlock: Golden Arches East: McDonald's in East Asia. Stanford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8047-3205-1 .
- Willy Schneider : McMarketing - Insights into the marketing strategy of McDonald's. Gabler, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-8349-0160-6 .
- McDonald's International Official Website
- Official website of McDonald's Germany
- Official website of McDonald's Switzerland
- Official website of McDonald's Austria
- 2019 Annual Report. (PDF; 3.6 MB) Retrieved May 17, 2020 (English).
- Simon Hage: The Burger King. In: manager-magazin.de. July 23, 2012, accessed May 29, 2015 .
- Forbes Global 2000 List . In: Forbes . ( archive.org [accessed June 14, 2018]).
- World's Oldest McDonald’s . City of Downey, California. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
- aboutmcdonalds.com - timeline - 1940 , accessed on February 24, 2014
- Hagen Seidel: Behind the scenes of McDonald's in Germany. Die Welt, February 22, 2011, last accessed May 9, 2017.
- Christoph Rottwillm: Hedge funds are lurking for real estate billions from McDonald's. Manager-Magazin, March 27, 2015 , last accessed May 9, 2017.
- Information in the English language Wikipedia
- The McDonald's story ( Memento from April 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) mcdonalds.de, accessed on April 12, 2014
- https://www.mcdonalds.de/uber-uns/geschichte > 1970s
- The McDonald's story ( Memento from January 2, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- McDonald's opens 100th restaurant in Shanghai , www.franchisebasis.de/blog/
- Preis-Kamikaze in Sushi-Land , spiegel.de
- McDonald's posts record revenues in Latin America in 2008 , boersennews.de
- From trainee to boss - Holger Beeck becomes McDonald's Germany boss. Handelsblatt dated October 10, 2013
- Lean sales - competition gnaws at McDonald's. Handelsblatt dated October 21, 2013
- Information page of Munich Airport with an illustration of the new McDonalds color scheme ( memento from November 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- McDonald's changes from red to green ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Südkurier, November 23, 2009
- McDonald's is also switching to green in Austria. In: Wirtschaftsblatt. November 23, 2009, archived from the original on March 7, 2014 ; Retrieved December 18, 2015 .
- New logo - Hope is Green BAZ, November 23, 2009.
- McDonald’s boss has to go. The time of January 29, 2015
- dpa / tat: Change of leadership: McDonald's gets a new boss. In: welt.de . March 22, 2012, accessed October 7, 2018 .
- McDonalds Announces Key Management Changes ( April 2, 2015 memento in the Internet Archive ), accessed March 31, 2015
- Thorsten Schröder: The end of fast food. The time of December 15, 2014
- Lukas Zdrzalek: I love it (not anymore). The time of March 17th, 2015
- McDonald's fires boss because of relationship with employee. In: Spiegel Online , November 4, 2019.
- McDonald's Corporation Announces Leadership Transition , November 3, 2019
- Offensive against customer loss - more service: McDonald's will bring burgers to the table in the future. focus from March 30, 2015
- Eco-offensive: McDonald's is rehearsing the kale revolution. ( Memento from May 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) WEB.de, accessed on May 14, 2015
- McDonald’s Corporation 2016 Annual Report. (PDF) Retrieved December 25, 2017 .
- Federal Association of System Gastronomy: McDonald’s
- McDonald's Ruling Could Open Door for Unions , New York Times, July 29, 2014
- Schlosser, 96 f.
- Annual Reports , aboutmcdonalds.com
- McDonald's Revenue 2006-2019 | MCD. Retrieved May 6, 2019 .
- McDonald's: Development of the number of restaurants up to 2018 | Statistics. Retrieved May 6, 2019 .
- mcdpressoffice.eu ( Memento from March 16, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- Annual Report 2011 ( Memento of April 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 4.2 MB)
- McDonald's: Countries with the most restaurants. Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
- Frankfurt Airport: Reopening of the Food Plaza in Terminal 2. YouTube, published on April 5, 2015, accessed on April 8, 2015
- http://www.mcdonalds.de/uber-uns/geschichte accessed on February 24, 2014
- McDonald's: Hochland In: mcdonalds.de, accessed on March 12, 2018.
- McDonald's: OSI In: mcdonalds.de, accessed on March 12, 2018.
- McDonald's Germany ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Branch Regensburg Arnulfsplatz ( Memento from October 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Robert Sedlaczek: “Im lovin it” or “I love it”? Sedlaczek on Wednesday. In: Wiener Zeitung. November 20, 2007, accessed September 6, 2013 .
- Interview with the Germany boss Bane Knesevic in: Mobil. The Deutsche Bahn magazine. No. 5/2009, p. 86.
- McDonald's sells curry sausages , spiegel.de
- in sales - McDonald's sells fewer burgers in Germany. Die Welt 8 February 2014
- Katharina Grimm: New strategy at McDonald's: The fat years are over. In: stern.de . April 2, 2015, accessed April 15, 2019 .
- Michael Gassmann: Big Vegan TS: McDonald's is adding vegan burgers to its range. In: welt.de . April 25, 2019. Retrieved April 26, 2019 .
- McDonald's ordering app now available nationwide. In: ahgz.de . May 27, 2019, accessed May 27, 2019 .
