|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||63 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||119.8 km 2|
|Residents:||165,251 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1379 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0541, 05402, 05406, 05407|
|License plate :||OS|
|Community key :||03 4 04 000|
|LOCODE :||DE OSN|
|City structure:||23 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Wolfgang Griesert ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Osnabrück in Lower Saxony|
Osnabrück ( [ ˌʔɔsnaˈbʁʏk ] , Westphalian Ossenbrügge , older Platt Osenbrugge , Latin Ansibarium ) is a city in Lower Saxony and the seat of the district of Osnabrück . The independent city is an upper center of Lower Saxony and the center of the Osnabrück region . With around 165,000 inhabitants (169,108 according to the municipal register), it is one of the four largest cities in Lower Saxony, alongside the similarly sized Oldenburg and the larger cities of Hanover and Braunschweig . The approximately 28,000 university and college students make up about 14% of the total population. The exposed location at a junction of old trade routes was the reason for the foundation of the city. In the Middle Ages , Osnabrück was the principal city of the Westphalian quarter of the Hanseatic League .
Osnabrück became known, together with the Münster approx. 50 km away , also as the place where the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 was signed. According to Osnabrück, the motto "Peace as a task - committed to peace" still applies today in the context of the peace concept determine the cultural and political life in the city. This should also be made clear by the slogan Osnabrück - The City of Peace . B. is used in the corporate design of the city of Osnabrück.
After the Congress of Vienna , a “de-westernization” began in Osnabrück and the surrounding area (see History of Westphalia ). The Westphalian character of Osnabrück can still be clearly recognized by the standard German spoken by the local population , the architecture in and around Osnabrück and the regional cuisine (see Westphalian cuisine ). Unlike the neighboring district of Osnabrück , the city has not yet joined the Northwest Metropolitan Region . The city is the seat of the Diocese of Osnabrück, founded in 780 .
Osnabrück is still today at the intersection of important European economic axes. As a result, the city developed into a logistics center . In addition, an important auto, metal and paper industry has settled.
The city lies on the border with North Rhine-Westphalia and at the intersection of important European economic axes. This enabled the city to develop into an important logistics center.
Osnabrück is the only city in Germany that is located in a nature park : The TERRA.vita nature and geopark surrounds the city and extends into the urban area. Osnabrück is located in the Osnabrück hill country , which is bordered in the north by the Wiehen Mountains and in the south by the Teutoburg Forest . The foothills shape the city directly, as there are a large number of elevations in Osnabrück. The highest is the Piesberg at 188 meters, which is known for its former coal mining and the industrial museum. More generally, Osnabrück is in the Lower Saxon mountainous region , which is separated from the North German Plain . The altitude at Neumarkt (city center) is 64 m above sea level . The highest point in the city is on Piesberg at 188 meters above sea level , the lowest point is on the River Hase in Pye at 54 meters above sea level. The city limits are 79.5 km long.
Geographical center of the city
The geographic center of the city is at longitude 52 ° 16'39 '' north, latitude 8 ° 02'51 '' east. At this point, on the historic Herrenteichswall , a red ball was erected on a concrete base in 2016. Right next to the point runs the Hase with the Haseuferweg. At the center, the Conrad-Bäumer-Weg crosses the Hase and leads to the nearby Carolinum grammar school and the Osnabrück Cathedral. A plaque was installed on the bridge indicating the center point.
The main body of water in Osnabrück is the Hase and the tributaries Belmer Bach , Nette and Düte . In terms of water management importance, the Hase is a second order body of water and is not navigable within Osnabrück. It reaches Osnabrück from the east towards Melle in Voxtrup . In the Fledder area the right tributary Belmer Bach flows into the Hase, which comes from the eponymous Belm . Shortly afterwards , the Hase splits into two separate arms for around two kilometers, the Klöckner Hase and the Neue Hase . These practically form an island on which the Klöckner steelworks in Osnabrück stood until 1989 and today the Hasepark industrial park is located. After flowing through the city center, it takes on the right tributary of the Nette in the Hafen district . The Nette, which rises in the Osnabrücker Bergland, flows from a north-easterly direction through the district of Haste , before it flows into the Hase at the Kämmerer paperworks after the branch canal has been covered under the canal . Then the hare flows on to the north-western city limits near Eversburg . With reference to the river, the city of Osnabrück is sometimes referred to as the rabbit city.
The Düte flows from the south through the districts of Sutthausen , Hellern and Atter , in order to leave the Osnabrück urban area after the Dütebrücke am Attersee and to reach the neighboring Lotte . Further north it flows into the Hase between Wallenhorst and Wersen .
Heavy rainfall through the Cathleen low in August 2010 led to increased water levels in the flowing waters of Osnabrück. Floods occurred in some parts of the city and the neighboring communities, which resulted in the disaster alarm being issued .
The two largest lakes in Osnabrück are the Rubbenbruchsee and the Attersee . While the Rubbenbruchsee is mainly used by walkers and joggers for local recreation, the Attersee offers a distinctive camping and leisure area and is the only swimming lake in the city area. Both are artificially created quarry ponds.
In the river valley of the Hase, the branch canal Osnabrück runs parallel to it , a 14.5 km long artificial federal waterway that connects the Mittelland Canal near Bramsche with the port in the district of Osnabrück of the same name . The actual canal as a federal waterway is 13.0 km long and ends in the upper outer port of the Haste lock, the remaining stretch is counted towards the Osnabrück city port. Further north on the canal are the oil port and the Piesberg port.
The Osnabrück city area extends over 119.8 km². Officially, 164,748 people live in Osnabrück, which corresponds to a population density of 1,375.2 inhabitants per km².
The urban area of Osnabrück is divided into 23 districts , which are numbered consecutively. Their names are mostly based on historical names or the geographical location. In some cases, several former localities were also combined into one district. Each district is further divided into statistical districts , each of which is identified with a three-digit number.
The 23 districts with their official numbers (as of December 31, 2017) :
|Residents||EW / km²|
|21st||That's why / Gretesch / Lüstringen||14.34||8,114||570|
The individual districts have developed their own character over time. While retail, trade and industry have primarily settled in the city center, the port and in Fledder , Hellern and Widukindland are classic residential areas with a large proportion of one-family households. West of the city center, the residential area is more densely populated and from Old buildings and rental apartments. While a middle-class clientele has settled in the Westerberg area , students as well as younger families and single households live in the desert and the Weststadt. At the city limits, on the other hand, the area is partly rural, Schinkel and Schinkel-Ost as well as Eversburg were influenced by their history as working-class districts.
The 119.80 km² city of Osnabrück is divided into the following land uses (as of December 31, 2016) :
|Type of use||Area in km²|
|Total floor area||119.80|
|Body of water||1.80|
Osnabrück is located on the border with North Rhine-Westphalia . Most of the neighboring communities are located in the Lower Saxony district of Osnabrück , while Lotte is in the North Rhine-Westphalian Tecklenburger Land ( Steinfurt district ), which belongs to the Osnabrück agglomeration . As an economic and service center, Osnabrück has a relatively high balance of commuters ; Over 59% of employees subject to social insurance commute to work in the city. The Osnabrück agglomeration has around 281,000 inhabitants.
Distances refer to the straight line from town center to town center.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Osnabrück
Westerly and northwest winds are decisive, bringing cool weather in summer and mild rainy weather in winter. The weather situation is rather inconsistent. The annual average temperature is 9.4 ° C as a long-term mean, with January being the coldest at 1.8 ° C and July being the warmest month with an average of 17.6 ° C. The winters are somewhat milder than in eastern or southern Germany, but the summers are correspondingly cooler, whereby not only summer thunderstorms but also long periods of rain can occur.
Osnabrück has a relatively high annual rainfall of 856 mm and is above the national average. Winter and summer rain are balanced. Overall, the precipitation is spread over an average of 122 rainy days a year.
- Former weather station of the DWD at Ziegenbrink (1952–2010), relocation of the station to Belm in 2010
- Weather data recording by the air measuring station on the Ziegenbrink
- Meteomedia weather station on Haste campus
- Weather station on the Westerberg
The image of the city center is characterized by churches (tower heights up to 103.5 meters, St. Katharinen ). In the northern part of the city center, between the Cathedral of St. Peter and the Heger Tor , the historic old town with the Town Hall of the Peace of Westphalia extends . Many classicist buildings can be found here, such as the Tenge house from 1813/1814. In the old town there are also rococo buildings and houses from the time when the city was still built in half-timbered construction. The Hotel Walhalla , built in 1690, is one of the half-timbered houses .
The triangular market square with the town hall of the Westphalian Peace and the Church of St. Mary is medieval. In addition, around 150 Romanesque and Gothic stone works were found in Osnabrück , many of which are well preserved. That is more than in any other city in Germany, which is why Osnabrück is also called the capital of stone works . Worth mentioning is the Ledenhof , a stone factory with Palas against the former prince-bishop's Baroque castle . The Osnabrück Theater , an Art Nouveau building from 1909, is located at the Domhof . The Luther Church in Neustadt is painted in Art Nouveau style . It was built as a daughter church of the late Gothic hall church of St. Katharinen , the tallest church in the city at 103.5 m. The former Dominican monastery , whose church is now used as an art gallery, is of historical importance .
The pedestrian zone in the central part of the city center connects to the old town and forms the main shopping street (Große Straße and the front part of Johannisstraße). In addition to a few buildings that survived the war, modern functional buildings dominate here.
The Neumarkt is located between the old and new towns (southern inner city) . Formerly a central market square of the city, it is now cut up by a four-lane street and serves as a traffic junction and main bus station. Between 1964 and 2001, pedestrians could not cross Neumarkt at ground level, but had to go through an underground pedestrian tunnel. This tunnel, called the Neumarktpassage, was created to make the city car-friendly . After it was possible to cross the square again from 2001 onwards, the importance of the tunnel declined, so that it was closed in 2012 and demolished and filled in in 2014-16.
To the north of Neumarkt, in the area of Wittekindstrasse and Berliner Platz, companies from the service and financial sector with modern building structures and glass facades have settled. The Neustadt still offers old buildings , especially in the area around the former collegiate church of St. Johann . In the former churchyard of St. Johann is the listed exhaust air column that ventilates an underground toilet system. To the south of the square is the former Neustadt town hall .
The city center is enclosed by a kidney-shaped city ring that accommodates car traffic. From this so-called wall , the main, entry and exit roads of the city start in a star shape . Seven towers, a rampart and two walls line the city ring, which is a remnant of the old city fortifications .
Today's wall includes, counterclockwise, the Hasetor-, Natruper-Tor-, Heger-Tor-, Schloss-, Johannistor- and Petersburgerwall as well as the Konrad-Adenauer-, Goethe- and Erich-Maria-Remarque-Ring. The Vitischanze represents a combination of the old and the new, in which modern architecture was placed on top of an old city fortification. Part of the casino was housed here until 2007. In the meantime, the building has been used by the Industrial Design course at Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences. The tallest building is the Iduna skyscraper from the first half of the 1970s with 20 floors.
All around, green and forest areas, which also serve as recreational areas, extend right up to the city center. This concept of the "green fingers" was created in the 1920s by the then town planning officer Lehmann, who asserted that forest and local recreation areas were preserved from the outside as green lungs up to the town center. In the current land use planning, the green fingers are also taken into account from the point of view of climate protection. Osnabrück is the largest city in Germany, which is located in the middle of a nature park, the nature and geopark TERRA.vita .
In the area of today's Sandforter Straße in the Voxtrup district , an old street ran from about the Neolithic to the Middle Ages , which was used for trade and where the rabbit crossed by a ford . In the vicinity of the ford there are several Neolithic large stone graves , such as the Gretescher Steine , the Sundermannsteine and the Teufelssteine , as well as other burial sites. In 2016 the 5,000 year old copper hoard of Lüstringen was found in the area . Traces of human activity from the Neolithic Age can also be found in other places in today's urban area.
Today's Osnabrück region was located in Germania magna in antiquity , i.e. the area of influence and settlement of the Germanic tribes north of the Roman Empire . For a long time the Romans tried to expand their sphere of influence to the north. The clashes with the Germanic peoples reached their climax around 9 AD in the Varus Battle , in which the Cheruscan general Arminius and Germanic fighters destroyed three Roman legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus . The battle itself or a related battle event probably took place in the Kalkriese region north of Osnabrück. In particular, the Roman helmet mask found in Kalkriese in 1990 became a symbol of the Varus Battle in the Osnabrück area.
The name researcher Jürgen Udolph suspects that Osna (or a similar name form) was once the name of a section of the Hase and was later replaced by the river name Hase , but was retained in the place name Osnabrück.
The popular derivation from the Low German word 'Ossen' for ox - a long-distance trade road crossed the Hase at a ford through which the farmers' oxen were driven and where a bridge was later built - is also seen by the Osnabrück writer Ludwig Bäte in his chronicle of the city Osnabrück as implausible, as the name of the city did not arise centuries after it was founded.
In any case, the correspondence of the determining part of the name with the name of the ridge mountain range Osning , which extends from the southeast to close to the city , since the late 19th century in connection with the cult of the Hermannschlacht, preferably based on the Latin place name 'Saltus teutoburgensis' as Teutoburg Forest .
Foundation of a diocese
In the early Middle Ages the West Germanic Saxon tribes traded with the Frankish Empire , but lived independently and represented pagan world views. The Osnabrück area belonged to the tribal area of Westphalia . Since the Saxons repeatedly led raids in the Franconian area, efforts were made especially under the Franconian King Charlemagne to subdue the Saxons and to incorporate their tribal areas into the Franconian Empire. So that the raids were terminated for other people to the one Christian missionary are.
Charlemagne therefore led the Saxon Wars and founded the first dioceses in Saxony after the Paderborn Reichstag in 777 , including the Diocese of Osnabrück ( Latin: Dioecesis Osnabrugensis ) an der Hase around 780 . In 783 Karl defeated the Saxon Duke Widukind in the Battle of the Hase near Osnabrück . This was one of the decisive battles of the Saxon Wars, the outcome of which ultimately led to the Saxons being Christianized and their territory henceforth being ruled by the Franks. The tribal area of the Saxons became part of the tribal duchy of Saxony . Around 785 the first church was consecrated on the site of the bishopric of the Osnabrück diocese, it was a first predecessor of today's St. Peter's Cathedral . In 804, Charlemagne is said to have founded the Carolinum diocese school, which on that date would be one of the oldest schools in Germany; however, the document that is supposed to prove this is possibly an early medieval forgery.