- Federal Association of System Gastronomy
- BdS collective agreements
- Yearbook 2015 of the AmCham
- Annual Reports McDonald's D. Inc./McDonald's Corporation / for 2005 press release.
- McDonald's in facts and figures
- The largest system restaurateurs in Germany. Abendblatt.de, accessed on March 12, 2012, 1:20 a.m.
- McDonald's réalise un sixième de ses sales in France. L'Expansion, accessed July 11, 2012.
- mc-donalds glutenvrij , on mcdonalds.nl, accessed on June 16, 2015.
- mcdonalds.at: About us, accessed on June 28, 2017
- Robert Hochner (designer): Contribution in the time in picture 2 of July 27, 1977; In 2012 included in the program Panorama - Wurstsemmel gegen Tofulaibchen , re-broadcast on television as it did on September 6, 2013 00:35 on ORF III
- McDonalds - Restaurants Search ( Memento from December 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) in Russian
- Reto Blunier: McDonald's: Meat imports are increasing. In: schweizerbauer.ch . May 10, 2019, accessed May 10, 2019 .
- Patrik Berger: McDonald's is now using Swiss bacon . In: blick.ch, September 28, 2018, accessed on October 9, 2018.
- Coronavirus: Mc Donalds is closing all branches, including the drive-in . In: blick.ch, March 21, 2020, accessed on March 22, 2020.
- McDonald's u Srbiji
- Mekdonalds u Srbiji uložio više od 12 miliona evra
- The Burger Movement. 20 years of McDonald's in Hungary. ( Memento of April 10, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Pester Lloyd , May 17, 2008, accessed January 28, 2010
- Ilanit Hayut: Burger King re-launches in Tel Aviv Globes, February 2, 2016, accessed April 4, 2017.
- Burger King makes a comeback in Israel QSRMedia Asia, April 8, 2016, accessed April 4, 2017.
- London 2012: McDonald's presents mega flagship restaurant , cafe-future.net
- More coffee at McDonald's - attack on Starbucks. n-tv.de
- Facts and Figures , mcdonalds.de, accessed on August 23, 2013
- McDonald's delivery service McDelivery now available on Lieferando.de. In: finanznachrichten.de. April 23, 2019, accessed May 27, 2019 .
- CH: McDonald's delivery service starts. In: schweizerbauer.ch . Retrieved January 24, 2019 .
- Uber Eats is now also available in Lausanne. In: handelszeitung.ch . April 9, 2019, accessed April 9, 2019 .
- George Ritzer: The McDonaldization of Society S. Fischer, 1997, ISBN 3-596-13811-6 .
- Thomas Friedman: The Lexus and the Olive Tree. 1999, revised in 2000
- Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Nation, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-06-083858-2 .
- McDonald's rioters celebrated like a hero Spiegel Online, August 1, 2002
- Smith, Andrew F. (2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press US, ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2 , p. 371.
- McDonald's and Toy Lawsuit: Are "Happy Meals" Tricking Kids? cbsnews.com, June 23, 2010
- San Francisco confirms ban on "Happy Meals" Spiegel-Online, November 10, 2010
- San Francisco McDonald's find way around toy ban cbsnews.com, Nov. 30, 2011
- http://www.mcdonalds.de/ajax-nachhaltigkeit-recycling (accessed December 30, 2014)
- http://www.presseportal.de/pm/52942/1615978/mcdonald-hals-muell-eine-abfuhr-restaurantkette-erweitert-ihr-wertstoffmanagement-mitarbeiter (accessed December 30, 2014)
- We eat up the Amazon. Greenpeace, April 14, 2006, accessed December 18, 2015 .
- McDonald's & Co feed the rainforest taz, April 15, 2006
- New Allies on The Amazon Washington Post, April 24, 2007
- McDonalds and Cargill in plan to help Amazon forests The Daily Telegraph, November 3, 2007
- McDonald's and Subway demand the most intimate data from franchisees Spiegel Online, March 6, 2010
- McDonald's and Subway ask for intimate dates. Retrieved February 19, 2014 .
- "Eating with Fun" or The Last Feed
- Nils J. Nolting: Works council work in the low-wage sector (PDF; 734 kB)
- McDonald's: Sacking royal - Focus 1995. Retrieved February 19, 2014 .
- Ten percent discount - Der Spiegel 1997. Retrieved on February 19, 2014 .
- The McDonald's Check - Brand Check - WDR. Retrieved February 19, 2014 .
- Meat scandal: McDonald's does not use ammonium hydroxide. Yahoo! News of February 2, 2012
- Philipp Löpfe: Pink-red meat slime. Tagesanzeiger, April 7, 2012
- McDonald's: Genetic engineering in burgers. Der Spiegel, April 27, 2014
- McDonald's no longer wants reserve antibiotics in chicken. Retrieved January 8, 2018 .
- Golden Loopholes: McDonald's $ 1.8 billion global tax avoidance model revealed. In: Public Services International. Retrieved May 23, 2015.
- Tax tricks with fast food? In: Die Zeit , 21/2015, p. 25.
- Paradise Papers - The research of the Süddeutsche Zeitung . Retrieved November 7, 2017.