Origin of the city
After the division of the Franconian Empire by the Treaty of Verdun , the tribal duchy of Saxony and thus Osnabrück belonged to Eastern Franconia . The first traders and residents quickly settled around the bishopric because of the favorable location at the crossroads of important trade routes and a ford through the Hase. In order to protect against attacks by attackers, the area around the bishopric was expanded with walls and moats as a cathedral castle. The present-day Domhof and Große Doms Freiheit squares were located within this area . Despite the fortification, the young settlement was attacked by Normans around 880, like others in Sachsenland, and the Domburg and the church were destroyed. The mission base was rebuilt around 900. Around the same time, the diocese received market rights . The market initially took place inside the Domburg, but as there was soon no longer enough space, the market square was laid out on an island-like sand dome to the west outside the fortification . This is where the predecessor church of today's Marienkirche was built . So that the market area was delimited from the surrounding area and protected from attackers, the city fortifications were expanded in the 11th century , they then included the area between today's Krahnstraße – Bierstraße – Lohstraße in the west and the Hase in the east. In 1011, the Johanniskirche was founded south of the city walls as a church for the local farms.
After a fire in the cathedral in 1100, which had been badly damaged by the seat which was Osnabrücker bishops in the Castle Iburg laid. From the 12th century onwards, the cathedral was gradually expanded to its present size and design. Due to the population growth, space within the city walls became scarce again and people also settled in front of the fortifications. These organized themselves into groups from which the lay communities emerged . The area within the city walls was at that time as Binnenburg , the outside as Butenburg concerned (see. Low German within = inside , butene = outside ). In the 12th century the city fortifications were enlarged again to the dimensions of the area known today as the old town within the streets Hasemauer, Bocksmauer, Roland's Wall and Neuer Graben as well as the Hase.
Granting of town charter, creation of the bishopric
In 1171 Osnabrück was given court rights and thus also city rights in a document from Friedrich I. "Barbarossa" , Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire . As a result, the previous building of the so-called Old Town Hall on the south side of the market square, on the site of today's city library , was the first town hall in the town . The courts of the Diocese of Osnabrück, such as B. the Gogericht , which was held in front of the cathedral, was chaired by the Saxon Duke Heinrich the Lion . Possibly the lion poodle monument in front of the cathedral goes back to these courts. After Heinrich the Lion had been deprived of rule over the Duchy of Saxony with the Gelnhausen deed of 1180 , the bailiwick and jurisdiction in the Diocese of Osnabrück went to the Counts of Tecklenburg . Since this led to power disputes between the Tecklenburg counts and the Osnabrück bishops, King Heinrich (VII.) In 1225 assigned jurisdiction to the Osnabrück bishop. In 1236, after a dispute with the Archdiocese of Cologne , the Count of Tecklenburg also ceded the Vogtei, i.e. the secular rule over the Diocese of Osnabrück, to the bishop, which resulted in the Osnabrück Monastery , also known as the Osnabrück Prince Diocese . The area of the Hochstift largely corresponded to the extent of today's Osnabrück Land , but the Reckenberg office still belonged to it as an exclave.
Further developments of the 13th century
At the beginning of the 13th century, the Bucksturm was built as a watchtower on the city wall . The city prison was housed in the tower. The original Heger Tor , a defense system consisting of a tower, gate, bastion , kennel and passage, also dates from this time . The name Heger Tor has been popularly used to this day for the Waterloo Gate , which was later built on this site . The construction of the now Gothic parish and market church of St. Marien also began in the 13th century and was completed in 1430/40. The Johanniskirche also received a new building, which was consecrated in 1293 . A place of its own developed around the church, independently of the old town, which was consequently called the new town . The place was also fortified by a city wall that adjoined the old town and ran roughly along the current streets of Schloßwall, Johannistorwall, Petersburger Wall, Pottgraben and Kollegienwall.
In order to protect each other from possible reprisals by the bishops as sovereigns, Osnabrück founded the Ladbergen Association of Cities in 1246 with the other Westphalian cities of Coesfeld , Herford , Minden and Münster . In 1265, both the old and the new town were given the right by the bishop to hold their own courts, but they never got market rights. In 1268 Osnabrück joined the Werner Städtebund with Dortmund , Lippstadt , Münster and Soest . In 1287 an Augustinian monastery was established in the Neustadt, on today's Neumarkt .
Union of old and new town
Since the two cities that were built at the same time grew closer and closer and the residents of Neustadt also had to use the market in the old town, the merger was decided on August 3, 1306. The fortification at the Neuer Graben, which separated the two cities, was demolished and the administration was placed under a common magistrate , which met in the old town hall and was elected by the citizens on the first working day after the New Year. The legal relationship between the old and new towns and the powers of the magistrate were laid down in Osnabrück's first city constitution, the Sate , in 1348. Handgiftentag is still celebrated in its tradition today . According to Sate, the Neustadt was allowed to carry out individual administrative tasks , such as the lower jurisdiction , the construction of roads and its own financial management, and retained its own council for this. That is why the Neustadt's own town hall, the Neustadt town hall , was built south of the Johanniskirche.
Around 1350 the Black Death raged in Osnabrück . Since, as elsewhere, Jews were identified as the scapegoats for the epidemic, the city's Jewish population was decimated in the plague pogroms . Resettlement in Osnabrück was also only possible to a limited extent in the following period.
In order to protect the urban field mark , i.e. the parts of the urban area that were outside the city fortifications, from enemies, cattle thieves and robbers, a Landwehr was built between the 13th and 15th centuries . This was a few kilometers from the city walls and formed a ring around 18 kilometers in length. In the west, south and east the Landwehr consisted of two to three parallel walls and ditches, in the south-east and north the rivers of the Hase and the Nette partially fulfilled the function of the Landwehr. At the places where roads crossed the Landwehr, there were waiting towers , e.g. B. the Heger Turm (Rheiner Landstrasse) and the Wulfter Turm (Sutthauser Strasse). The moated castle in Eversburg was also part of the Landwehr.
Trade in the late Middle Ages
The merchants from Osnabrück traded with Bremen and Hamburg since the end of the 13th century as well as with Friesland (via Oldenburg ), the Netherlands (via Nordhorn ), Lübeck and London . Relationships were initially based exclusively on barter and were organized by the merchants themselves. Increasingly, however, trade was organized by the cities, which joined together in individual alliances. The Westphalian city federations from the 13th century, in which Osnabrück was also involved (see above), can be seen as the forerunners of the city hanse . Osnabrück joined the Hanseatic League in 1412 by the first-time participation in a Hansetag and benefited from membership in the trade superpower. Osnabrück merchants took part in the establishment of the Peterhof office in Novgorod . Osnabrück belonged as the main town (principal town) to the Westphalian quarter of the Hanseatic League.
Linen developed into an important trade good in Osnabrück . The dimensions and quality of all linen fabrics that were to be traded in the city had to be checked by the Legge from 1404 and provided with the laying stamp in the form of the Osnabrück wheel. The high quality of the Osnabrück linen made the laying stamp of the city a supraregional seal of quality . Linen bearing the Osnabrück seal fetched higher prices on the market, so that linen dealers from other cities also had their goods checked at the Osnabrücker Legge and the seal was often forged. This made the city an internationally important trading center for linen fabrics.
Between 1450 and 1452, Osnabrück was temporarily excluded from trade with the Hanseatic League, as the city representatives had previously stayed away from the Hanseatic days without excuse. When trade with the Netherlands and England slackened due to the aspirations for independence, new sales areas were opened up in southern Germany and northern Italy.
Civil uprising 1488
From 1477 to 1504 Ertwin Ertman (1430–1505) was mayor of the city. During his time between 1487 and 1512, the late Gothic town hall of Osnabrück was built . The reigning bishop Konrad IV. Von Rietberg from 1482 entangled the city in feuds , which put a financial burden on him and the city's citizens. Individual citizens under the direction of the poor master tailor Johann Lenethun were so dissatisfied that they secretly incited other citizens against the city council and the bishop. On August 28, 1488, the situation escalated when the citizens armed themselves and, together with the city guard, occupied the market square, plundered the Gertrudenberg monastery and burned the fences around the episcopal property. They then forced Mayor Ertman to implement their demands. He entered into negotiations with the bishop, which calmed the situation over the next few months. Lenethun tried in vain to restart the uprising. The council took an opportunity to seize him and had him beheaded on June 15, 1489 in the market square.
1500 to 1648
Another civil uprising in 1525
In 1525 there was another civil uprising, which started from the guilds and was directed primarily against the cathedral chapter . The 20 demands made by the Gildemeister were of various kinds. The citizens with their leaders Johann von Oberg and Johann Ertman (son of Ertwin Ertman) gathered in front of the town hall on May 29th. Although the city guard, unlike in 1488, was on the side of the council, they could not prevent the following looting and acts of violence against clergy. Only when the bishop, Erich von Braunschweig-Grubenhagen , wanted to put down the uprising with heavy weapons and mercenaries did the acts of violence stop. Ertman was arrested in the Bucksturm, while von Oberg was able to flee the city. The city had to pay 6000 guilders as a fine, Ertman was imposed 500 guilders.
After the Diet of Worms in 1521, the Augustinian monk Gerhard Hecker , who knew the reformer Martin Luther personally, gave the first Protestant sermons in Westphalia in the Neumarkt monastery . Emperor Karl V sent a letter to Osnabrück in 1528 in which he warned to remain true to the previous (Catholic) doctrine of the faith. The reformer Adolf Clarenbach , who worked in Osnabrück, was expelled from the city by the council and later imprisoned and executed in Cologne because he did not want to change his views. The cathedral chaplain Johannes Pollius also had to leave the city.
At the beginning of 1529 an epidemic, the so-called English sweat , came to Osnabrück and claimed many victims. In April 1530, a large part of the old town was destroyed in a city fire . Several buildings that the fire had spared were destroyed by a violent storm in July 1530. The fruit and grain harvest was also partially destroyed, which resulted in high food prices. These catastrophes were interpreted by the people as God's punishments; some for the fact that the Protestants turned away from the old doctrine of the faith, others for the adherence to their outdated views of the adherents of the old doctrine.
From 1532 Dietrich Buthmann preached the evangelical doctrine in Osnabrück and was able to gather a large number of people behind him. He publicly defended his views against a Catholic clergyman who had nothing to oppose him in terms of content. The favor of the citizens made Buthmann a priest at the market church of St. Marien, and from then on Protestant preachers were also employed at the Katharinen- and Johanniskirche. After the death of Bishop Erich in 1532, Franz von Waldeck was elected as his successor, who in turn put an end to the reformatory efforts in the city and drove Protestant preachers out of the city. Hecker was allowed to stay, but died in 1536.
The bishop, who had vowed to protect the old doctrine of the faith before taking office and who violently ended the Protestant Anabaptist rule in Munster in 1535 , was not a staunch opponent of the Reformation, but rather acted for political reasons. From 1542 he sympathized with the pre-reformatory Schmalkaldic League . In the same year he approved the Osnabrück Council to carry out the Reformation and transferred the Augustinian, Barefoot and Dominican monasteries to the city . The council asked the Lübeck superintendent Hermann Bonnus , who came from Quakenbrück , to Osnabrück, who arrived in January 1543 and drafted the first Protestant church ordinance for the city. Protestant pastors were officially employed at St. Marien and St. Katharinen. Johannes Pollius returned to Osnabrück and became city superintendent. After Bonnus had also drafted new church regulations for the bishopric, he returned to Lübeck and died there in 1548.
Although the Reformation was implemented comparatively cautiously in Osnabrück (for example, the confession and traditional priestly clothing were retained), there was also criticism from the population, especially about the dissolution of the monasteries and the dealings with the friars. After the smashing of the Schmalkaldic Confederation in 1547 and the decree of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 by Charles V, the city finally had to return the monasteries to the bishop. However, a return to the old faith could not prevail among the population.
Disaster years from 1575
In 1575 the plague broke out again in Osnabrück and killed several thousand people within two and a half years. The plague was followed by a smallpox epidemic . A bad harvest failure in 1579 triggered a famine in 1580. Around 75% of the city's population at that time, which had still consisted of less than 10,000 people, fell victim to these events.
In the following decades the plague raged in the city several times, for example in the years 1597–1599 and 1609. On March 11, 1613, large parts of the city were destroyed by fire, as well as hundreds of houses, the Dominican monastery, St. Mary's Church and the city scales . At the same time, there were economic difficulties, which can also be seen in the slow decline of the Hanseatic League (in 1606, Johann Domann from Osnabrück was appointed the last syndic of the Hanseatic League). Because this increased the number of the poor, the city council bought the Tecklenburger Hof in the Große Gildewart in 1619 and set up a poor and orphanage there.
Alleged witches and wizards had been persecuted , tried, tortured and executed since the Middle Ages . Since witches were also held responsible for the catastrophes from 1575 onwards, the following years are the main focus of the witch hunts in Osnabrück. During the reign of Mayor Hammacher (1565–1588) alone, 163 women were executed as alleged witches, most of them burned. Under the mayor Pelster, between 1636 and 1639, more than 40 women died as witches at the end of the Thirty Years' War. A total of 276 women and two men were executed for sorcery in witch trials. The action of the evangelical pastor of St. Marien and city superintendent Gerhard Grave against the witch trials carried out by the evangelically dominated city council resulted in his later expulsion from the city. The witch hunts ended in the wake of the emerging enlightenment . On September 25, 2012, the City Council of Osnabrück announced that the victims of the witch trials should be rehabilitated.
Thirty Years' War
In the run-up to the outbreak of the Thirty Years War , Westphalia and the Osnabrück Monastery were already affected by acts of war against the Spanish during the Dutch War of Independence . Starting in 1590, places in the Hochstift were attacked and plundered several times by troops moving through, but Osnabrück itself held out.
After the beginning of the Thirty Years War Osnabrück upgraded its fortifications and hired its own soldiers to defend the city. In the first years of the war, Osnabrück managed to avert threats and occupations of the warring parties, mainly through diplomacy and monetary payments, and thus to remain officially neutral. However, this had the disadvantage that around 1624 a request from the city to the emperor to be allowed to use the title " Free Imperial City " was rejected. Within the city, conflicts between the Protestant council and the bourgeoisie grew with the cathedral chapter and the incumbent bishop Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg , who was on the side of the Catholic League . After the Catholic troops were able to strongly push back the Protestant Danes under King Christian IV , neutrality could no longer be maintained due to the Catholic superiority, which is why Osnabrück was taken without a fight in 1628. The city then had to take on and supply occupation troops, which put a heavy burden on the citizens.
The bishop used the changed balance of power to recatholicize Osnabrück : he revived the monasteries and the evangelical preachers had to leave their posts and the city. The Protestant council school, which was founded in the aftermath of the Reformation as a counterpoint to the Catholic cathedral school (Carolinum), had to close. Children could only be baptized as Catholics. Since major successes in the re-Catholicization of the city population did not materialize, the bishop had the citadel fortress St. Petersburg built south of the city in order to be able to better monitor the citizens. Franz Wilhelm intervened in the council elections at the beginning of 1629 and ensured the election of a predominantly Catholic city council by threat of punishment. The old councilors also had to leave the city because they refused to change their denominations. In the same year he founded a Jesuit university in the former Augustinian monastery on Neumarkt , which was opened in 1632.
When the Protestant Swedes entered the war under Gustav II Adolf and their victory at Breitenfeld in 1631, the war situation changed. Swedish troops under the orders of Georg von Braunschweig-Lüneburg briefly occupied the Osnabrück Abbey in 1633, which put the now officially Catholic city and its occupiers on a state of alarm. After the battle of Hessisch Oldendorf , the defeated imperial army of Count von Bronckhorst-Gronsfeld moved to Osnabrück and asked for admission so that they could regroup, which the bishop granted them. A little later the Swedish Army came again under Dodo von Knyphausen and began the attack on the city. After around two weeks of siege, which the city walls withstood, the outnumbered occupiers agreed to negotiations. On September 12th the leadership left the city, parts of the occupation troops withdrew to the Petersburg and the city was taken by the Swedes. The imperial soldiers on the Petersburg were besieged and shot at for a few weeks and finally surrendered because they received no help from outside. The Swedes withdrew after the city paid their financial demands, but also left an occupation behind.
In the period that followed, the ecclesiastical and political conditions from the time before the re-Catholicization were largely restored. Gustav Gustavson was installed as the Swedish administrator of the bishopric ; Bishop Franz Wilhelm had left for Cologne. The Jesuit University was dissolved again. The imperial troops were able to recapture the Osnabrück Abbey by 1636, but refrained from attempting to recapture the city. Apart from the permanent occupation, Osnabrück remained largely untouched by the events of the war for the rest of the war.
Peace of Westphalia
Probably because of the comparatively low damage, Münster and Osnabrück were designated as the congress venues for peace negotiations in the Hamburg preliminaries in 1641 . For the duration of the negotiations, the two cities and a corridor connecting them were declared neutral areas. This meant that the Swedish garrison had to leave Osnabrück by the beginning of negotiations in 1643. The ambassadors of the Catholic side resided in Munster, the Protestant in Osnabrück. The peace negotiations also took place in the Osnabrück town hall. The presence of the ambassadors meant, among other things, that street cleaning was introduced in the city for the first time. Another attempt to achieve imperial immediacy failed; instead, in 1647, permission was obtained to demolish Petersburg, which was implemented promptly.
In August 1648, the Osnabrück Peace Treaty ( Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO ) was passed, which included the peace treaty between the German Emperor and Sweden. After the Peace of Westphalia had been signed in Münster on October 24, 1648, it was announced to the people one day later from the steps of the Osnabrück town hall.
1648 to 1800
The regulation Cuius regio, eius religio , ( Latin for: whose area, whose religion, in the linguistic usage at that time often: wes the prince, of the faith ) was handled as a special case in Osnabrück. Until secularization , the prince-bishop's denomination changed after the death of the incumbent (regulated in the so-called Capitulatio Perpetua of 1650). Thus, Catholic and Protestant prince-bishops (from the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg ) replaced each other as rulers. The denomination of the subjects remained unaffected. The Osnabrück Monastery thus became the first denominational parity state in what is now Germany.
The baroque Osnabrück Castle dates from the second half of the 17th century. It was the residence of the Protestant prince-bishop Ernst August I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . In 1669 Osnabrück took part as one of nine cities on the last Hanseatic Day in Lübeck, although the city federation was not officially dissolved, but afterwards it no longer appeared.
1800 to 1945
With the secularization of ecclesiastical properties through the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 and the transition of the Hochstift to the Principality of Osnabrück , the city also came to the Electorate of Hanover , but was occupied by French troops in 1803. In 1805 municipal copper small change (1 heller, 1, 1½, 2 and 3 pfennig pieces) was minted for the last time. In 1806 Osnabrück belonged to Prussia for a short time . In 1807 the city came to the French Emperor Napoleon I (Bonaparte) created Kingdom of Westphalia and on December 10, 1810 to the French Empire . As one of four Hanseatic departments , Osnabrück was the seat of the department of the Upper Ems from 1811 to 1813 , in which all previously separating national borders were abolished and which extended to around 30 km to the south and over 50 km to the north, west and east. After Napoleon Bonaparte's abdication in the spring of 1814, most of the Ober-Ems department fell to the Kingdom of Hanover , which was created in the course of the Congress of Vienna in October 1814 . About 400 Osnabrück soldiers took part in the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815 , which ended Napoleon's rule of the Hundred Days . In honor of these warriors, Gerhard Friedrich von Gülich donated the Waterloo Gate at the Heger Gate , built in 1817 , a triumphal gate with the inscription: “GF v. The warriors from Osnabrück who showed German courage at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, dedicate this monument. Gülich DRD “(sic).
In 1843, the so-called fortress law, which had previously forbidden the construction of buildings outside the Osnabrück city fortifications, was lifted. The city walls as a means of defense against attackers had become useless due to the development of modern firearms and were razed. In the course of the population growth and industrialization , this led to a strong spatial expansion of the city in all directions in the coming decades.
In 1855 the Hannoversche Westbahn was opened, which was built from Hanover via Löhne to Osnabrück and later further west. Osnabrück was thus connected to the railway network. In the following years, additional routes were completed and the main train station built, making Osnabrück a hub in rail traffic. In 1860 the Osnabrücker Aktien-Bierbrauerei am Westerberg was founded, which produced drinks until 1987 and was demolished in 1992.
As a result of the German War in 1866, the Kingdom of Hanover and with it Osnabrück became part of the Prussian province of Hanover . From 1880 until the end of the German Empire in 1918, Osnabrück was represented in the Prussian mansion by the respective Lord Mayor. The city became an urban district in 1885 as well as the seat of the newly founded administrative district of Osnabrück and is still the district town of the district of Osnabrück, which was also created in 1885 .
From the two leisure teams Antipodia Osnabrück and Minerva Osnabrück , FC 1899 Osnabrück was founded on April 17, 1899 , which later became VfL Osnabrück , which is the largest and most important sports club for the entire region. In the same year the club house on Kollegienwall was opened, which is now also known as the Old Town Hall and which was completely destroyed in the Second World War. In 1905 the Osnabrück synagogue was built on Rolandstrasse. In 1906 the tram started with two lines. In 1916, the first ship coming from the Mittelland Canal entered the newly built city port via the branch canal Osnabrück , so that Osnabrück was also connected to the federal waterway network.
In 1930 Osnabrück hosted the 22nd Lower Saxony Day of the Lower Saxony Homeland League . The businessman Herbert Eklöh opened the first self-service supermarket in Germany at Jürgensort 6/8 in downtown Osnabrück in 1938 .
The Tenge house , built in 1813/14
time of the nationalsocialism
A local branch of the NSDAP had existed since the mid-1920s. From 1932 to 1945 it was located in the Villa Schlikker on Heger-Tor-Wall. The building had been made available to the party by the previous owner. The building was officially called "Adolf Hitler House" at that time, but was popularly called "Brown House". After the seizure of the Nazi Party in January 1933, also held in Osnabrück propagated the Nazi collection, which was accompanied by an anti-Jewish attitude and led to the persecution of the Jews Osnabrück.
On the evening of the state elections in Prussia on March 5, 1933 , flags were burned by the National Socialists on Neumarkt . The burned flags, which were brought from the Schinkel and Sonnenhügel, came from the democratic left and were considered symbols of the Weimar Republic.
On March 11, the Osnabrück SS briefly occupied the trade union building on Kollegienwall. During the occupation, a plaque with the inscription "SS-Heim" was placed above the entrance. Shortly afterwards, the building was handed over to the police, but occupied again by the SS a few days later when SPD members removed the swastika flag on the roof and threw it into the rabbit. On May 2, 1933, as in other places in the German Reich, the union building was finally occupied and the union officials were taken into protective custody. The Osnabrück social democrat Alwine Wellmann was also arrested. One of the SS men present was the later war criminal Gustav Sorge .
The Alsberg department store , which opened in Osnabrück's inner city (Große Straße 34) in 1910, was very much appreciated by the population - also for the fashion of the Roaring Twenties . Since the owners were Jews , it was forcibly sold in 1935 and since then has been run as the Lengermann and Trieschmann fashion house . In the period before that, all customers who came to the shop were photographed and publicly denounced in a showcase . Other Osnabrück shops had to be closed or sold as part of the Aryanization .
The local department of the Secret State Police was based in Osnabrück Castle. In the so-called Gestapo cellar under the castle, people were imprisoned and sometimes tortured. During the November pogroms in 1938 , the synagogue on Rolandstrasse was set on fire and the demolition was ordered on the same day.
From 1941 the Jews of the city had to wear the yellow Star of David. The first deportation of Jews from Osnabrück took place on December 13, 1941, during which 34 Jews from the city and 477 others from the region were brought to Riga. Before that they were rounded up in the gym of the Pottgrabenschule and loaded into wagons at the freight yard. The second deportation was carried out in July 1942 to the Theresienstadt concentration camp . The third and last of the Osnabrück deportations took place on March 1, 1943 directly to the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp . With this transport, the last Jewish house on Kommenderiestraße was also closed .
Second World War
During the Second World War , the 79 air raids on Osnabrück caused severe damage. Osnabrück was a "popular" destination for British bomber groups, as it could be reached quickly from Great Britain and was also on the return route from destinations further inland. The urban area was destroyed to more than 65 percent; the medieval old town was hardest hit with 94 percent. Some of the air raid shelters that were built in those days still stand today. Attempts were made to repel enemy bomber formations from several flak positions spread across the city . B. on the Westerberg and in the Gartlage.
The first high-explosive bomb attack took place on June 23, 1940 on the Klöckner steelworks in Fledder. While initially mainly military and industrial targets such as factories and the main train station were attacked, the bombardment was increasingly extended to residential areas from 1942 as part of the Area Bombing Directive . Palm Sunday on March 25, 1945 went down in the history of the city as Qualmarum (derived from Palmarum ) when the 4th and 8th British bomber groups flew the 79th and final air raid on the city in the morning. 178 people were killed in this air strike, one of the heaviest to be flown on the city.
End of the war in 1945
The last units of the Wehrmacht under orders had withdrawn in the direction of Belm by April 3. The leadership of the local NSDAP, including Mayor Erich Gaertner , NSDAP district leader Fritz Wehmeier and the previous district leader Wilhelm Münzer , fled the city and left it to their fate. On the outskirts, one of the three murdered the farmer Anna Daumeyer, who was accused of hoisting a white flag . This end- stage crime was never punished.
The Volkssturm units set up in a hurry and the police, which were to be called in to defend the city, disbanded when the Volkssturm men fled or were sent home. The warehouses of the Heeresverpflegungsamt at the port and the abandoned barracks were looted by the population and forced laborers. When a schnapps factory was looted, an explosion is said to have occurred with around 30 fatalities. In anticipation of fighting for the city, many people went to one of the numerous air raid shelters that were last used here.
On the morning of April 4, 1945, the city was captured by British and Canadian troops. The Allied soldiers marched in from the west and went largely without a fight, and only a few German snipers provided resistance. As early as April 2, some Allied units had bypassed the city to the north.
The British and Canadians made around 450 prisoners of war. In the days that followed, the Allies searched the homes of the townspeople, confiscated weapons and certain utensils such as cameras. Clearance tanks created aisles through the mountains of rubble so that advancing forces could cross the city. To prevent further looting among civilians and displaced persons , a night curfew was imposed. Occasionally, however, there were also looting among the Allied soldiers.
Occupation and British garrison
After the surrender , the Bakker Schut Plan provided for the annexation of the city by the Netherlands; However, this did not take place due to the resistance of the occupying powers USA and Great Britain. Immediately after the end of the war, occupation troops of the British Rhine Army were stationed in Osnabrück. In the following years the location of the Osnabrück garrison was continuously expanded. In the meantime, Osnabrück housed the largest British garrison outside of the United Kingdom - British soldiers and their family members were part of the familiar cityscape for Osnabrück residents for decades. On June 19, 1989 and June 28, 1996, there were terrorist attacks by the Irish underground organization IRA on the British Quebec barracks in the Osnabrück district of Eversburg, which resulted in considerable property damage. In 2005 the British Ministry of Defense decided to completely dissolve the Osnabrück garrison as part of restructuring measures . The deduction was implemented gradually in the following years. On March 31, 2009, the last British site commander, Colonel Mark Cuthbert-Brown, left Osnabrück.
Reconstruction and the recent past
After the end of the war, large parts of the destroyed old town were rebuilt. On the 300th anniversary of the proclamation of the Peace of Westphalia, the destroyed town hall on the historic market square was reopened in 1948 . The rebuilt city theater at the Domhof was inaugurated in 1950. The 33rd Lower Saxony Day of the Lower Saxony Heimatbund took place in Osnabrück in 1951, on which occasion tens of thousands of people attended a parade through the city center. In 1962 Osnabrück also hosted the festival. In 1954 the multi-purpose hall Halle Gartlage was opened, which is still an important event location in the city.
As in all of Germany, mass motorization began in Osnabrück in the post-war period , and the car became the main means of transport. Even before the completion of the autobahn, two important north-south connections ran through Osnabrück: Bundesstrasse 51 and Bundesstrasse 68 . In order to make the city car-friendly , many new buildings were built outside of the historic old town outside of the historic old town, or existing buildings were demolished so that wider street cross-sections were made possible. Examples of this are Dielingerstrasse and the Neuer Graben – Neumarkt –Wittekindstrasse street. However, the concept of car justice continued to have an effect for a long time, for example an industrial hall on Petersburg Wall was demolished in 1991 in order to be able to widen the street there.
In April 1959 the airfield in the Atterheide was opened. In May 1959, the Ocambo Club , the first discotheque in town and one of the first in Germany, opened in a previous café on Herrenteichsstraße directly on Haarmannsbrunnen . Osnabrück stopped operating its tram in 1960. The Osnabrück trolleybus network still existed until 1968 , before this was also discontinued. Local public transport has been completely converted to city bus transport with diesel buses. On May 5, 1968 ( Europe Day ) the Council of Europe was awarded the flag of honor to the city of Osnabrück. On November 14, 1968, the city received a connection to the federal motorway network when the Federal Motorway 1 was released . The University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück was founded in 1971 and was named University of Osnabrück in 2010 . The establishment of the pedestrian zone in the city center began in 1972 . The University of Osnabrück started teaching in 1974 and is based in Osnabrück Castle. In 1977 Osnabrück lost its status as the seat of a district government during a regional reform when the administrative district Weser-Ems was created with its seat in Oldenburg . Only one branch of the district government remained in Osnabrück. On January 1, 2005, all administrative districts of the state of Lower Saxony were abolished and replaced by government representatives of the state government, which in turn were converted into offices for regional state development in 2014 .
In 1979 the new Osnabrück City Hall , today OsnabrückHalle , was opened in the palace garden. In 1980 the city and the diocese celebrated their 1200th anniversary. In the same year Osnabrück joined the New Hanseatic League . On November 16, 1980 Pope John Paul II visited Osnabrück and held a service in front of 140,000 people in the sports stadium on the Illoshöhe. In 1990 Osnabrück was honored again by the Council of Europe, this time with the even higher tier of honor . The Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt , founded in 1990, has its headquarters in Osnabrück and moved into its new administrative building on the Bornau in 1995.
The Felix Nussbaum House , built by the architect Daniel Libeskind , opened in 1998. The museum contains over 180 works by Felix Nussbaum , making it the most comprehensive collection by the Osnabrück artist. The 350th anniversary celebrations in 1998 on the occasion of the proclamation of the Peace of Westphalia brought numerous monarchs and heads of state to visit the city. In 1999 Osnabrück celebrated the 100th birthday of the artist Friedrich Vordemberge-Gildewart with two exhibitions. In 2000 Osnabrück became the external location for the World Exhibition Expo 2000 . Since April 2002 the Ledenhof stone works has been the seat of the German Foundation for Peace Research . In 2006 Osnabrück hosted the 26th Hanseatic Days of Modern Times . In 2008 Osnabrück was the host of the 97th German Catholic Day , for which tens of thousands of believers visited the city. As one of the sites of the Peace of Westphalia , the Osnabrück City Hall has been awarded the European Heritage Seal since 2015 . From May 30th to June 2nd 2019 Osnabrück hosted the 6th German Music Festival .
The following communities were incorporated into Osnabrück:
- 1914: Schinkel
- 1940: Haste
- 1970: Sutthausen
- 1972 (July 1): Atter , Darum , Gretesch , Hellern , Lüstringen , Nahne , Pye and Voxtrup
Due to its valley location and the geographical proximity to North Rhine-Westphalia , comparatively few places were incorporated into Osnabrück. For example, the municipalities of Belm (behind the Schinkelberg), Wallenhorst , Büren (now incorporated into the municipality of Lotte ), Hasbergen and Georgsmarienhütte have not been incorporated. The northern villages of Hollage , Lechtingen and Rulle were incorporated into Wallenhorst instead of Osnabrück.
Osnabrück counted around in the 11th century. 1,500 and in the 13th century around 3,000 inhabitants. In the middle of the 16th century the city had about 7,000 inhabitants. In 1575 around 75 percent of Osnabrück's residents died of the plague . Because of the epidemics, conflagrations, famines and wars that followed, it took over 200 years to regain the population before the plague of 1575. With industrialization , the population quintupled from over 10,000 in 1817 to more than 50,000 in 1900. The construction of the two railway lines between Löhne and Rheine (1855) and Münster and Bremen (1873) had a major impact on this created a lot of manpower. The population doubled to over 100,000 by the end of 1939, making Osnabrück a major city for the first time that year . After the population decreased towards the end of the Second World War, Osnabrück became a major city again in 1948 and has retained this status without interruption to this day. Due to incorporations at the end of 1972, the 150,000 population mark was exceeded, below which Osnabrück has not fallen since. In 1995 the population reached its historic high of 168,618. On December 31, 2006, the official population for Osnabrück was 164,020 according to an update by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics (since 2014: LSN ) and was almost at this level in 2010 as well. The 2011 census only found 154,513. By 2015 the population rose to 162,403, at the end of 2019 it was 165,251.
Osnabrück became the seat of a diocese in 804 . The archdeacon responsible was the Dompropstei. Lutheran sermons have been held in Osnabrück since 1521. After the Reformation according to the Lutheran confession was introduced in the city of Osnabrück in 1543 , the Catholics were left with the Cathedral of St. Peter and the Church of St. Johann , while the Lutherans, St. Katharinen and St. Marien served as parish churches. In addition to parts of the urban area, each of the four parishes included farmers outside the city limits. Haste and Schinkel belonged to the cathedral church game, and Düstrup , Harderberg (except for the Erbkötterhof Buddemeyer belonging to St. Marien), Hettlich , Hickingen , Holzhausen , Malbergen , Nahne and Voxtrup belonged to St. Johann . Belonging to St. Katharinen were Hörne (with the exception of the full inheritance farm Meyer zu Hörne, which belonged to St. Marien), Ohrbeck and Westrup , while St. Marien belonged to the inhabitants of the farming communities Atter , Gaste , Hasbergen and Hellern . This parish division remained until the end of the 19th century.
The cathedral formed the heart of the Osnabrück Monastery , which remained a spiritual territory within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until 1803 . The Catholic residents were subordinate to the bishopric, for the Protestant residents the city council carried out church administration by setting up a consistory . In 1803 the Osnabrück Monastery came to Hanover , then to France and in 1813 to the Kingdom of Hanover . In 1815 this formed a total of five consistorial districts for the Protestant church administration, including a Lutheran consistory in Osnabrück and a consistory in Aurich with equal representation (Lutheran and Reformed) . The consistorial districts were divided into superintendent and church districts. Osnabrück became the seat of a church district. In 1903 the consistorial district of Osnabrück was dissolved when all Lutheran congregations in the province of Hanover, which was now part of Prussia, were subordinated to the regional consistory in Hanover ( Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover ). Osnabrück later became the seat of a district again , which is also divided into church districts.
Today the ev.-Lutheran congregations of the city, if they are not free churches , belong to the church districts of Osnabrück (inner city and most of the city districts) or the church district of Melle-Georgsmarienhütte in the Osnabrück-Sutthausen district within the Osnabrück district of the regional church of Hanover.
There has been evidence of a reformed movement in Osnabrück since 1788. The believers were affiliated with the neighboring county of Tecklenburg . The increased immigration of Reformed parishioners in the 19th century led to the establishment of a Reformed parish in Osnabrück in 1889, which was subordinate to the consistory in Aurich. The community was able to build the mountain church in 1893 . It was the first church in Osnabrück after the Reformation. The Friedenskirche was built in 1926 and three more Reformed churches were built in the 1960s, the Gnadenkirche (1960), the Atterkirche (1962) and the Erlöserkirche (1966). As part of a community reform, the last three churches were sold to the Evangelical Foundation in December 2007. Since then, the Friedenskirche has acted as a youth church , while the Bergkirche is used for the rest of the everyday community life. The reformed parish of Osnabrück today belongs to the Synodal Association Emsland / Osnabrück, the VII. Synodal Association within the Evangelical Reformed Church.
Since the Dom and the former Collegiate Church of St. John after the Reformation have remained Catholic and Osnabrück to 1803 capital of the Bishopric of Osnabrück, has always lived in the city also Catholics . Their share was about a third. The Diocese of Osnabrück , established around 780, had been greatly reduced in size during the turmoil of the Reformation.
In 1824, after the dissolution of the bishopric of Osnabrück , the city became the seat of the newly circumscribed Diocese of Osnabrück in 1824 . This then comprised the western part of the then Kingdom of Hanover with the Emsland , the county of Bentheim and East Frisia . In 1841 it received the jurisdiction of the Nordic Mission of Scandinavia and in 1868 of the North German Mission with Bremen , Hamburg , Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg . The German territories were formally incorporated into the Osnabrück diocese in 1929. It was the largest diocese in area in Germany. Until 1995 it belonged to the church province of Cologne , then it was assigned to the new archdiocese of Hamburg . The parishes and community associations of the city of Osnabrück are now part of the Osnabrück City Deanery. This also includes the municipality ( Hasbergen ), which does not belong to the city of Osnabrück.
The Telgter pilgrimage has been part of the tradition of the Osnabrück Catholics since 1852 and is the second largest in Germany in terms of the number of participants. The Herz-Jesu-Kirche , completed in 1899, was the first new building of a Roman Catholic church after the Reformation. On November 16, 1980 Pope John Paul II visited Osnabrück.
From May 21 to 25, 2008 the 97th German Catholic Day took place in Osnabrück with 60,000 participants. The 48th German Catholic Day had already taken place in Osnabrück in 1901.
Free churches in Osnabrück.
- Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists ) - The beginnings of the Evangelical Free Church Congregation go back to 1928. However, the actual church planting did not take place until 1948. The influx of refugees from the formerly German eastern regions played a major role. Today the congregation has 280 baptized members (without children and friends), including v. a. Vietnamese, Sinti and Russian Germans. The service will be translated synchronously into Vietnamese and Russian. The current parish pastor is Heiko Reinecke. The community has a branch in Diepholz .
- Andreas-Gemeinde Osnabrück (Mülheimer Verband) - The Andreas-Gemeinde existed before 1997 under the name Christliche Gemeinschaft Osnabrück . The first beginnings go back to the time before the First World War ; the congregation initially celebrated its services for a few decades as a house meeting, and since the 1950s in its own congregation rooms. The church work intensified and grew since the hiring of a full-time pastoral worker in 1984. When it moved to Hauswörmannsweg 90, the Christian Community Osnabrück gave itself the name Andreas-Gemeinde . In 2006 she founded a daughter church in Ibbenbüren (Thomas parish). The Andreas Congregation currently has around 140 adult members.
- Christ Center Osnabrück of the Free Christian Congregation ( Pentecostal Congregation of the BfP )
- Lebensquelle - The Pentecostal Church (BfP), founded in Schinkel in 2001, has been celebrating its services since 2003 in an expanded factory hall and has founded four other local churches in the region. She achieved local fame at the end of 2012 through the controversy surrounding the purchase of land at the old freight yard for a new community center, which sees itself threatened by the local cultural scene, including several artist studios, the Theater am Güterbahnhof and representatives of a homosexual association.
- Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK)
- Seventh-day Adventists
- Methodist Church (UMC)
- Free Church FIT congregation for life
- Free Church homezone
- Serbian Orthodox Parish of Saint George
- Russian Orthodox Community
- Greek Orthodox Congregation of Antioch ( Rum Orthodox ) of the Holy Mother of God Mary
- Old Catholic Church
Most Christian churches work together in the ACKOS (Working Group of Christian Churches in Osnabrück) and organize thematic discussions on questions of faith and the annual large ecumenical service for the Osnabrück Peace Day on October 25th. To mark the 350th anniversary of the Peace of Westphalia , the churches held an Ecumenical Church Congress , which also attracted national attention.
Also represented in Osnabrück are the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), the New Apostolic Church , the Apostolic Community , the Catholic Apostolic Congregation and the Jehovah's Witnesses .
Buddhists have a contact point in the Buddhist center of the Karma Kagyu lineage (Tibetan Buddhism). For Zen practitioners, there is the Zen-Dôjô (Soto tradition) or the Osnabrück Zen circle (Rinzai tradition). The 'Path of Mindfulness' group practices Buddhism according to Thich Nhât Hanh.
Most of the Muslims are of Turkish origin ; Arabs and Kurds also make up a considerable part. The Basharat Mosque ( bascharat = good omen) built by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat in 2011 was the first Muslim sacred building in Osnabrück. There are now 12 other mosques and prayer rooms in the city .
The Jewish cemetery , which was laid out in the 19th century, was desecrated by schoolchildren in October 1927. In November 1938, several Jewish shops were looted, the homes of Jewish families were vandalized and the Jewish cemetery was desecrated. So-called Jewish houses were built at the beginning of 1938 . On December 12, 1941, the first deportation train left the city with 190 remaining Jews. Shortly before the looting, the Jewish community in Osnabrück comprised around 500 members, including Felix Nussbaum's family .
After the Second World War, five Jews still lived in Osnabrück. In 1969 the new synagogue was opened in Weststadt . Up to 1991 about 90 Jews had their residence in Osnabrück. After the influx of quota refugees from the states of the former Soviet Union, the Jewish community comprised around 1544 members in 2005. On the extension of the building built between 1893 and 1896 by the former Osnabrück district government, there have been plaques since 1978 commemorating the old synagogue and its destruction. Every year on November 9th, wreaths were laid here to commemorate the Reichspogromnacht and the kaddish was prayed. In 1986 the Jewish cemetery was desecrated again. In 2004 a new memorial was erected next to the former location of the old synagogue on the foundation walls of the Jewish school. The section of Rolandstrasse on which the synagogue stood is now called Alte Synagogenstrasse .
Since the Reformation, the Lutheran creed predominated in the city of Osnabrück. In 1812, a good 60 percent of the population were Lutheran, while just under 40 percent belonged to the Catholic faith. Apart from the Neustadt, in which the Catholics had a wafer-thin majority, all other parts of the inner city were predominantly Lutheran:
|Denomination distribution in the city of Osnabrück 1812|
|Laymanship||population||number||proportion of||number||proportion of||number||proportion of||number||proportion of|
|Market and hazel tree||2,062||1,197||58.05%||45||2.18%||810||39.28%||10||0.48%|
At the end of the 19th century, almost two thirds of the city's population were Protestant, while a little over a third was Catholic. Since then, the proportion of Catholics grew to just under 38 percent until the beginning of World War II, while that of Protestants fell to around 56 percent.
|year||population||number||proportion of||number||proportion of||number||proportion of||number||proportion of||number||proportion of|
|1890||39,929||25,740||64.46%||13,628||34.13%||N / A||-||423||1.06%||138||0.35%|
|1900||51,573||33.051||64.09%||17,844||34.60%||N / A||-||N / A||-||678||1.31%|
|1910||65,957||41,769||63.33%||23,520||35.66%||N / A||-||N / A||-||668||1.01%|
As a result of the extensive incorporations of 1970/1972 and due to the demographic changes since the Second World War, 30.8% of the population of Osnabrück were Protestant and 33.4% Catholic in 2015. 35.8% did not belong to either of the two major Christian denominations. As of December 31, 2018, 48,341 (28.6%) people belong to the Protestant denomination and 53,275 (31.5%) belong to the Catholic denomination. 67,226 (40.0%) did not provide any information or belong to other religious communities.
At the head of the city of Osnabrück there had been a council since the 14th century, which was made up of an old council and a seated council . The council was headed by a mayor . The city was able to acquire various freedoms vis-à-vis the bishop very early on, but it was never enough to achieve complete imperial freedom . After temporarily belonging to France , in which the Mairie constitution was in force, the city was headed by an administrative and a judicial mayor in Hanoverian times. In 1851, the Hanover city regulations were introduced. Then there was a mayor, who usually received the title of mayor. During the time of National Socialism this was used by the NSDAP , but it remained Erich Gaertner .
Since 1946, the mayor has been elected according to the respective rules of Lower Saxony municipal law - initially on a voluntary basis according to the model of the twin-track North German Council Constitution, since 1997 as a full-time administrative head (cf. in detail: Single track , municipal regulations in Germany ). The first full-time mayor was the SPD politician Hans-Jürgen Fip from 1997 to 2006 , who had previously been honorary mayor for six years. Boris Pistorius , also SPD, has been Lord Mayor since the local elections in 2006 . On February 19, 2013, Pistorius was sworn in as Lower Saxony's new interior minister. In the new election on September 22, 2013, no candidate achieved an absolute majority. Birgit Bornemann (SPD) from Osnabrück and Wolfgang Griesert (CDU) from Krefeld ran for the runoff election on October 6, 2013 . Griesert won the election with 54.85% of the votes cast and a turnout of 41.77%.
The first municipal referendum was held in Osnabrück in 2019 . An initiative campaigned for the establishment of a municipal housing association in Osnabrück and collected around 13,500 signatures as part of a public petition. This resulted in a referendum on this issue, which was carried out on May 26, the election day of the 2019 European elections . Of the 74,802 people who voted (56.6% participation), 76.44% voted for “Yes” and 23.56% for “No”, making the matter a success. The foundation of the company under the name Wohnen in Osnabrück GmbH (WiO) was finally unanimously confirmed by the council on July 7, 2020 and carried out on July 8, 2020.
Since 2001, the Osnabrück City Council has consisted of 50 members. The full-time and separately elected Lord Mayor is also entitled to vote.
|Parties and constituencies||Percent
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||37.6||19th||35.1||18th|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||24.9||13||29.8||15th|
|Green||Alliance 90 / The Greens||18.2||9||21.0||11|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||5.9||3||4.6||2|
|UWG||Independent voter community Osnabrück||1.8||1||2.9||1|
|Pirates||Pirate Party Germany||1.9||1||2.0||1|
|BOB||Association of Osnabrück Citizens||3.7||2|
|BIG||Alliance for Innovation and Justice||0.5||0|
|DMD||Democratic center of Germany||0.5||0|
|Turnout in percent||50.1||47.1|
After the local elections on September 11, 2016, the distribution of seats is as follows:
|City Council of Osnabrück|
Mayor of Justice of Osnabrück 1814–1852
- 1814–1833: August Eberhard Stüve
- 1833–1841: Arnold Heinrich Kemper
- 1841–1852: Wilhelm Stüve
Administrative Mayor of Osnabrück 1814–1848
- 1814–1830: Christian Franz Thorbecke
- 1830–1832: Ludwig Wiethoff
- 1833–1848: Johann Carl Bertram Stüve
Mayor or Lord Mayor of Osnabrück since 1852
- 1852–1864: Johann Carl Bertram Stüve (liberal), mayor
- 1865–1869: Johannes von Miquel (until 1867 DFP , then NLP ), mayor, from 1869 mayor
- 1870–1876: Johann Werner Detering (left-wing liberal), Lord Mayor (substitute)
- 1876–1880: Johannes von Miquel (NLP), Lord Mayor
- 1880–1888: Heinrich Brüning (NLP), Lord Mayor
- 1888–1897: Bernhard Dietrich Friedrich Möllmann (independent), mayor, from 1892 mayor
- 1898–1901: Karl Westerkamp , mayor (independent), from 1899 mayor
- 1901–1927: Julius Rißmüller , mayor (independent), from 1904 mayor
- 1927–1945: Erich Gaertner ( DVP until 1933, then non-party, from 1937 NSDAP ), Lord Mayor
- 1945: Johannes Petermann ( CDU ), acting Lord Mayor
- 1945: Wilhelm Rosenbrock , acting Lord Mayor
- 1945–1946: Willi Vollbrecht , acting Lord Mayor
- 1946: Adolf Kreft (CDU), Lord Mayor
- 1946–1948: Heinrich Herlitzius ( SPD ), Lord Mayor
- 1948–1949: Adolf Kreft (CDU), Lord Mayor
- 1949–1951: Heinrich Herlitzius (SPD), Lord Mayor
- 1951–1952: Friedrich Janssen (CDU), Lord Mayor
- 1952–1956: Heinrich Buddenberg ( DP ), Lord Mayor
- 1956–1959: Hellmut Drescher (SPD), Lord Mayor
- 1959–1972: Willi Kelch (SPD), Lord Mayor
- 1972–1981: Ernst Weber (SPD), Lord Mayor
- 1981–1985: Carl Möller (CDU), Lord Mayor
- 1985–1991: Ursula Flick (CDU), Lord Mayor
- 1991–2006: Hans-Jürgen Fip (SPD), Lord Mayor
- 2006–2013: Boris Pistorius (SPD), Lord Mayor
- since 2013: Wolfgang Griesert (CDU), Lord Mayor
Senior City Directors of Osnabrück 1945–1997 (two-pronged municipal constitution)
- 1946–1953: Willi Vollbrecht
- 1953–1960: Walter Wegener
- 1960–1972: Joachim Fischer
- 1972–1983: Raimund Wimmer
- 1983-1995: Dierk Meyer-Pries
- 1995–1997: Jörg Haverkämper (after his resignation, until the first full-time Mayor Fip took office, City Director Karl-Josef Leyendecker was temporarily in charge of official business)
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the city of Osnabrück shows a six-spoke standing black wheel in silver. The city flag is white with black border stripes, covered with the wheel.
The wheel, as the mint mark of the Osnabrück Monastery , has been in the seals since the 13th century. In the course of history it has been depicted in different forms: At first it had eight spokes and was red; it has been handed down in black since 1496. Another illustration shows a six-spoke 'moving' wheel that depicts two spokes parallel to the ground (horizontal, in contrast to the standing wheel, in which two spokes form a vertical line), which was used by secular trade such as linen production during the medieval Hanseatic League has been. It was later displayed in red again. The diocese's wheel is red today, the city's black, each on a silver background.
The wheel is interpreted as part of God's chariot (currus Dei), a sign of the Church and the Gospel over time. In the 13th century, in addition to the wheel, the coat of arms also depicted Saint Peter as the cathedral's patron. Later only the bike was shown.
Osnabrück maintains city partnerships and city friendships with several cities. The mutual exchange between official city ambassadors and partner cities abroad is unique in Germany. Young women and men work for one year in the city administration of the twin city. In doing so, they carry out tasks that arise within the framework of the respective town twinning.
- Town twinning
- Haarlem ( Netherlands ), since 1961
- Angers ( France ), since 1964
- Derby ( United Kingdom ), since 1976
- Greifswald ( Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ), since 1988
- Tver ( Russia ), since 1991
- Çanakkale ( Turkey ), since 2004
- Vila Real ( Portugal ), since 2005
- City friendships
- Gmünd in Carinthia ( Austria ), since 1971
- Evansville ( United States ), since 1991
- Gwangmyeong ( Republic of Korea ), since 1997
- Hefei ( People's Republic of China ), since 2006
Culture and sights
The Osnabrück town hall is the city's landmark . It was completed in the late Gothic style in 1512 after 25 years of construction. In this town hall was built in 1648, next to the Münster town hall of the, Peace of Westphalia negotiated. 42 portraits of the rulers and European envoys from that time hang in the Friedenssaal today. A replica of the peace certificate from 1648 can be seen in the treasury.
The Osnabrücker castle in baroque style dates from the second half of the 17th century. It was the residence of the Protestant prince-bishop Ernst August I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and his wife Sophie von der Pfalz . The castle was destroyed in the Second World War except for the outer walls and rebuilt after the war. It served as a teacher training college from 1953 and has been the seat of the University of Osnabrück since 1974 . The palace park to the south is modeled on Versailles and was restored between 1966 and 1969.
The Bucksturm was built as a watchtower on the city wall at the beginning of the 13th century . In the Middle Ages , the city prison was housed in the tower . In addition, the function of a torture chamber was added during the witch hunt in the 16th and 17th centuries .
Today's Heger Tor is reminiscent of a fortification. The original fortification, consisting of a tower, gate, bastion, kennel and passage, was largely demolished around 1815. The Waterloo Gate was erected here in 1817 , two years after the most extensive demolition of the actual fortifications. It is reminiscent of the Osnabrück warriors of the King's German Legion who fought in the Battle of Waterloo . The gate was donated by Gerhard Friedrich von Gülich, who commissioned Johann Christian Sieckmann to design the gate. It bears the inscription “The warriors from Osnabrück, who showed German courage at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, are dedicated to GF v. Gülich DRDR ”. There is a viewing platform on top of the gate from which you can look over the roofs of the old town . The platform can be reached via ramps and stairs. The square around the Waterloo Gate is still called the Heger Gate today, as it marks the entrance from the old town to the Heger Laischaft .
In contrast to the cathedral, the church of St. Mary was the church of the citizens. Based on burials that took place around 800, it is assumed that there was a previous wooden building at the current location. However, this has not been proven. In 10./11. In the 19th century, a single-nave hall building with a tower was built, which was expanded to include the two side aisles in the 13th century. In the first half of the 15th century the choir and choir vault were added. Since the 13th century it has been rebuilt in the style of a Gothic hall church. This appearance is still characteristic of the Osnabrück market square today, as the church forms an architectural unit with the town hall and the city scales. Inside are the triumphal cross from the 13th century and the main altar, which was made in Antwerp from 1510 to 1515 . In the ambulatory, gravestones are set into the floor, including the gravestone of Justus Möser , an important Osnabrück statesman and lawyer. The 79 meter high tower can be climbed via 190 steps and has a view over Osnabrück. The copper spire, which was completely destroyed in World War II, was rebuilt in the early 1960s.
The Cathedral of St. Peter was consecrated in 785 at its present location. The current building was built between 1218 and 1277. The cathedral church was built in the late Romanesque style. The cathedral originally had twin towers, but the north-west tower was replaced by a thicker Gothic tower in the 15th century. Inside there is a bronze baptismal font from 1225 and a large triumphal cross , created towards the end of the 12th century. With its height of almost six meters and the body of 3.80 meters in length, it is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. A hermit from Groningen and later canonized Reiner von Osnabrück lived near the cathedral from 1210 to 1233 . The statue of the lion poodle stands in front of the cathedral .
The monasteries founded in the Middle Ages include the Gertrudenberg Monastery and the Dominican Monastery of the Holy Cross . They were 1,803 during the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss circuit lifted and fed up today preserved buildings other purposes.
The construction time of the Pernick Tower is unknown. It is mentioned for the first time in the first half of the 13th century and served as a watchtower and to protect the Pernickelmühle, as you can see from the loopholes. The tower has been used as a residential building since the 19th century, which is why its interior no longer corresponds to its origin. The Pernickelmühle was destroyed in 1891 and shortly afterwards rebuilt on the other bank of the Hase .
Another tower of the historic fortification is the beginning of the 16th century built Bürgergehorsam .
The building epoch of classicism began with the completion of the prince-bishop's office in 1785 . Classicist buildings are also the Tenge residential and commercial building and the 43 Grosse Strasse building .
- Gertrudenkirche of the former monastery Gertrudenberg
- Romanesque stone works Dielinger Strasse, Bierstrasse and Ledenhof
Art in public space
The sculpture of the hobby horse rider is a monument to hobby horse riding in October
One of the most famous monuments in Osnabrück is the Haarmannsbrunnen on the Herrenteichswall. The steelworks director and Senator August Haarmann donated the fountain in 1909 to commemorate the mining profession. The well system with the slightly larger than life bronze sculpture of a miner in Osnabrück is often wrongly associated with the mining accident on the Piesberg of 1893, in which several miners were killed in a water ingress during the coal mining on the Piesberg .
The Ebert Erzberger Rathenau memorial on the Herrenteichswall commemorates the three important politicians of the Weimar Republic. The abstractly designed monument sculpture symbolizes democracy and is probably the only monument in Germany that honors these three personalities. In 1928, when the monument was being erected, protests from the political right broke out, and SA members removed the sculpture on May 15, 1933. It was not until the early 1980s that the city rebuilt it. A roll of inscriptions, which a brave citizen secretly secured when the monument was demolished, was integrated into the sculpture during its restoration.
The memorial on Straßburger Platz based on the design of the city architect Emil Hackländer (1830–1902) is dedicated to the memory of those who fell in the German-French War of 1870/1871 from the Principality of Osnabrück. It was built on Neumarkt in 1880 and moved to Straßburger Platz in the Westerberg district in 1928. The allegorical Germania sculpture was melted down during World War II. With the sculpture “The protective torsion ” based on a design by students from the Ratsgymnasium , it is now setting a monument to Franco-German friendship.
Zoo and parks
- The Osnabrück Zoo is located in the Schölerberg district and opened as a home zoo in 1936.
- Since 1984 the University of Osnabrück has been operating the 5.6 hectare Osnabrück Botanical Garden on the Westerberg .
- The oldest public park in the city of Osnabrück is the Bürgerpark on Gertrudenberg, northeast of the old town, with valuable old trees. The signs on the trees give the Bürgerpark the character of an arboretum .
Osnabrück has several theaters.
- The Osnabrück theater has musical theater, drama, dance theater and theater for children and young people. The main venue is the Theater am Domhof , and there is also the smaller Emma Theater on Lotter Strasse.
- The rehearsal stage is Osnabrück's first amateur theater with its own venue
- The first messy room theater is in an inner courtyard on Lohstrasse
- The Osnabrück Puppet Theater is located in the "Alte Fuhrhalterei" in the old town.
- The Ostsensibles theater association performs English-language theater.
- The theater education workshop offers prevention programs for children and young people.
- Bach Choir Osnabrück e. V.
- Johannis Choir e. V.
- Osnabrück Youth Choir e. V.
- Marienkantorei Osnabrück
- Women's choir Viva la Musica e. V.
- Original Osnabrück Windjammer Shanty Choir
- Vocal Consort Osnabrück eV
- Carolinum cantat
- Alando Palais
- Bastard Club
- Blue note
- Hyde Park
- Little freedom
- Cubic Club
- NEO Club & Cuisine
- Sun deck
- Virage discotheque
- 52 ° Club
- Osnabrück warehouse
- Self-administered SubstAnZ center on Frankenstrasse
- OsnabrückHalle (formerly "Stadthalle Osnabrück")
- Freiraum Petersburg eV, also known as the cultural reserve, operates a free cultural center at the former freight yard. The association now also has premises on the site of the former Winkelhausen barracks at the port.
In addition to the above-mentioned cultural sites, there are several urban youth and community centers in various parts of the city, including the Haus der Jugend in the city center, the community centers on Ziegenbrink and Lerchenstrasse, the youth centers Ostbunker and Westwerk and the Heinz-Fitschen-Haus .
The Osnabrück Museum Quarter (MQ4) on Heger-Tor-Wall / Lotter Straße includes:
- Cathedral treasury in the Diocesan Museum
- Erich Maria Remarque Peace Center
- Art gallery Osnabrück
- Museum am Schölerberg : nature and environment, planetarium
- Museum of Industrial Culture on the Piesberg
- Museum for lane industrial railways Osnabrück-Piesberg eV
- Cinema Arthouse - multiplex cinema with five screens
- Hall of Fame Osnabrück (formerly Cinestar -Filmpalast and UFA -Palast) - multiplex cinema with seven screens
- Filmpassage Osnabrück - multiplex cinema with nine screens
- Movie Theater Hasetor - Filmkunst- and cinema with a screen
Film screenings also take place regularly in the cinema in the warehouse and, thanks to the Uni-Film initiative, in a lecture hall at the university.
In the southwest of the Eversburg district or on the border between Atter and Westerberg, there is a large local recreation area with forest, meadows and the Rubbenbruchsee . The Osnabrück-Atterheide airfield is part of this near-natural area in many areas.
In December 2006 the City Council of Osnabrück decided to take over the idea of Cologne artist Gunter Demnig to lay stumbling blocks . They are intended to commemorate the victims of the National Socialist dictatorship and are moved in front of their former homes or workplaces. This project has been in operation since November 15, 2007 and by November 2017 284 stumbling blocks had been laid.
Hasefriedhof and Johannisfriedhof
Both cemeteries were created in 1808 and were then relocated outside the city for hygienic reasons; the Hasefriedhof in front of the Hasetor and the Johannisfriedhof on Iburger Strasse. A decree by King Jérôme Bonaparte banned inner-city burials from 1808.
A tour of the oldest sections shows that most of the burials were members of wealthy, long-established families who were buried along the walls. The socially disadvantaged found their final resting place indoors.
A symbol typical of the early 19th century shows the oldest gate of the Hasefriedhof: two childlike figures on the gate pillars, genii as symbols of death and sleep. Furthermore, the floral design of the stones should be emphasized - as a profound symbol, for example poppy seed capsules as a symbol for eternal sleep, wine as the blood of Christ. The last funeral took place in 1995.
- January: Handgift Day
- Saturday before Carnival Monday : Easter Saturday (large carnival parade with around 100,000 visitors).
- Before Easter: spring fair at Halle Gartlage
- Before Easter: Osnabrück Chamber Music Days
- April: European Media Art Festival
- April – May: Osnabrück stock exchange and wholesale exchange day for stamps and coins (OsnabrückHalle)
- May: May week and Hasestrasse Festival in the city center
- May: Gay in May - lesbian-gay culture days
- May and September: on one of the first weekends there is a large night flea market (Saturday evening to Sunday afternoon) in the city center
- Summer: cultural nights, Osnabrück folk, rifle and local festival
- June: Africa Festival (every two years)
- End of June, beginning of July: International grass motorcycle race on the Nahner Waldbahn in Osnabrück-Nahne
- July: Johannisstrasse Festival
- June – August: Osnabrück Summer in the City - Urban Summer Culture Program
- August: always on the first Saturday: The Golden Saw - The Osnabrück Street Music Festival
- August: The Schlossgarten Open Air (two-day music festival with national greats of pop and rock music) has been held annually on an August weekend in the castle garden since 2015.
- End of August: wine festival
- End of August / beginning of September: Festival of Lights on the Hase every two years since 2007
- Early September: theater festival of the first messy room theater
- September: Morgenland Festival Osnabrück
- September: job fair osnabrück (annually since 2004)
- September: property fair osnabrück (annually)
- September: Mountain Festival on Piesberg (Piesberger Gesellschaftshaus, Museum for lane-gauge industrial railways Osnabrück-Piesberg eV, Museum for Industrial Culture ) and Osnabrück under steam at the Piesberg Zechenbahnhof (Steam Locomotive Festival of Osnabrück Steam Locomotive Friends eV), alternating annually
- September – October: inter.kult - Weeks of Cultures every two years
- October: Independent FilmFest Osnabrück
- October: Hobby horse riding and the ringing town hall (peace festival and customs)
- End of October / beginning of November: Autumn fair at Halle Gartlage
- November: Osnabrück Cabaret Festival
- November: Festival of New Japanese Films , every two years
- December: Christmas market and illumination of many houses in the old town
- December: Osnabrück stock exchange and wholesale exchange day for stamps and coins (OsnabrückHalle)
- Osnabrück peace talks several times a year
Landscape Association Osnabrücker Land
The landscape association Osnabrücker Land , a registered association sponsored by the district and the city of Osnabrück, takes care of cultural issues .
In 2016, Osnabrück achieved a gross domestic product of € 7.955 billion, making it 45th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 48,732 (Lower Saxony: € 34,812, Germany € 38,180). In 2016 there were around 126,500 gainfully employed people in the city. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 6.4% and thus above the Lower Saxony average of 5.0%.
Osnabrück is the regional center for southwest Lower Saxony and parts of neighboring Westphalia. Many people from the surrounding communities work in the city and use it as a shopping and entertainment center. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution in Germany, the Osnabrück economy has been mainly industrial. Due to the favorable traffic situation at the intersection of important European roads, railways and waterways, a very strong transport industry and numerous service companies have developed in Osnabrück, which are well known beyond the region.
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the city of Osnabrück was ranked 140th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with “future opportunities”. In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 63rd out of 401.
Steel and metal industry
Above all, the settlement of the "Eisen- und Stahlwerk zu Osnabrück" (later Klöckner- Stahlwerk) in 1868 and the Georgsmarienhütte south of the city in the same period shaped the image of Osnabrück as a steel location for decades. After the decline of the Klöckner plant in 1989 as a result of the steel crisis , Georgsmarienhütte still exists as a high-grade steel producer.
The wire and pen factory Witte und Kämper settled north of the city center in the Gartlage in 1873 and was renamed Osnabrücker Kupfer- und Drahtwerke AG (OKD) in 1890 . Today the plant bears the name KME AG and is a manufacturer of products made of copper and copper alloys.
The city and the surrounding area of Osnabrück are one of the German main focuses of paper production and processing. Centuries ago, paper mills settled on the Hase and its tributaries, from which the Kämmerer paper mills in the harbor and the Felix Schoeller Group in Gretesch developed. The Kämmerer paper mill was taken over by the Finnish company Ahlstrom in 1976 . It has been operating under the name Kämmerer again since 2016.
Thanks to the former Karmann company , Osnabrück is known as the production site for numerous convertible models . After the bankruptcy in 2009, large parts of the company were incorporated into the VW Group as Volkswagen Osnabrück . In addition to the complete production of VW model series, the plant has increasingly taken on individual production steps such as painting or final assembly for various VW group brands in recent years.
Partly independent, partly dependent on the VW plant, there is also a considerable supply industry in and around Osnabrück as well as companies specializing in automotive logistics, vehicle construction , automotive trade and vehicle parts trade.
In recent years, many areas in Osnabrück that were originally used for industrial or military purposes have been converted into a conversion process . On the one hand, this jeopardized the city's economic development, as the previous users of the areas were in some cases significant economic factors. On the other hand, the conversion of these areas promises lucrative development opportunities, since they can be used as residential or commercial areas close to the city.
The Bundeswehr had several locations in Osnabrück, all of which were abandoned by 1997 (see list of former Bundeswehr properties # O ). Subsequent uses of the Bundeswehr barracks can be found e.g. B. in the Westerberg district (expansion of the University and College Osnabrück) and in the Kalkhügel district (residential area and administrative center). With the withdrawal of British troops and the closure of the Osnabrück garrison by 2009, additional barracks areas became available. Some of these are still to be used, e.g. B. in Dodesheide (barracks on Limberg), some of them are currently in a conversion process (barracks on Landwehrstrasse in Atter , Osnabrück's largest new development area since the Second World War) or this process has already largely been completed, as is the case with today's science park in the Westerberg district.
An example of an industrial conversion area in Osnabrück is the site of the Klöckner steelworks in the Fledder district, which was closed in 1989 (today the “Hasepark” industrial area close to the city). The former freight station with roundabout shed, located immediately to the south, is still waiting to be reused. This matter is made more difficult by disputes between the current owner of the site and the city of Osnabrück.
The city of Osnabrück has very strong commuter ties with the surrounding communities. In 2012, there were a total of 51,270 commuters to Osnabrück among employees subject to social insurance, most of whom came from the district of Osnabrück (in Lower Saxony) and from the district of Steinfurt (in North Rhine-Westphalia). There are also 20,194 commuters who travel from Osnabrück to work, mainly in the Osnabrück and Steinfurt districts (as well as the city of Münster). The strongest commuter links are between Georgsmarienhütte and Osnabrück (4,470 commuters from Georgsmarienhütte to Osnabrück and 2,181 commuters from Osnabrück to Georgsmarienhütte) as well as between Wallenhorst and Osnabrück (4,432 commuters from Wallenhorst to Osnabrück and 1,107 Auspendler from Osnabrück). More than 2,000 commuters each come to Osnabrück from Belm, Bissendorf, Bramsche, Lotte; more than 1,000 commuters each come to Osnabrück from Hagen aTW , Hasbergen, Ibbenbüren, Melle , Ostercappeln , Westerkappeln .
In alphabetical order, the most important companies with their headquarters in Osnabrück include:
- Auto Weller , part of the Weller Group , 471 employees (as of 2007)
- buw group of companies , around 5000 employees nationwide (as of 2013), part of Convergys since 2016
- Bohnenkamp , around 550 employees
- CAT automotive logistics , 1174 employees
- Conditorei Coppenrath & Wiese , bakery manufacturer, around 2200 employees (2010)
- DIOSNA Dierks & Söhne , equipment manufacturer for food and pharmaceutical production, 256 employees (2016)
- Felix Schoeller Group , around 2,400 employees worldwide
- Froneri Ice Cream Germany , ice cream producer with around 500 employees
- Hellmann Worldwide Logistics , around 9200 employees
- Curative educational aid Osnabrück , around 1700 employees
- Heinrich Fip GmbH & Co. KG, mineral oil distribution company
- HR Group GmbH & Co. KG, shoe trading company, parent company of the Reno shoe retail chain , around 6,000 employees across Europe
- Your place , around 8000 employees nationwide, insolvent in 2012
- Chamberlain , around 300 employees
- Karmann , insolvent in 2009, today Volkswagen Osnabrück
- KiKxxl , around 1900 employees
- Osnabrück Children's Hospital , around 150 employees
- Osnabrück Clinic , around 1800 employees
- KME SE , around 1900 employees
- Koch International, international freight forwarder, around 700 employees
- Köster construction company, around 1000 employees
- Lengermann and Trieschmann , fashion house, around 600 employees
- Leysieffer , chocolaterie with around 450 employees
- Marienhospital Osnabrück , about 1500 employees
- Meyer & Meyer international freight forwarders, around 2300 (2008) employees worldwide
- NordWestBahn , around 850 employees
- NOZ Medien , around 1200 employees
- OSMA elevators, around 600 employees nationwide
- Paracelsus clinics , around 5200 employees
- Piepenbrock group of companies , around 26,000 employees nationwide (2013)
- Q1 Energie AG , 180 filling stations nationwide (as of 2015)
- Sievert AG , around 1700 employees
- Sparkasse Osnabrück , around 1200 employees
- Sostmeier forwarding company, around 1000 employees across Europe (2008).
- Stadtwerke Osnabrück , around 650 employees
- Titgemeyer (GTO) production, wholesale for commercial vehicles, around 500 employees
- Volkswagen Osnabrück , since 2011, around 1200 employees
- Wellergruppe, around 1750 employees
- WM SE, wholesaler for car / commercial vehicle spare parts and accessories, around 3300 employees, sales outlets in Germany, the Netherlands, Austria and the USA
There are also other significant companies in the Osnabrück catchment area:
- Amazonen-Werke , agricultural machinery manufacturer in Hasbergen , around 1500 employees
- AVO-Werke August Beisse, spice factory in Belm , approx. 700 employees (2017) with plants in France and Poland
- Duni GmbH, manufacturer of disposable tableware in Bramsche , around 600 employees (2011)
- Elster Kromschröder, manufacturer of gas fittings and measurement technology in Lotte -Büren, around 850 employees (2012), has been part of Honeywell since 2015
- Fuchs Gewitze , spice factory in Dissen am Teutoburg Forest , around 3500 employees (2011)
- Georgsmarienhütte group of companies in Georgsmarienhütte , around 10,000 employees
- Heristo , food industry based in Bad Rothenfelde , around 3800 employees
- Homann Feinkost in Dissen am Teutoburg Forest, around 1500 employees
- Kemper Wurstwaren in Nortrup , around 1300 employees (2009)
- Meinders & Elstermann , printing and publishing in Belm, around 170 employees
- Sanicare , mail order pharmacy in Bad Laer , around 800 employees
Some large employers have also settled in the Niedersachsenpark in recent years .
The Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung appears in Osnabrück . It emerged in 1967 from the merger of the Osnabrücker Tageblatt, founded in 1884, and the Neue Tagespost . Osnabrück is thus a single newspaper group .
The online portal Hasepost has been published since 2013 and reports mainly on local news. The previous project Loewenpudel.de was the first regional online portal in Osnabrück and started in 1996.
Weekly and monthly press
The advertising paper Osnabrücker Nachrichten appears weekly (initially on Wednesdays and Sundays, now on Wednesdays and Saturdays) . The Osnabrücker Sunday newspaper also appeared on Sundays until January 2014 . The Insider Osnabrück , the Eulenspiegel , the Mosquito Magazin , the street newspaper Abseits and the Stadtillustrierte Stadtblatt , which also publishes the twice-yearly gastronomy and restaurant guide Stadtblatt-live, appear monthly . The Osnabrücker Wissen magazine has been published as a media project by the Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences since 2012 .
The local radio stations in Osnabrück are Radio Osnabrück and osradio 104.8 . The latter is a citizens' broadcaster in which anyone can publish programs. In addition, there were regional studios for the radio stations ffn , Hitradio Antenne and Radio 21 until the end of 2018 ; these have no longer existed since 2019.
The city is also the seat of a regional studio of the NDR , which produces contributions for radio waves and television programs. These programs are broadcast by the radio station Schleptruper Egge in Bramsche . The broadcasting of the local television broadcaster OS1.TV was discontinued at the end of 2015.
The only telecommunications tower in Osnabrück is the Schinkelturm , a DFMG telecommunications tower completed in 1977 , on which there are various transmitters. About 5 kilometers north of Osnabrück is the broadcasting station Schleptruper Egge of the Norddeutscher Rundfunk in the area of the city of Bramsche and about 10 kilometers south of Osnabrück the telecommunications tower Grafensundern of the DFMG in the area of the municipality of Hagen aTW A former radio station in Osnabrück was the Osnabrück- Ziegenbrink .
With the notification template VO / 2019/4559 coming into force in November 2019, the Council will take greater account of the effects on the climate in relevant decisions. Solutions that have a positive effect on climate protection should be preferred.
The modal split describes the proportions in the selection of means of transport for passenger transport in the city of Osnabrück.
|Means of transport||on foot||bicycle||Public transport||Vehicle||year|
By Osnabrück several leading German motorways In the northwest: A 1 "Hansalinie" Puttgarden - Saarbrücken those in the south A 30 Bad Oeynhausen - Bad Bentheim and in the east the A33 Osnabrück- Bad Wunnenberg .
Several construction projects are currently being carried out or are planned on the motorways around Osnabrück. In the Atter district, the important Dütebrücke traffic structure , via which the Autobahn 1 crosses the Düte River and the Löhne – Rheine railway line , will be rebuilt by 2020. Also on Autobahn 1, the Lotte / Osnabrück intersection with Autobahn 30 is being rebuilt and renewed.
According to the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 between the Lotter Kreuz and the Osnabrück-Süd motorway junction , Federal Motorway 30, which runs in the southern part of the city, is to be expanded from four to six lanes in order to increase capacity in this section. The federal highway 33, on which the southern gap between Halle (Westphalia) and Borgholzhausen was closed in 2019 , is to be extended to the federal highway 1 in the next few years according to the federal traffic route plan in order to also reach the northern gap closing. A new motorway triangle is to be built near Wallenhorst, which would complete the Osnabrück motorway ring.
The planning authority for the motorway sections currently lies with the Lower Saxony state authority for road construction and transport - Osnabrück division, but will be transferred to the federal motorway company from 2021 .
The federal road 68, which runs over the western Osnabrücker Wallring and the Rosenplatz , is a strong source of accidents and is to be downgraded to a state road with the completion of the federal freeway 33 North in order to reduce truck traffic through the city.
At the northern city limit to the neighboring municipality of Belm, a bypass of the federal roads 51 and 65 is currently being created around the town center. These federal highways merge into federal highways 33 and 30.
Other roads and road network
The Neumarkt is a central traffic junction, as the street Grosse Strasse / Johannisstrasse as the central shopping street in Osnabrück crosses a large main street and the city buses drive to the square as a central transfer stop. The road network in Osnabrück covers approx. 820 km, of which 760 km are maintained through the city. 31 km include federal motorways, 12 km federal highways, regional roads 15 km and district roads 65 km.
On most of Osnabrück's main roads there are cycle lanes at road level or cycle paths at pavement level. However, these are often narrow, especially at bottlenecks, and lead between the car lanes or directly past parked cars, which harbors a high risk of conflicts with moving and stationary motor vehicle traffic. At several intersections, such as the corner of Johannistorwall / Kommenderiestraße, there have been an increasing number of turning accidents, some of which are fatal, in recent years .
In response to the frequent accidents, however, improvements in the cycle path network on roads have been discernible over the last few years. In many places, especially in the inner city area, indirect left-turn lanes for cyclists were created and markings made it possible for cyclists to position themselves while waiting at intersections in front of the motor vehicle traffic. The intersection mentioned above has now been rebuilt in such a way that conflicts can no longer arise when turning. Bicycle parking facilities are being built at central points, and a bicycle station with around 2,200 covered bicycle parking spaces is to be set up on the ground floor of the car park at the main train station . In addition, pilot projects were like a protected bike lanes ( protected bike lane ) on Heger-Tor-Wall and the Radschnellwegverbindung realized to Belm.
For long-distance and local train connections from and to Osnabrück, see
Osnabrück is a railway junction with a central station. This consists of a passenger station in the rare design of a tower station and a marshalling yard . The Ruhrgebiet – Hamburg and Löhne – Rheine railway lines intersect at the main station (section of the Hanover – Amsterdam Magistrale). In addition, two branch lines branch off in Osnabrück: The Haller Willem in the southeast to Bielefeld and the Osnabrück – Oldenburg railway in the north. From the latter in branches Hesepe the railway Hesepe-Delmenhorst from. There is also the Tecklenburger Nordbahn (Osnabrück-Mettingen-Recke-Rheine) with freight and museum trains, for which the regional transport plan SPNV Westfalen-Lippe is planned to be reopened as a modern regional train from Osnabrück to Recke every 30 minutes due to good economic efficiency .
The main station has been the home station of the NordWestBahn since 2000 . Other passenger stations in the urban area are Osnabrück Altstadt ( Osnabrück Hasetor until the end of 2009 ) with train traffic in the direction of Bramsche, Oldenburg, Wilhelmshaven, Vechta, Bremen, Rheine, Bad Bentheim, Bünde, Bielefeld, Hanover and Braunschweig and Osnabrück- Sutthausen with train traffic in the direction of Halle ( Westf) - Bielefeld. The stations Osnabrück- Eversburg , Osnabrück- Lüstringen and Osnabrück West ( Hannoverscher Bahnhof ) are no longer served.
The association Osnabrücker Dampflokfreunde e. V. offers museum train trips on the route Osnabrück Hauptbahnhof – Osnabrück Altstadt – Osnabrück Piesberg .
In 1996 the city of Osnabrück had the Verkehrsconsult Karlsruhe conduct a feasibility study with the title "Stadtbahn für die Region Osnabrück", which shows how inner-city routes can be operated as a city rail based on the Karlsruhe model .
An Intercity Express is named after the city .
In Osnabrück, the inner-city tram was opened with two lines in 1906. A third line was added in the 1920s. The Osnabrück tram operated until 1960.
The construction of an additional Osnabrück Rosenplatz stop for Haller Willem is planned between Sutthauser Strasse and Iburger Strasse . In the course of a possible reactivation of the Tecklenburger Nordbahn, the construction of a new stop at the Eversburg-Büren bus turnaround is being considered.
Local road transport in the city is now served by nine basic city bus routes operated by Stadtwerke Osnabrück AG, and regional buses operated by Weser-Ems Bus GmbH and other companies are closely linked to this . Until the 1960s, the picture was shaped by other modes of transport: trams operated from 1906 to 1960 . In 1949 the first line of the Osnabrück trolleybus went into operation; the trolleybus network replaced the disused tram until 1968. Subsequently, the diesel-powered buses became the only mode of transport in the city. The most important central transfer hub next to the main train station is Neumarkt.
So far there is no transport association with local rail transport integration; Therefore, no trains can be used with bus tickets from the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Osnabrück (VOS). The exception is the Haller Willem railway line to Bielefeld, where a special VOS Plus tariff applies . The Westphalian tariff is used in the direction of Münsterland and Tecklenburger Land - these train tickets are also valid on the Osnabrück city bus network.
Furthermore, the Lower Saxony tariff has also been in place for the railway lines in Osnabrück since 2013 . The associated Lower Saxony ticket is valid for local transport in the city and district of Osnabrück.
National coaches stop next to the main train station, in Eisenbahnstraße. Mainly there are lines to Poland, countries in the former Yugoslavia or the former Soviet Union. Another destination is Berlin, which is visited several times a day. Since the liberalization of long-distance bus traffic in Germany in 2013, long-distance bus routes to other destinations within Germany have also existed.
Osnabrück is the starting point and destination of several long-distance hiking trails that are supervised by the Wiehengebirgsverband Weser-Ems
- the 229 km long trade route , consisting of the Töddenweg in Germany and the Marskramerpad in the Netherlands (to Deventer ),
- the 208 km long Hünenweg (to Papenburg ),
- the 107 km long Pickerweg (to Wildeshausen ) and
- the 90 km long Wittekindsweg (to Porta Westfalica ).
Osnabrück-Atterheide airfield is located in Osnabrück. The next commercial airport is Münster / Osnabrück Airport in Greven. The first Osnabrück airfield once existed in the Netter Heide (Hafen district). This airfield, established in 1911, had to give way to the new Winkelhausenkaserne in 1934. Only the hangar built in 1914 remained as a relic of the airfield. This hangar is the oldest surviving hangar in Germany.
Münster / Osnabrück Airport (FMO)
The nearest airport, approx. 30 km away, is Münster / Osnabrück Airport . Several times a day there are connections to the domestic German airports Frankfurt am Main , Munich and Stuttgart . Within Europe, destinations around the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands, Turkey and Egypt are offered by various airlines. You can get to Osnabrück from the airport via the A1 and A30 motorways. There is a regular RVM express bus line , the X15 , which connects the city with the airport up to 19 times a day.
The Osnabrück-Atterheide airfield, classified as a commercial airfield, is located in the western district of Atter . There is a full-time officer for air traffic control . The airfield can be approached all year round by aircraft up to 5.7 t total weight and is used to a large extent by business travelers. Sightseeing flights are possible here all year round.
Waterways and ports
The Osnabrück inland port is connected to the Mittelland Canal via the 13-kilometer branch canal in Osnabrück , which ends in the Hafen district . The canal port Leckermühle in the Herringhausen district of Bohmter is planned as a new port directly on the Mittelland Canal . It is to be built roughly at the point where the B 51 crosses the Mittelland Canal.
The following facilities and institutions are based in Osnabrück:
- German Federal Foundation Environment
- German Foundation for Peace Research
- Central Office for the Packaging Register Foundation
- terre des hommes Germany
- HelpAge Germany
- Chamber of Crafts Osnabrück-Emsland - Chamber district: District-free city of Osnabrück and districts of Emsland, Grafschaft Bentheim and Osnabrück
- Main customs office in Osnabrück
- Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) Osnabrück-Emsland-Grafschaft Bentheim - Chamber district: District-free city of Osnabrück and districts of Osnabrück, Grafschaft Bentheim and Emsland with the exception of the city of Papenburg
- Osnabrück District Court
- Police Lower Saxony - Police Directorate Osnabrück
- Branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank
Libraries and Archives
- Lower Saxony State Archives (Osnabrück site)
- Diocesan archive of the Diocese of Osnabrück
- Osnabrück University Library
- Library of the Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences with its main location on Westerberg and branch libraries in the Haste district and in Lingen (Ems)
- Osnabrück City Library
- Library of the German Federal Environment Foundation
- The University of Osnabrück , based in Osnabrück Castle , was founded in 1974. It emerged from a pedagogical college that had existed in Osnabrück since 1953. Larger locations in Osnabrück are the city center and the Westerberg.
- The University of Osnabrück , founded in 1971, created several institutions by merging. They included the Higher Agricultural School, the Higher Horticultural School and the State Engineering School. In 2005, the Catholic University of Applied Sciences North Germany Osnabrück and Vechta , which was also founded in 1971 from a higher technical college for social pedagogy, was merged into the University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück when the dioceses of Osnabrück and Münster withdrew from the supporting foundation. The locations in Osnabrück are the Westerberg campus , the Caprivi campus and the Haste campus . There is also a branch in Lingen (Ems) .
The list is not exhaustive
- The Franz von Assisi School is a technical school for social education and was founded in 1921 as Wilhelmstift .
- Vocational schools in the Osnabrück district, Brinkstrasse
- Vocational schools in the district of Osnabrück in Osnabrück-Haste
- Vocational school center on Westerberg
- Vocational schools in the city of Osnabrück am Schölerberg
- Vocational schools in the city of Osnabrück am Pottgraben
General education schools
The list is not exhaustive
- The Carolinum grammar school was supposedly founded by Charlemagne in 804. It is one of the longest existing schools in Germany.
- In the immediate vicinity is the Ursulaschule , which, like the Angelaschule, used to be a girls' high school run by Ursulines . Today both schools are state-recognized coeducational high schools run by the diocese .
- The Osnabrück State Ratsgymnasium, inaugurated in 1595, is the city's oldest non-spiritual school.
- The high school "In the Desert" was an Expo school in 2000.
- The Graf-Stauffenberg-Gymnasium, which was initially founded in 1965 as the 4th boys' grammar school, is located on Kalkhügel. It offers bilingual instruction.
- The Schinkel comprehensive school , a UNESCO project school, is one of the largest schools in Osnabrück. It was one of the first comprehensive and all-day schools in Lower Saxony.
- The Sonnenhügel school center with the all-day and European school Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Gymnasium , the Wittekind-Realschule and the secondary school Felix-Nussbaum-Schule .
- A school center in Eversburg was converted into the Integrated Comprehensive School Osnabrück in 2010 .
- The private schools include a Montessori school and the Evinghausen Free Waldorf School with the Osnabrück catchment area.
- At the beginning of the 19th century, a two-class preschool and a two-class secondary school with separate sexes were built in the city center by the city's magistrate, which together formed a four-tier community school . In 1833 the community school moved to a newly built school building at 10 Hakenstrasse, the former home of Justus Möser . It was named Möser-Mittelschule in 1927 - today: Möser-Realschule am Westerberg .
- Osnabrück Cathedral School , church-sponsored high school.
- From 1961 to 1990, there was in the Ameldungstraße as a girls' school with Mrs. high school founded Kathe Kollwitz School .
- Primary school Johannisschule , today the primary school three religions school is located at the same location .
The fire department of the city of Osnabrück consists of a professional fire department and seven volunteer local fire departments. In addition to the primary tasks such as defensive fire protection and technical assistance, each local fire brigade has various special tasks. In addition to the city fire brigades, there are three plant fire brigades in industrial companies. Another professional fire station is being built in the Gretesch district.
- Professional fire brigade
- Guard on Nobbenburger Strasse in the Westerberg district
- Voluntary fire brigades
- 3 - city center
- 4 - Eversburg
- 5 - Haste
- 6 - Schinkel
- 7 - Voxtrup
- 8 - Sutthausen
- 9 - New Town
- Plant fire brigades
The rescue service in the urban area is carried out by the professional fire brigade, the aid services Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund , Malteser Hilfsdienst and Johanniter Unfallhilfe, as well as a private company from their own rescue stations. A DLRG local group is active in the field of water rescue .
Disaster control units in Osnabrück are provided by the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund, the German Red Cross , the Maltese and the Johanniter. There is also a local branch of the technical relief organization . In addition, the association @fire Internationaler Katastrophenschutz Deutschland has its headquarters in Osnabrück.
- The Osnabrück Municipal Clinic, with its main location on Finkenhügel in the Westerberg district, is the maximum care hospital .
- Under sponsorship of the Niels Stensen-clinics that exist Marienhospital Osnabrück (MHO), teaching hospital of the Hannover Medical School , in the city center and the Franziskus Hospital Harderberg in Georgsmarienhütte, at the outskirts of Osnabrueck.
- The headquarters of the Paracelsus clinics in Germany are located in the Westerberg district, next to the Paracelsus clinic in Osnabrück.
- As a general pediatric hospital , the Christian Children's Hospital Osnabrück (CKO) was newly founded in 2011 and affiliated to the Marienhospital.
- The children's hospital in Osnabrück am Schölerberg, which has existed since 1872, has been a pure child and adolescent psychiatry since the spin-off of the CKO .
- The Osnabrück State Psychiatric Hospital with clinic locations on Gertrudenberg and Knollstrasse has been operating under the name Ameos Klinikum Osnabrück since 2007 .
- The city hospital, the predecessor of today's clinic, was located in the Stüvehaus on Bergstrasse from 1865 . In 1931 it was housed just a few meters away in a new building on the Natruper-Tor-Wall before it was moved to the Finkenhügel in 1991. The Stüvehaus is now home to the Osnabrück Adult Education Center and the building on the Natruper-Tor-Wall is now the City Administration's Townhouse I.
- The former Bundeswehr hospital in Osnabrück is located on the Natruper Holz in the Eversburg district. It emerged from a field hospital of the Wehrmacht in 1994 and was taken over by the hospital. Today the building is used as an initial reception facility.
- BSG Osnabrück
- Judo Crocodiles Osnabrück
- Osnabrück Rowing Club (ORV)
- Osnabrück Sports Club (OSC)
- Osnabrücker Spielverein 16
- Osnabrück Gymnastics Federation (OTB)
- SV Eintracht 08 Osnabrück
- SV lawn sport DJK Osnabrück ("Raspo")
- SSC Dodesheide
- TSG Burg Gretesch
- TSV Osnabrück
- TuS Haste 01
- VfL Osnabrück
- In almost every district of Osnabrück there are sports halls and sports facilities for lawn sports , ball sports and athletics , which are used by the local sports clubs.
- The largest and most important football stadium in Osnabrück is the Bremer Brücke . VfL Osnabrück plays its home games here. The club has been playing in the 2nd Bundesliga again since the 2019/20 season .
- The training ground of VfL Osnabrück and the center of school sports and athletics in Osnabrück is the Illoshöhe sports park in the Weststadt district.
- The Schlosswallhalle in the desert district is an important sports hall .
- For swimming , the three public pools are Nettebad , Moskaubad and Schink bath of Stadtwerke Osnabrück are available. The Attersee serves as a natural bathing water .
- Rowing can be done on the branch canal Osnabrück , there are boathouses in the Eversburg district.
- In the Sonnenhügel district there is an ice rink and an indoor electric kart track .
- Grass track races take place regularly on the Nahner Waldbahn .
- There is no golf course in Osnabrück, the closest are in Lotte (Westphalia) and Bissendorf
Weekly markets take place regularly in the districts of Schinkel , Sonnenhügel and Schölerberg as well as on the Ledenhof and at the Johanniskirche . The weekly market on the Große Doms Freiheit has a special tradition .
Ramanken The Ramanken stew is undoubtedly one of Osnabrück's specialties - but what exactly is behind it is controversial. Some Osnabrück residents assume that “Ramanke” is a synonym for “ turnip ” in the local idiom . Accordingly, the Ramanken stew would be a turnip stew . But when the Osnabrück cabaret artist Kalla Wefel published a local dictionary in 2017 and translated “Ramankeneintopf” into “turnip stew”, there were numerous protests from readers of the Neue Osnabrücker Zeitung . In their family recipes, some of which have been handed down for generations, turnips have no place in the Ramanken stew or, at best, are an optional ingredient. Rather, the main ingredient is pears - or beans. Both Wefel and the local newspaper investigated further. With the result that there is no general recipe for the Osnabrück (or Hasberger ) Ramanken Stew, as it is a “straight through the garden dish”, an “Osnabrück all sorts” for which there are many different variants - with Turnips, cooked pears or beans as the main food and many other foods as secondary ingredients, including beef, potatoes, peas, carrots, leek and celery.
Kale is a traditional winter food. Every year from November to February it is kale season in Osnabrück. The former staple food of the poor people is now a delicacy - especially in combination with its meat side dishes. In order to give the cabbage its special flavor, the popular cabbage sausage is added toit during cooking. But you can also prepare the cabbage vegetarian. Kale is served in the Osnabrück area usually with Kassel , cabbage sausage, Pinkel , fresh coarse sausage and fried potatoes.
Sausage bread is a typical meal from the Osnabrück area. The sausage consists of blood, rye meal, fatty bacon, pork, flour and spices. It is cut into slices, fried with lard or butter and served with bread. The sausage bread is also a traditional winter meal. In the past, this product was made in autumn at the time of slaughter.
Stopsel is a typical winter dish in the region. This dish includes pork (including boiled pork head and pork paws), broth and grits. The hearty stopper is either fried in the pan and served with bread, or boiled, seasoned with Worcester sauce and eaten with potatoes and beetroot . Stopsel is very substantial and, like sausage bread, was made during the slaughter time in autumn.
Pumpernickel is often referred to as black bread in Osnabrück and the surrounding area. This type of bread is said to have been baked as bread for poor people as early as 1450 during a famine at the behest of the city lords at the expense of the city sack , which was called bonum paniculum - good little bread. From this bonum paniculum the people supposedly made first Bompernickel and later Pumpernickel because they did not understand Latin. Today there is still the old Pernick Tower in Osnabrück , where the big oven is said to have stood in which the bonum paniculum was baked for the poor.
Spring rolls get their name from the cracked surface pastries. It is a bread specialty from the Osnabrück area and is only offered here. The cracked surface is created by various brushes that are applied to the finished dough. The fat spreads also contain the loosening agent ABC-Trieb ( deer horn salt ), which gives the whole thing a slightly alkaline taste.
Hedeweggen (Low German for hot rolls , which are nevertheless usually consumed cold) are a pastry similar to raisin rolls. However, it contains a slightly higher percentage of fat and, in addition to the raisins, also lemon peel. In Osnabrück it is often served with tea and coffee and is especially popular during the carnival season .
From 2011 to 2018, Osnabrück was one of the few German cities with a restaurant with the highest rating of three stars in the Michelin Guide : The entrepreneur Jürgen Großmann bought the Osnabrück restaurant "la vie", relocated it to the historic Haus Tenge building and in 2006 the Top chef Thomas Bühner, who previously worked in Dortmund, was brought to Osnabrück. Just one year later, “la vie” received two stars, and in 2011 the third star followed. In 2018 the restaurant was surprisingly closed for economic reasons.
The "Kesselhaus" restaurant, which opened in 2018, was awarded a star for the first time in the 2020 Michelin Guide . Chef Randy de Jong had belonged to the kitchen brigade of “la vie” until it was closed and was hired by the “Kesselhaus” owner, long-time “la vie” service manager Thayarni Garthoff, to open the new one.
East Westphalian dialects, Ossenbrügger Platt , are the original language of Osnabrück. In the inner city this has not been spoken for decades, even in the incorporated villages only a minority of the older population speaks it. High German in its local form has fully established itself as the colloquial language.
Today's Osnabrück colloquial language differs only very little from the High German pronunciation.
Cuts Featured is the high linguistic Osnabrücker vernacular, for mainly by shortening the final syllables. For example: "I'll be right there", "We're going to Ibo (r) ch" or "ha (h) m" (have). The phenomenon also occurs that in colloquial language adverbs can be transformed into adjectives: For example, for “zue doors”, “auffe windows” or “appe legs”.
Lenization The internal German consonant weakening of the plosive sounds or forts g and t to ch and d, if these are voiceless (recognizable by words such as Iburg → Iburch , Krieg → Kriech , Menschen → Leude , please → bidde for t → d), as well as the merging ( contraction ) of st or sd between two vowels to form a sharp ss ( if you have → hassu , you have to → mustu , is → issas ) where, for example, the Berlin language turns the second vowel into a short e power ( did you → haste , you have to → had to ), which is related to the general omission of t in words like not → not , is → is . Similarly , I have → habbich and we have → hamma .
Extinction of the s-pointed S-tein The original Low German in Osnabrück had no initial sch in front of consonants and instead had a sharp s . A sharp s in st or sp can only be observed very occasionally .
with the sons and daughters of the city and the honorary citizens
honors and awards
The city of Osnabrück awards several awards to deserving citizens of the city and other personalities.
- Justus Möser Medal
- Erich Maria Remarque Peace Prize
- Fritz Wolf Young Talent Award for Caricaturists and Cartoonists
- Yilmaz Akyürek Prize for Integration
- Elisabeth Seal Prize
- Peace film prize of the city of Osnabrück
- Osnabrück Youth Medal, awarded annually by the Osnabrück Youth Parliament
- KidCourage Prize , a project by the Osnabrück Community Foundation under the motto Strong for Others
German sustainability award
- Around 2010, the city came into the spotlight of the media with a circumstance that gives it a certain unique selling point. It is a dormouse reported -Plage. Whether it is a plague or not, Osnabrück is probably the only German city to have a dormouse catcher that catches the disturbing animals and releases them far outside the city.
- According to a survey by Stern magazine in 2003, the most satisfied Germans live in Osnabrück.
- Besides Osnabrueck some names related settlements exist: In the northeast of the US state of North Dakota is the small town Osnabrock , in Ohio the community Osnaburg , in Scotland the village Osnaburgh and in the Pacific Ocean , the island Mehetia that the in the discovery by Europeans in 1767 Name Osnaburgh . In addition, existed in Canada in the province of Ontario , the municipality until 1998 Osnabruck to this in the newly established municipality of South Stormont opened. Also in Ontario is the Mishkeegogamang Ojibway Nation of the Anishinabe Indian people , formerly known as Osnaburgh .
- Under the name of Osnaburg , coarsely woven work clothing was widespread in the Anglo-Saxon countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, the origin of which is probably to be found in the Osnabrück textile production.
- The Osnabrücker Hütte , an Alpine Club hut of the Osnabrück section of the German Alpine Club, is located in the Großelendtal in Austria at an altitude of 2032 meters
- In 2017, the Hamburg punk rock band Montreal released the music video Osnabrück , but the film scenes were all shot in Münster.
- The headlines in 2006 was the mourning swan " Petra ", who fell in love with a pedal boat in the shape of an oversized swan in Münster. The female animal did not leave the side of its "conspecifics" on the Aasee during the whole summer, in November both were relocated to the Allwetterzoo Münster. In addition to German media such as Spiegel and Stern , television teams from the USA, Japan, India and the Arab world reported. At the end of 2009, Petra disappeared for a certain time until she was rediscovered with “new love” in Osnabrück in spring 2013, where she still lives.
in chronological ascending order
- Friedrich Philippi : On the constitutional history of the Westphalian bishopric cities - with documentary enclosures . Osnabrück 1894.
- Hermann Rothert : History of the City of Osnabrück in the Middle Ages: 2nd facsimile print of the 1937–1938 edition. 2nd Edition. Wenner Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-87898-394-1 .
- Erich Keyer: German city book . Handbook of Urban History Volume III Northwest Germany, Volume 1 Lower Saxony / Bremen - On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities. Stuttgart 1952.
- Gisela Wilbertz : Witch trials and magic belief in the bishopric of Osnabrück. In: Osnabrücker Mitteilungen. 84, 1978, pp. 33-50.
- Karl Georg Kaster: Osnabrück. 1200 years of progress and preservation . Nuremberg 1980.
- Christian Kämmerer: Monuments in Lower Saxony, City of Osnabrück 32nd 1986, ISBN 978-3-8271-8250-0 .
- Peter Junk, Martina Sellmer: Stations on the way to Auschwitz. Disenfranchisement, displacement, destruction. Jews in Osnabrück 1900–1945. A memorial book. Rasch, Bramsche 1989, ISBN 3-922469-36-1 .
- Landschaftsverband Osnabrück (Hrsg.): Biographical manual for the history of the Osnabrück region. Arranged by Rainer Hehemann. Rasch, Bramsche 1990, ISBN 3-922469-49-3 .
- Ludwig Hoffmeyer: Chronicle of the city of Osnabrück. 6th edition. Osnabrück 1995.
- Edgar Schroeder: Osnabrück in the 19th century . Droste, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-7700-1039-6 .
- Günter Wegmann: The end of the war between Ems and Weser 1945. 2nd expanded edition, H. Th. Wenner, Osnabrück 2000, ISBN 3-87898-367-0 .
- Christiane Segers-Glocke (Ed.): The Hasefriedhof in Osnabrück . Lower Saxony State Office for Monument Preservation , 2000.
- Heinz Jürgen Stebel: The Osnabrück witch trials. 3. Edition. Wenner, Osnabrück 2003.
- Wido Spratte: On the approach to Osnabrück. The bombing raids 1940–1945 . Osnabrück 2004.
- Andreas O'Brien, Holger Raddatz: The bunkered city. Air raid systems in Osnabrück and the surrounding area. 2009, ISBN 978-3-8370-7545-8 .
- Stefan Kröger: The Osnabrück Lexicon. An entertaining reference work for town and country . Osnabrück 2004.
- Stefan Kröger: Osnabrück - An Illustrated History of the City . Osnabrück 2005.
- Gerd Steinwascher (ed.): History of the city of Osnabrück . Osnabrück 2006.
- Oliver Falkenberg, Linda Sundmaeker, Torsten Krüger: Osnabrück - A portrait (German / English / French / Dutch). Edition Temmen, Bremen 2008, ISBN 978-3-86108-966-7 .
- Bettina Meckel: Osnabrück and surroundings . Wenner, Osnabrück 2010, ISBN 978-3-87898-417-7 .
- Hauke Haubrock, Andreas O'Brien: The air raid shelter on the Kalkhügel - a former air raid shelter in Osnabrück . Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2012, ISBN 978-3-8448-1154-4 .
- Hermann Kuhl, Jörg Frenzel: architecture guide Osnabrück. Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86922-278-3 .
- Tobias Romberg (Ed.): Osnabrück Wegweisend - More than 80 streets, paths and squares: portraits and stories. Anno-Verlag, Ahlen 2016, ISBN 978-3-939256-38-0 .
Portal: Osnabrücker Land - The Wikipedia portal for access to further articles
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- Georg Braun : Illustration of the city in 1572 in Civitates orbis terrarum
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- Explanations of the city map by Wenceslaus Hollar from 1633
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